Indian Army T- 90 (Bhishma) and T- 72 (M-1) Tanks

Killbot

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S Bhishma.

I've tried to find if there's gonna be any tech upgrades atleast. But nothing... Same gun, same rounds, same sights, same sensors, same vanilla tanks without soft-kill nor hard-kill APS.
That thing hasn't been upgraded since it was bought right.
 

Bleh

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That thing hasn't been upgraded since it was bought right.
Apparently it got some thermal sights & local AC to stop the crappy subsystems from overheating in desert. But nothing substantial... Will get some new mine-plough, you may know (see old posts).
 

WolfPack86

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Exclusive: Meet T-90 Bhishma, deadliest Indian Tank fighting China
As India battles Chinese Aggression in Ladakh, the Indian Army remains on high alert while gradually increasing the number of T-90 tanks on the Chinese border. In the past three months, India has deployed several regiments of T-90 tanks to deter any aggression by Chinese PLA as China has moved around 35,000 soldiers to threaten Ladakh. Team Guarding India brings you the story of the most feared tank of the Indian Army.


Indian T-90 tanks are called T-90 Bhishma as they have the same formidable war potential as Bhishma Pitamaha – the greatest warrior of Mahabharata.


Indian Army selected Russian T-90 tanks in 2001
as by 1995 Pakistan Army had already acquired 320 Ukrainian T-84 tanks which were superior to Indian T-72M1 tanks of the 1990s.


T-90 tank was an incremental upgrade of T-72 M1 design that was already being manufactured in India at Heavy Vehicles Factory (HFV) Avadi which enabled the same production line to be adopted for manufacturing T-90 tanks which reduced cost of establishing new production line and also cut down the delivery time.

T-90 Bhishma’s main battle tanks (MBT) have enhanced the Indian Army’s ‘shock and awe’ capabilities and combat superiority along the Pakistan border.


T-90 tank is a third-generation Russian main battle tank (MBT) that was developed in the 1990s. The Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks are armed to teeth as their main armament is the 2A46M 125mm smoothbore tank gun which can fire all types of anti-tank rounds including lethal armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) and barrel launched Refleks anti-tank guided missiles.


The Refleks missile is a laser-guided missile with an effective range of 6 km which can penetrate about 950 millimetres (37 inches) of steel armour. In addition, T-90 Bhishma tanks also carry NSV 12.7mm remotely controlled anti-aircraft heavy machine gun (HMG) with a 2 km range which can be operated from within the tank.

All T-90 tanks have two-tier protection system with an option of an additional third tier. The first tier is made of composite armour in the turret which is basic armour shell with alternating layers of aluminium and ceramics. The second tier consists of explosive reactive armour (ERA) panels which reduce the effectiveness of APFSDS ammunition besides giving T-90 tank a distinctive angled “clamshell” appearance. The third optional tier is active self-protection system which destroys enemy anti-tank rounds before they hit the tank.


Indian Army has selected LEDS-150 Land Electronic Defence System for defending its T-90 Bhishma tanks which is far superior to the Russian Shtora active defence system used by other nations.

The T-90 tanks are also fitted with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) protection and can fight even after nuclear blasts. All T-90 tanks have a Nakidka signature reduction suite that reduces infrared, thermal, and radar signature of T-90 Tanks making them even harder to detect. T-90 tanks have high mobility due to upgraded engines producing more than 1000 hp which ensures smooth operations in all terrains and it can easily reach speeds of 60 km/hour despite weighing massive 48 tons.


The T-90 Bhishma is considered amongst the best tanks in worlds as it has the right blend of adequate protection, high mobility, and massive firepower. At present Indian Army is estimated to have more than 1600 T-90 Bhishma tanks and these numbers will cross 2000 by the year 2022. These T-90 Tanks were ordered in different batches and consist of two versions namely T-90S and T-90MS variants.

Indian T-90S tanks are superior to Russian T-90s as they use Russian, French, and Israeli systems. In addition to standard 125 mm smoothbore gun mentioned earlier, Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks are equipped with the cutting-edge French Thales thermal Imaging sights that can see through the darkness till 5-8 km.


Indian T-90s have much advanced Israeli radios for better communication. Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks have Russian Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour (ERA) plates that can blast any incoming projectile before it contacts the main armour of T-90 Bhishma.

The second version of Indian T-90 Bhishma is T-90M which features the ‘Kaktus K-6’ explosive reactive armour (ERA) plates that offer even greater protection than Kontakt-5 ERA panels used by T-90S. Newer T-90M tanks also have enhanced Israeli environmental control systems and newer generation thermal imaging sights. Due to the use of these advanced systems, T-90MS tanks are ideal for the cold and harsh conditions of Ladakh where normal tanks are ineffective.

T-90S tanks have a fearsome reputation for being indestructible despite being battle-tested in almost every warzone. In 1999 Russian Army used T-90 tanks in Chechnya where one T-90S tank was hit by seven RPG anti-tank rockets but continued fighting. Russia has sold T-90A tanks to Syria that are lesser capable than Indian T-90 Bhishma. In February 2016, Syrian T-90A tanks survived a direct hit by a US TOW-2A missile that is used by Pakistan. In fact, it is estimated at present none of the anti-tank missiles held by Pakistan and China can destroy a T-90 Bhishma tank by the frontal hit.


It is the massive firepower and near the indestructible capability of T-90 Bhishma tanks that compelled the Indian Army to use them on China border where they are likely to face Chinese Type 99 main battle tanks and Type 15 light tanks. Team Guarding India is confident that Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks are most likely to emerge victorious in any conflict with Chinese tanks on icy battlefields of Ladakh. However, India still needs a light tank that will be covered in a separate story by Team Guarding India.
 

Swiftfarts

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Exclusive: Meet T-90 Bhishma, deadliest Indian Tank fighting China
As India battles Chinese Aggression in Ladakh, the Indian Army remains on high alert while gradually increasing the number of T-90 tanks on the Chinese border. In the past three months, India has deployed several regiments of T-90 tanks to deter any aggression by Chinese PLA as China has moved around 35,000 soldiers to threaten Ladakh. Team Guarding India brings you the story of the most feared tank of the Indian Army.


Indian T-90 tanks are called T-90 Bhishma as they have the same formidable war potential as Bhishma Pitamaha – the greatest warrior of Mahabharata.


Indian Army selected Russian T-90 tanks in 2001
as by 1995 Pakistan Army had already acquired 320 Ukrainian T-84 tanks which were superior to Indian T-72M1 tanks of the 1990s.


T-90 tank was an incremental upgrade of T-72 M1 design that was already being manufactured in India at Heavy Vehicles Factory (HFV) Avadi which enabled the same production line to be adopted for manufacturing T-90 tanks which reduced cost of establishing new production line and also cut down the delivery time.

T-90 Bhishma’s main battle tanks (MBT) have enhanced the Indian Army’s ‘shock and awe’ capabilities and combat superiority along the Pakistan border.


T-90 tank is a third-generation Russian main battle tank (MBT) that was developed in the 1990s. The Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks are armed to teeth as their main armament is the 2A46M 125mm smoothbore tank gun which can fire all types of anti-tank rounds including lethal armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) and barrel launched Refleks anti-tank guided missiles.


The Refleks missile is a laser-guided missile with an effective range of 6 km which can penetrate about 950 millimetres (37 inches) of steel armour. In addition, T-90 Bhishma tanks also carry NSV 12.7mm remotely controlled anti-aircraft heavy machine gun (HMG) with a 2 km range which can be operated from within the tank.

All T-90 tanks have two-tier protection system with an option of an additional third tier. The first tier is made of composite armour in the turret which is basic armour shell with alternating layers of aluminium and ceramics. The second tier consists of explosive reactive armour (ERA) panels which reduce the effectiveness of APFSDS ammunition besides giving T-90 tank a distinctive angled “clamshell” appearance. The third optional tier is active self-protection system which destroys enemy anti-tank rounds before they hit the tank.


Indian Army has selected LEDS-150 Land Electronic Defence System for defending its T-90 Bhishma tanks which is far superior to the Russian Shtora active defence system used by other nations.

The T-90 tanks are also fitted with nuclear, biological, and chemical (NBC) protection and can fight even after nuclear blasts. All T-90 tanks have a Nakidka signature reduction suite that reduces infrared, thermal, and radar signature of T-90 Tanks making them even harder to detect. T-90 tanks have high mobility due to upgraded engines producing more than 1000 hp which ensures smooth operations in all terrains and it can easily reach speeds of 60 km/hour despite weighing massive 48 tons.


The T-90 Bhishma is considered amongst the best tanks in worlds as it has the right blend of adequate protection, high mobility, and massive firepower. At present Indian Army is estimated to have more than 1600 T-90 Bhishma tanks and these numbers will cross 2000 by the year 2022. These T-90 Tanks were ordered in different batches and consist of two versions namely T-90S and T-90MS variants.

Indian T-90S tanks are superior to Russian T-90s as they use Russian, French, and Israeli systems. In addition to standard 125 mm smoothbore gun mentioned earlier, Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks are equipped with the cutting-edge French Thales thermal Imaging sights that can see through the darkness till 5-8 km.


Indian T-90s have much advanced Israeli radios for better communication. Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks have Russian Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour (ERA) plates that can blast any incoming projectile before it contacts the main armour of T-90 Bhishma.

The second version of Indian T-90 Bhishma is T-90M which features the ‘Kaktus K-6’ explosive reactive armour (ERA) plates that offer even greater protection than Kontakt-5 ERA panels used by T-90S. Newer T-90M tanks also have enhanced Israeli environmental control systems and newer generation thermal imaging sights. Due to the use of these advanced systems, T-90MS tanks are ideal for the cold and harsh conditions of Ladakh where normal tanks are ineffective.

T-90S tanks have a fearsome reputation for being indestructible despite being battle-tested in almost every warzone. In 1999 Russian Army used T-90 tanks in Chechnya where one T-90S tank was hit by seven RPG anti-tank rockets but continued fighting. Russia has sold T-90A tanks to Syria that are lesser capable than Indian T-90 Bhishma. In February 2016, Syrian T-90A tanks survived a direct hit by a US TOW-2A missile that is used by Pakistan. In fact, it is estimated at present none of the anti-tank missiles held by Pakistan and China can destroy a T-90 Bhishma tank by the frontal hit.


It is the massive firepower and near the indestructible capability of T-90 Bhishma tanks that compelled the Indian Army to use them on China border where they are likely to face Chinese Type 99 main battle tanks and Type 15 light tanks. Team Guarding India is confident that Indian T-90 Bhishma tanks are most likely to emerge victorious in any conflict with Chinese tanks on icy battlefields of Ladakh. However, India still needs a light tank that will be covered in a separate story by Team Guarding India.
so many mistake we don't use LEDS 150. Kaktus was an experimental ERA. We uses kontakt 5 which is more than enough to deal with most threat we face for now. T 90M use Relikt ERA. Indian T 90S notwithstanding propaganda by usual suspects is better than anything Pakistan has , including VT 4. Only Chinese tank than can pose some challenge is Type 99A which is to heavy for indian border. T 90 is over kill , even T 72 is.
 

ArgonPrime

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so many mistake we don't use LEDS 150. Kaktus was an experimental ERA. We uses kontakt 5 which is more than enough to deal with most threat we face for now. T 90M use Relikt ERA. Indian T 90S notwithstanding propaganda by usual suspects is better than anything Pakistan has , including VT 4. Only Chinese tank than can pose some challenge is Type 99A which is to heavy for indian border. T 90 is over kill , even T 72 is.
That ain't the case anymore unless somehow we can manage to bring our M1 models up to B3 standards.
 

Swiftfarts

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Good thing is indian T 72 frontal ERA placement on turrent is superior to B3 model in russian forces. There is basically no gap.

Indian T 72 ERA mk2 on turrent.
l8ptRvf (1).jpg


Russian T 72 upgrade. ERA on front has gap.
D4rEOeQVUAAGmSt.jpeg

Btusa_tocZg.jpg


There is weakness though back side armour need ERA blocks like one on russian so does side skirts along with grills.
IMG_20200930_024611 (1).jpg


T 72B3 with added ERA blocks on sides( mainly to deal with HEAT and tandem warhead ) as well over side skirts.

DHMRk6JXkAMmW_- (1) (1).jpeg


a hard kill APS will be good addition to.

TIFCS is a good addition along with new FCS.
EijJsXjU4AAJLG6 (2) (1).jpg


if the upgrade are done with new gun, in addition to all other goodies rightly. Upgraded T 72 is more than enough to deal with all pukes have to offer. even Chinese will be facing heat at border areas.
 
Last edited:

Swiftfarts

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I have notice that ERA mk2 is thicker, bigger and uses more energetic lining than Kontakt 5. Now what could be the reason for that? I think it is to provide more power to push ERA plates to deal with KE threats since main armour is pathetic on Indian T 72. this could easily push protection level between 700 to 800mm range. From front.
after this upgrades are over we need to seriously look for all T 72 replacement.
 

Swiftfarts

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Serbian upgraded T 72M1( M84AS1 ) type upgrade would have been far more comprehensive. It's probably the best T 72 upgrade so far.

EZ_l__8XgAYoR6T.jpeg


all week spots have been covered. Plus
It's ERA is a beast.

M 19 ERA
D-O7nM6XkAMxJU3.jpeg

images (48).jpeg


Thing has a flying plate mechanism like K 5 on top and nozh ( knife ) below.

Ziz zag pattern is similar to old soviet russian ERA instead of Nozh ( Ukrainian one ). i forget it's name.

65870_104137825_gofr.jpg


This thing was better than Kontakt 5 according to russian but probably heavy.
 

ArgonPrime

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This will be enough to deal with most Pakistani APFSDS, not good if Chinese sold that 700mm+ DOP one. @Bleh @ArgonPrime does Pakistani VT 4 have capabilities to fire longer APFSDS ? or it same old T 72, T 90 autoloader copy ?
It's the same az series of carousel loaders but may have been modified to hold longer APFSDS rounds. In any case, I don't think the DOP figure will matter much if the ERA works as intended. I mean, what'd be the point of having a supposedly 700 mm DOP if the rod gets snapped in two??
 

ArgonPrime

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Serbian upgraded T 72M1( M84AS1 ) type upgrade would have been far more comprehensive. It's probably the best T 72 upgrade so far.

View attachment 63970

all week spots have been covered. Plus
It's ERA is a beast.

M 19 ERA
View attachment 63969
View attachment 63971

Thing has a flying plate mechanism like K 5 on top and nozh ( knife ) below.

Ziz zag pattern is similar to old soviet russian ERA instead of Nozh ( Ukrainian one ). i forget it's name.

View attachment 63972

This thing was better than Kontakt 5 according to russian but probably heavy.
Yeah, the Serbian upgrade has the best ERA cover but it uses the same old 2A46M main gun where are the B3s have been equipped with the longer M5 variants. Anyway, I think going the Tank Ex route would have been the most logical choice (with a smoothbore gun of course) but that ship has long since been sailed I guess.
 

Swiftfarts

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It's the same az series of carousel loaders but may have been modified to hold longer APFSDS rounds. In any case, I don't think the DOP figure will matter much if the ERA works as intended. I mean, what'd be the point of having a supposedly 700 mm DOP if the rod gets snapped in two??
Yeah, the Serbian upgrade has the best ERA cover but it uses the same old 2A46M main gun where are the B3s have been equipped with the longer M5 variants. Anyway, I think going the Tank Ex route would have been the most logical choice (with a smoothbore gun of course) but that ship has long since been sailed I guess.
it not easy to snap heavy rods using better alloy or DU rods.
there are other ways to deal with such problem using segmented rod, precursor tips etc. Problem with T 72 is it's pathetic tin can armour Which offer no protection whatsoever. You are relying on ERA to do the job and that to on kontakt 5 with no backup. If you want to rely on it , at least use something like M 19 double layered ERA or something like duplet. It would alone push tin can protection level upward of 800mm+ easily.
Problem with Tank EX is that it's not a upgrade when you change whole turret with a new one. Turret also has a bigger footprint.
It's pathetic basically from logistics + cost point of view.
other option could have been to replace whole 1900 T 72 with around 1000 or so T 90S instead of a upgrade which only waste time and money. Since tank is done deal by the time upgrade are complete.
 

Bleh

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so base armour of T 72M1is 380-400mm. kontakt 5 could pushed it to 630- 650mm range. I think ERA MK 2 will push it all the way to 700mm. This will be enough to deal with most Pakistani APFSDS, not good if Chinese sold that 700mm+ DOP one. @Bleh @ArgonPrime does Pakistani VT 4 have capabilities to fire longer APFSDS ? or it same old T 72, T 90 autoloader copy ?
No. As far as can be reasonably estimated from their public info, the gun/armour of their tanks are same old T-72 level.

But due to recent upgrades Chinky-Pakis have advantages in sights & sensors over Indian T-90 that hasn't seen any modernisation since 2007 (welded turret introduced), as well as T/W... Ajeya Mark2 is expected to leave the Bhishma behind.
 

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it not easy to snap heavy rods using better alloy or DU rods.
Dude, these rods, while durable, are incredibly thin at the same time with their diameter not exceeding 25mm at the most. So a sufficient enough explosive force along with those shifting HHS plates should do the trick given we are dealing with unitary ammunition.

there are other ways to deal with such problem using segmented rod, precursor tips etc.
I know but so far, there hasn't been any report of either the Chinee or the Pakistanis having developed such APFSDS rounds.
Problem with T 72 is it's pathetic tin can armour Which offer no protection whatsoever.
True and due to its cast construction, the composite inserts in the turret armor cavity can not be replaced with newer and better inserts.
You are relying on ERA to do the job and that to on kontakt 5 with no backup. If you want to rely on it , at least use something like M 19 double layered ERA or something like duplet. It would alone push tin can protection level upward of 800mm+ easily.
Can not disagree here.
Problem with Tank EX is that it's not a upgrade when you change whole turret with a new one.
It's what we call a deep upgrade.
Turret also has a bigger footprint.
Doesn't matter if the new turret has overall better armor and crew survivability.
It's pathetic basically from logistics + cost point of view.
Wouldn't be a problem had the MBT Arjun been inducted in higher nos.
other option could have been to replace whole 1900 T 72 with around 1000 or so T 90S instead of a upgrade which only waste time and money. Since tank is done deal by the time upgrade are complete.
True.
 

ArgonPrime

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No. As far as can be reasonably estimated from their public info, the gun/armour of their tanks are same old T-72 level.
Albeit with (possibly) better armor configuration in the lower glacis region.
But due to recent upgrades Chinky-Pakis have advantages in sights & sensors over Indian T-90 that hasn't seen any modernisation since 2007 (welded turret introduced), as well as T/W... Ajeya Mark2 is expected to leave the Bhishma behind.
Are the Chinese sights better than Catherine??
 

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