Modern BVR Air Combat - Part 2

Modern BVR Air Combat - Part 2
Modern BVR air combat has evolved from just trying to engage your enemy from a far-away distance to a more sophisticated doctrine involving not only disabling your enemy but also as area-denial, posturing, and active defense.

Although BVR Combat tactics and doctrine is a topic of immense content, we will try to keep it short by focusing only upon basics and a few important scenarios. Let’s start small, let’s look at basic BVR combat tactics and their reasons.

Information Disclaimer - The knowledge presented here is gathered from numerous online & offline sources over the year by the author, and hence citing them is not in scope. Authenticity, correctness or consistency of the information presented is not guaranteed, and readers may accept them upon their own discretion
Assumption:- Both attacking and defending parties know how to optimally attack and defend in BVR combat scenario

Part 2: BVR Combat Tactics
BVR Attack Tactics -

When attacking the enemy, keep these things in mind -
  1. Maximize the kinetic energy of the missile - Most important factor to keep in mind is to maximize the kinetic energy of the launching missile. This includes launching the missile from an optimally high altitude that maximizes missile velocity, adding your own kinetic energy (launch aircraft’s speed), and “lobbing” the missile like a stone thrown into the air for gaining additional distance (we will discuss this later).
    So, if you have time for preparation, which is ideally the case when you are the attacker, or expecting your enemy to attack, climb to an altitude of around ~10km (36,000 ft) and commence your launch at preferably high Mach number.

  2. Optimize the missile launch so that it has a clear line of sight with the enemy - One clear & effective way of defeating long-range missiles is to just hide behind natural obstacles like mountain terrain and ground clutter. If the missile loses seeker lock in the terminal chase, it is pretty much defeated.

    For example, if your enemy is hiding in mountain valleys, climb up to 12 km (40,000fts) and launch the missile, this way, the missile will have a top-down seeker lock on the missile, making it much more difficult for the enemy to evade.


  3. For long-range shots, keep the data link active as long as possible - If you are launching a BVR semi-active radar missile, you practically have to keep the radar lock till the missile hits. For an active radar-guided & IR guided missile, the longer you have data link active, higher the chances of the missile finding its target properly.

  4. More missiles, more probability of kill - In most cases, adding the second one for “double-confirmation” actually works in the BVR scenario (or any attack scenario TBH). Where it will not work is when the enemy is fast running away and you launch the missile pretty much in range greater than your missile can catch up before burning out & slowing down.
BVR Defence Tactics -

If a BVR missile has been launched at you, or you suspect a missile is being headed towards you, follow these tactics -
  1. Hide from threat radar’s line of sight if possible - If flying low in mountainous terrain, prefer to hide from the direct line-of-sight of threat radar signals. Pilots usually dive deep into the mountain valleys so that radar waves cannot reach the aircraft. This will break the radar lock of the aircraft, as well as of the missile, terminating homing to your aircraft in most cases.
    Although this is not always possible, because often missions are carried upon sea & plains where natural obstacles are not present.

  2. Try to bleed the missile of energy as much as possible- Primary objective is to slow down the missile as much as possible, to the point it does not have any energy to chase you anymore. Few ways of bleeding missile energy -
    • Dive into “thicker air” - Basically going low, where the air density is higher, and the missile loses more energy than in higher altitude, per unit distance covered.

    • Make zig-zag turns to give the missile a false-lead - Missile tries to “lead” the target, which means missile calculates the imaginary impact point, given the missile’s speed & the target aircraft’s speed. This will cause the missile to make sharp-turns multiple times, making it lose energy more quickly.

  3. If at a lower altitude, hug the ground as close as possible - The ground clutter will make you difficult to spot by enemy radar, and often going low and missile following you, the missile will crash straight to the ground, or hit some ground clutter.

  4. Run away from the missile ! (Smartly, Split - S maneuver) - If you are not feeling particularly enthusiastic facing the enemy head-on, or are unsure about the enemy missile's characteristics, the best option might be to run away from it ! Although it may not always work if you are too close, and the missile catches you anyway because of its superior kinematics.

    Split - S maneuver to dodge missile - The basic idea is, to make a shallow dive and go 180 deg straight back. This will do two things -
    • Drag the missile into thicker air, and slow it down further, at the same time, you will gain additional kinetic energy from losing altitude.

    • Missiles will require more kinetic energy to catch you since you are running away from it.

Split - S is a very common, yet equally effective maneuver in air combat.
  1. Using Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) - Countermeasures are used along with the above mentioned kinetic methods for a greater added chance of survival against air-to-air missiles.
    The basic idea of ECM against a radar tracking you, is to create false radar targets around you so that radar gets confused in clutter or accidentally locks up to one of the “false” radar targets.
    Basic countermeasures for spoofing radar are “chaffs”, which are thin hairs of aluminum dispersed into the air by the defending jet. The enemy radar waves will be reflected by the thin strands of aluminum hair floating through the air, creating a false radar target.


    Chaff rounds with thin aluminum hairs



  2. Jamming / Electronic Warfare- Although the topic of electronic warfare and jamming is humongous and well guarded, we will discuss some basic scenarios of how effective jamming can nullify radar-guided missiles, even when the missile is fired at lethal range (high kill probability).
    • Noise Jamming / Barrage Jamming - Involves sending radio waves with the same frequency towards the enemy radar/missile. This confuses the enemy radar receiver which cannot identify the “false” reflected signals from the actual reflected signals.
      This type of jamming is generally effective towards missile radars, as they are mostly primitive pulse-doppler radar seekers. With missiles tipped with AESA radars, the effectiveness of noise jamming will be significantly reduced.

    • Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) Jamming - A very sophisticated jamming method, which involves manipulating the incoming radar signals and sending back “false” reflections, such that radar will see “false” targets, rather than being blocked from detection like in the above case.
      DFRM jamming, although only a few countries have been successful in mastering this technology, is very effective if executed correctly. Missiles hit with DRFM jamming may completely lose radar lock-on target aircraft and fly towards some “false” created target.

Now that we know basic tactics, let’s dive more into some particular tactics employed using BVR missiles, these, if executed correctly, can change the outcome of the air battle.
  1. Launching a missile by “Lobbying” it for greater range- It involves climbing up to a thinner atmosphere (around ~10 km, 36,000ft), full-afterburners for achieving a significant amount of speed and launching the missile at around 30-40 deg. nose angle. This method utilizes two factors for increasing kill probability -
    1. Imparting higher kinetic energy to the missile increases its kill probability.

    2. Top-down seeker looking at target aircraft gives a clearer line-of-sight with a lesser probability of enemy jet highing behind natural obstacles.

  2. F-Pole Maneuver - This is an offensive as well as a defensive method rolled into one. The idea of F-Pole maneuver is to get as close as possible to enemy aircraft for launching a BVR missile, while at the same time maintaining a high probability of defending from an enemy BVR missile coming towards you.
    It consists of these series of steps -
    • Go head-on towards your enemy with full-afterburners on to achieve maximum speed.

    • When you think the enemy has launched a BVR missile towards you (by RWR warning or visual), move +45 deg. off your course towards the enemy jet. Continue to move on this trajectory for 2-4 seconds (depends upon missile type and distance from your target).

    • Make a sharp 90 deg. turn towards the enemy jet, such that you are at -45 deg. from your initial flight trajectory. At the same time, launch your own BVR missile at the enemy. This missile launched at a much closer range will have a much higher probability of kill.

      The enemy missile launch at you, at the last step, will have to make a much sharper turn of more than 90 deg. to reach you, which will make it lose a significant amount of energy and most probably will never be able to reach you.

  3. Split - S Cycle- This is also an offensive as well as a defensive maneuver, and one of the most common tactics used when you are with a not alone and against multiple enemies with BVR capability. This maneuver makes sure to push your enemy defensive, while at the same time keeping the situational awareness of the battlefield and also getting a viable kill solution against your enemy.
    This consist of these series of steps -
    • You approach the enemy head-on, with your wingman(s) behind you at a few kilometers of distance.

    • You lock upon your enemies and launch BVR missiles at them at a significant range, causing them to go evasive. You quickly make a split - S turn and go back to defend against any incoming BVR missile launched by the enemy.

    • Wingman behind you keeps going towards the enemy and launches its BVR missiles when the enemy jets are in range. Wingman too, makes a split - S turn after firing the missiles to defend.

    • If there exist more wingmen, it's now their turn as the previous step. If not, you will do an Immelmann turn (read gaining altitude and coming back), and repeat the previous steps.

      This maneuver is so effective, that given similar missile parameters & electronic warfare capability of both parties, the party executing this maneuver will always have an upper hand against the opposite party if they do not execute this similar maneuver.


Astra_BVRAAM_successfully_test_fired_from_Su-30MKI_off_the_Odisha_coast_on_September_17,_2019.jpg
 
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Modern BVR air combat has evolved from just trying to engage your enemy from a far-away distance to a more sophisticated doctrine involving not only disabling your enemy but also as area-denial, posturing, and active defense.

Although BVR Combat tactics and doctrine is a topic of immense content, we will try to keep it short by focusing only upon basics and a few important scenarios. Let’s start small, let’s look at basic BVR combat tactics and their reasons.



Assumption:- Both attacking and defending parties know how to optimally attack and defend in BVR combat scenario

Part 2: BVR Combat Tactics
BVR Attack Tactics -

When attacking the enemy, keep these things in mind -
  1. Maximize the kinetic energy of the missile - Most important factor to keep in mind is to maximize the kinetic energy of the launching missile. This includes launching the missile from an optimally high altitude that maximizes missile velocity, adding your own kinetic energy (launch aircraft’s speed), and “lobbing” the missile like a stone thrown into the air for gaining additional distance (we will discuss this later).
    So, if you have time for preparation, which is ideally the case when you are the attacker, or expecting your enemy to attack, climb to an altitude of around ~10km (36,000 ft) and commence your launch at preferably high Mach number.

  2. Optimize the missile launch so that it has a clear line of sight with the enemy - One clear & effective way of defeating long-range missiles is to just hide behind natural obstacles like mountain terrain and ground clutter. If the missile loses seeker lock in the terminal chase, it is pretty much defeated.

    For example, if your enemy is hiding in mountain valleys, climb up to 12 km (40,000fts) and launch the missile, this way, the missile will have a top-down seeker lock on the missile, making it much more difficult for the enemy to evade.


  3. For long-range shots, keep the data link active as long as possible - If you are launching a BVR semi-active radar missile, you practically have to keep the radar lock till the missile hits. For an active radar-guided & IR guided missile, the longer you have data link active, higher the chances of the missile finding its target properly.

  4. More missiles, more probability of kill - In most cases, adding the second one for “double-confirmation” actually works in the BVR scenario (or any attack scenario TBH). Where it will not work is when the enemy is fast running away and you launch the missile pretty much in range greater than your missile can catch up before burning out & slowing down.
BVR Defence Tactics -

If a BVR missile has been launched at you, or you suspect a missile is being headed towards you, follow these tactics -
  1. Hide from threat radar’s line of sight if possible - If flying low in mountainous terrain, prefer to hide from the direct line-of-sight of threat radar signals. Pilots usually dive deep into the mountain valleys so that radar waves cannot reach the aircraft. This will break the radar lock of the aircraft, as well as of the missile, terminating homing to your aircraft in most cases.
    Although this is not always possible, because often missions are carried upon sea & plains where natural obstacles are not present.

  2. Try to bleed the missile of energy as much as possible- Primary objective is to slow down the missile as much as possible, to the point it does not have any energy to chase you anymore. Few ways of bleeding missile energy -
    • Dive into “thicker air” - Basically going low, where the air density is higher, and the missile loses more energy than in higher altitude, per unit distance covered.

    • Make zig-zag turns to give the missile a false-lead - Missile tries to “lead” the target, which means missile calculates the imaginary impact point, given the missile’s speed & the target aircraft’s speed. This will cause the missile to make sharp-turns multiple times, making it lose energy more quickly.

  3. If at a lower altitude, hug the ground as close as possible - The ground clutter will make you difficult to spot by enemy radar, and often going low and missile following you, the missile will crash straight to the ground, or hit some ground clutter.

  4. Run away from the missile ! (Smartly, Split - S maneuver) - If you are not feeling particularly enthusiastic facing the enemy head-on, or are unsure about the enemy missile's characteristics, the best option might be to run away from it ! Although it may not always work if you are too close, and the missile catches you anyway because of its superior kinematics.

    Split - S maneuver to dodge missile - The basic idea is, to make a shallow dive and go 180 deg straight back. This will do two things -
    • Drag the missile into thicker air, and slow it down further, at the same time, you will gain additional kinetic energy from losing altitude.

    • Missiles will require more kinetic energy to catch you since you are running away from it.

Split - S is a very common, yet equally effective maneuver in air combat.
  1. Using Electronic Countermeasures (ECM) - Countermeasures are used along with the above mentioned kinetic methods for a greater added chance of survival against air-to-air missiles.
    The basic idea of ECM against a radar tracking you, is to create false radar targets around you so that radar gets confused in clutter or accidentally locks up to one of the “false” radar targets.
    Basic countermeasures for spoofing radar are “chaffs”, which are thin hairs of aluminum dispersed into the air by the defending jet. The enemy radar waves will be reflected by the thin strands of aluminum hair floating through the air, creating a false radar target.


    Chaff rounds with thin aluminum hairs



  2. Jamming / Electronic Warfare- Although the topic of electronic warfare and jamming is humongous and well guarded, we will discuss some basic scenarios of how effective jamming can nullify radar-guided missiles, even when the missile is fired at lethal range (high kill probability).
    • Noise Jamming / Barrage Jamming - Involves sending radio waves with the same frequency towards the enemy radar/missile. This confuses the enemy radar receiver which cannot identify the “false” reflected signals from the actual reflected signals.
      This type of jamming is generally effective towards missile radars, as they are mostly primitive pulse-doppler radar seekers. With missiles tipped with AESA radars, the effectiveness of noise jamming will be significantly reduced.

    • Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) Jamming - A very sophisticated jamming method, which involves manipulating the incoming radar signals and sending back “false” reflections, such that radar will see “false” targets, rather than being blocked from detection like in the above case.
      DFRM jamming, although only a few countries have been successful in mastering this technology, is very effective if executed correctly. Missiles hit with DRFM jamming may completely lose radar lock-on target aircraft and fly towards some “false” created target.

Now that we know basic tactics, let’s dive more into some particular tactics employed using BVR missiles, these, if executed correctly, can change the outcome of the air battle.
  1. Launching a missile by “Lobbying” it for greater range- It involves climbing up to a thinner atmosphere (around ~10 km, 36,000ft), full-afterburners for achieving a significant amount of speed and launching the missile at around 30-40 deg. nose angle. This method utilizes two factors for increasing kill probability -
    1. Imparting higher kinetic energy to the missile increases its kill probability.

    2. Top-down seeker looking at target aircraft gives a clearer line-of-sight with a lesser probability of enemy jet highing behind natural obstacles.

  2. F-Pole Maneuver - This is an offensive as well as a defensive method rolled into one. The idea of F-Pole maneuver is to get as close as possible to enemy aircraft for launching a BVR missile, while at the same time maintaining a high probability of defending from an enemy BVR missile coming towards you.
    It consists of these series of steps -
    • Go head-on towards your enemy with full-afterburners on to achieve maximum speed.

    • When you think the enemy has launched a BVR missile towards you (by RWR warning or visual), move +45 deg. off your course towards the enemy jet. Continue to move on this trajectory for 2-4 seconds (depends upon missile type and distance from your target).

    • Make a sharp 90 deg. turn towards the enemy jet, such that you are at -45 deg. from your initial flight trajectory. At the same time, launch your own BVR missile at the enemy. This missile launched at a much closer range will have a much higher probability of kill.

      The enemy missile launch at you, at the last step, will have to make a much sharper turn of more than 90 deg. to reach you, which will make it lose a significant amount of energy and most probably will never be able to reach you.

  3. Split - S Cycle- This is also an offensive as well as a defensive maneuver, and one of the most common tactics used when you are with a not alone and against multiple enemies with BVR capability. This maneuver makes sure to push your enemy defensive, while at the same time keeping the situational awareness of the battlefield and also getting a viable kill solution against your enemy.
    This consist of these series of steps -
    • You approach the enemy head-on, with your wingman(s) behind you at a few kilometers of distance.

    • You lock upon your enemies and launch BVR missiles at them at a significant range, causing them to go evasive. You quickly make a split - S turn and go back to defend against any incoming BVR missile launched by the enemy.

    • Wingman behind you keeps going towards the enemy and launches its BVR missiles when the enemy jets are in range. Wingman too, makes a split - S turn after firing the missiles to defend.

    • If there exist more wingmen, it's now their turn as the previous step. If not, you will do an Immelmann turn (read gaining altitude and coming back), and repeat the previous steps.

      This maneuver is so effective, that given similar missile parameters & electronic warfare capability of both parties, the party executing this maneuver will always have an upper hand against the opposite party if they do not execute this similar maneuver.


View attachment 53516
One of the Paki airforce ex air commodore said the following:

1. Our Air combat doctrine always had a problem with BVR missiles. He said, that in WVR no doubt our airforce is dead shot a force to reckon with.

2. He said PAF analysed our weakness serious communication flaw and data-linking. Which I kind of what I think Rafale were brought in to aid our comm and data linking.

His conclusion weren't jingoistic, as his repute surpasses our borders. He is a well know author too.

My question is simple, did we fucked up major on data linking and R77? Because if this is an issue than our data-linking is either in a compromising position, or PAK has already handover our comm frequencies to PLAF.

Whats your thought?

P.S. If this isn't a right thread, request to be moved somewhere else.
 
See, after Balakot, one thing I have noticed that even reputable PAF officers have come down to tote propaganda lines. It's sad for a reputable airforce to blemish their own professionalism with jingoism and lies.

I am in no position to give any statement on IAF BVR combat doctrine, but yeah, I have noticed we have placed greater heed upon WVR combats, something we have inherited from Russian doctrine.

Our airforce has indeed suffered from datalink issues because of the hotchpotch of different platforms and avionics, creating a situation that ground control/AWACS has to control the formations. In this situation, PAF somewhat has an edge because they can link their F-16s with SAAB Eriye AWACS to get a better picture of the battlefield.
Our MKIs can have datalink together, and I have heard that Mig-21s can also be data linked with Su-30MKIs (cannot confirm tho).

My question is simple, did we fucked up major on data linking and R77? Because if this is an issue than our data-linking is either in a compromising position, or PAK has already handover our comm frequencies to PLAF.
Data linking, I believe would have achieved a little. In no situation, we were blind or in a state of confusion (leave aside the Mi-17 shootdown, some multiple mistakes led to that issue).

Abhinandan crossing into PoK without backup was kind of a heat-in-the-moment thing rather than communication jamming, let me tell you that. Of course, now veterans will come attacking at me defending our picture-perfect airforce.
 
See, after Balakot, one thing I have noticed that even reputable PAF officers have come down to tote propaganda lines. It's sad for a reputable airforce to blemish their own professionalism with jingoism and lies.

I am in no position to give any statement on IAF BVR combat doctrine, but yeah, I have noticed we have placed greater heed upon WVR combats, something we have inherited from Russian doctrine.

Our airforce has indeed suffered from datalink issues because of the hotchpotch of different platforms and avionics, creating a situation that ground control/AWACS has to control the formations. In this situation, PAF somewhat has an edge because they can link their F-16s with SAAB Eriye AWACS to get a better picture of the battlefield.
Our MKIs can have datalink together, and I have heard that Mig-21s can also be data linked with Su-30MKIs (cannot confirm tho).



Data linking, I believe would have achieved a little. In no situation, we were blind or in a state of confusion (leave aside the Mi-17 shootdown, some multiple mistakes led to that issue).

Abhinandan crossing into PoK without backup was kind of a heat-in-the-moment thing rather than communication jamming, let me tell you that. Of course, now veterans will come attacking at me defending our picture-perfect airforce.
Respect your honest opinion, yes we aint experts but I am ok to take backlash. He wrote that our MKIs the two MKIs (he is dead shot correct, that there were two) used the BARS, they were able to detect F16 but bars failed to provide firing solution for R77.
You are absolutely true that SAAB erEye had a battle picture but so did we. They were able to hear our ground comms.

Is it possible that we had a firing solution, but incoming AIM 120C disrupted our data linking because our pilots wanted to evade?
 
Respect your honest opinion, yes we aint experts but I am ok to take backlash. He wrote that our MKIs the two MKIs (he is dead shot correct, that there were two) used the BARS, they were able to detect F16 but bars failed to provide firing solution for R77.
You are absolutely true that SAAB erEye had a battle picture but so did we. They were able to hear our ground comms.

Is it possible that we had a firing solution, but incoming AIM 120C disrupted our data linking because our pilots wanted to evade?
Hmm, give me some time, I will tell you what I think happened. Meanwhile can you share the PAF officer article you are quoting ?
 
I've always wondered. How do Jet fighter pilots train their accuracy? I don't think simulations like video games are accurate enough for that.
 
I love that there are people who are interested in air combat because it is one of the most interesting topics in the world of military and combat. Airplanes and combat planes are acutally amazing to see because of the technology inside of these machines. It is astonishing that humanity has already gone to space in the span of a few decades after the plane was invented. It would not be a surprise if countries from all over the world have their own innovations with insane mechanical wonders.
 
Modern BVR air combat has evolved from just trying to engage your enemy from a far-away distance to a more sophisticated doctrine involving not only disabling your enemy but also as area-denial, posturing, and active defense.

Although BVR Combat tactics and doctrine is a topic of immense content, we will try to keep it short by focusing only upon basics and a few important scenarios. Let’s start small, let’s look at basic BVR combat tactics and their reasons.



Assumption:- Both attacking and defending parties know how to optimally attack and defend in BVR combat scenario

Part 2: BVR Combat Tactics
BVR Attack Tactics -

When attacking the enemy, keep these things in mind -
  1. Maximize the kinetic energy of the missile - Most important factor to keep in mind is to maximize the kinetic energy of the launching missile. This includes launching the missile from an optimally high altitude that maximizes missile velocity, adding your own kinetic energy (launch aircraft’s speed), and “lobbing” the missile like a stone thrown into the air for gaining additional distance (we will discuss this later).
    So, if you have time for preparation, which is ideally the case when you are the attacker, or expecting your enemy to attack, climb to an altitude of around ~10km (36,000 ft) and commence your launch at preferably high Mach number.

  2. Optimize the missile launch so that it has a clear line of sight with the enemy - One clear & effective way of defeating long-range missiles is to just hide behind natural obstacles like mountain terrain and ground clutter. If the missile loses seeker lock in the terminal chase, it is pretty much defeated.

    For example, if your enemy is hiding in mountain valleys, climb up to 12 km (40,000fts) and launch the missile, this way, the missile will have a top-down seeker lock on the missile, making it much more difficult for the enemy to evade.


  3. For long-range shots, keep the data link active as long as possible - If you are launching a BVR semi-active radar missile, you practically have to keep the radar lock till the missile hits. For an active radar-guided & IR guided missile, the longer you have data link active, higher the chances of the missile finding its target properly.

  4. More missiles, more probability of kill - In most cases, adding the second one for “double-confirmation” actually works in the BVR scenario (or any attack scenario TBH). Where it will not work is when the enemy is fast running away and you launch the missile pretty much in range greater than your missile can catch up before burning out & slowing down.
BVR Defence Tactics -

If a BVR missile has been launched at you, or you suspect a missile is being headed towards you, follow these tactics -
  1. Hide from threat radar’s line of sight if possible - If flying low in mountainous terrain, prefer to hide from the direct line-of-sight of threat radar signals. Pilots usually dive deep into the mountain valleys so that radar waves cannot reach the aircraft. This will break the radar lock of the aircraft, as well as of the missile, terminating homing to your aircraft in most cases.
    Although this is not always possible, because often missions are carried upon sea & plains where natural obstacles are not present.

  2. Try to bleed the missile of energy as much as possible- Primary objective is to slow down the missile as much as possible, to the point it does not have any energy to chase you anymore. Few ways of bleeding missile energy -
    • Dive into “thicker air” - Basically going low, where the air density is higher, and the missile loses more energy than in higher altitude, per unit distance covered.

    • Make zig-zag turns to give the missile a false-lead - Missile tries to “lead” the target, which means missile calculates the imaginary impact point, given the missile’s speed & the target aircraft’s speed. This will cause the missile to make sharp-turns multiple times, making it lose energy more quickly.

  3. If at a lower altitude, hug the ground as close as possible - The ground clutter will make you difficult to spot by enemy radar, and often going low and missile following you, the missile will crash straight to the ground, or hit some ground clutter.

  4. Run away from the missile ! (Smartly, Split - S maneuver) - If you are not feeling particularly enthusiastic facing the enemy head-on, or are unsure about the enemy missile's characteristics, the best option might be to run away from it ! Although it may not always work if you are too close, and the missile catches you anyway because of its superior kinematics.

    Split - S maneuver to dodge missile - The basic idea is, to make a shallow dive and go 180 deg straight back. This will do two things -
    • Drag the missile into thicker air, and slow it down further, at the same time, you will gain additional kinetic energy from losing altitude.

    • Missiles will require more kinetic energy to catch you since you are running away from it.

Split - S is a very common, yet equally effective maneuver in air combat.
  1. 使用电子对策(ECM) -将对策与上述动力学方法一起使用,可以更大程度地提高空空导弹的生存率。
    ECM对抗跟踪您的雷达的基本思想是在您周围创建虚假的雷达目标,以使雷达混乱不堪或意外锁定多达一个“虚假”的雷达目标。
    欺骗雷达的基本对策是“防护罩”,防护罩是由防御喷气机散布在空中的铝细发。敌人的雷达波将被漂浮在空中的铝细发束反射,从而形成错误的雷达目标。


    细铝毛的Chaff子弹



  2. 干扰/电子战-尽管电子战和干扰的话题是巨大而严密的,但我们将讨论一些基本的场景,即即使导弹在致命范围内发射(致命概率很高),有效干扰也能使雷达制导导弹无效。 。
    • 噪声干扰/弹幕干扰-涉及向敌方雷达/导弹发送相同频率的无线电波。这使敌方雷达接收器感到困惑,后者无法从实际反射信号中识别出“虚假”反射信号。
      这种干扰通常对导弹雷达有效,因为它们大多是原始的脉冲多普勒雷达导引头。如果导弹被AESA雷达倾倒,那么干扰噪声的效率将大大降低。

    • 数字射频存储器(DRFM)干扰-一种非常复杂的干扰方法,包括处理传入的雷达信号并发回“假”反射,这样雷达将看到“假”目标,而不是像上面那样被阻止检测案子。
      DFRM干扰,尽管只有少数几个国家成功地掌握了该技术,但如果执行得当,则非常有效。受到DRFM干扰的导弹可能会完全失去雷达锁定目标飞机的飞行能力,并飞向某些“错误”创建的目标。

现在我们已经掌握了基本战术,让我们更深入地研究使用BVR导弹的某些特定战术,如果正确执行这些战术,则可以改变空战的结果。
  1. 通过“游说”更大范围来发射导弹-它涉及爬升到更薄的大气层(约10 km,36,000 ft),加力燃烧室以实现相当大的速度,并在30-40度左右发射导弹。鼻角。该方法利用两个因素来增加杀死概率:
    1. 向导弹分配更高的动能会增加其击杀概率。

    2. 自上而下的搜寻器可以看到目标飞机,视野更清晰,而敌机在自然障碍物后高空飞行的可能性也较小。

  2. F杆演习-这是一种进攻手段,又是一种防御手段。F极机动的想法是,在发射BVR导弹时要尽可能地靠近敌机,同时保持很高的防御机率,以防敌方BVR导弹向您袭来。
    它由以下一系列步骤组成-
    • 通过加力燃烧器直奔敌人,以达到最大速度。

    • 当您认为敌人向您发射了BVR导弹时(通过RWR警告或视觉方式),向+45度移动。偏离敌机的方向 继续在此轨迹上移动2-4秒(取决于导弹类型和距目标的距离)。

    • 锐化90度。转向敌机,使您处于-45度。从您的初始飞行轨迹开始。同时,向敌人发射自己的BVR导弹。这种发射距离更近的导弹将具有更高的击杀概率。

      在最后一步,向您发射的敌方导弹将必须转弯更锐利的90度以上。接触到您,这将使其失去大量能量,并且很可能永远无法接触到您。

  3. 分裂-S循环-这既是进攻性也是防御性的动作,并且是当您与一个不孤单且对付具有BVR能力的多个敌人时使用的最常见的战术之一。这种策略可以确保您对敌人进行防御,同时保持对战场的态势感知,还可以对敌人采取可行的杀伤方案。
    这包括以下一系列步骤-
    • 当您的机翼后方在您的背后几公里远时,您将正面朝敌。

    • 您锁定敌人,并向其发射BVR导弹,射程很远,从而使其躲避。您迅速做出了分裂-S弯并返回以防御敌人发射的任何BVR导弹。

    • 在您身后的Wingman不断向敌方进军,并在敌机射程内时发射BVR导弹。温曼(Wingman)也在发射导弹进行防御后转了一圈-S转弯。

    • 如果有更多的边锋,现在轮到他们上一步了。如果没有,您将进行伊梅尔曼转弯(读取高度并返回),然后重复前面的步骤。

      这种机动是如此有效,以至于在双方具有相似的导弹参数和电子战能力的情况下,如果对方不执行这种机动,则执行该机动的一方将总是在对对方一方方面占上风。


View attachment 53516
[/引用]
 
[QUOTE =“ mist_consecutive,帖子:1722103,成员:27303”]
现代的BVR空战已经从仅仅试图与遥远的敌人交战演变为更复杂的学说,不仅使敌人失去能力,而且还具有禁区,姿态和主动防御的能力。

尽管BVR作战策略和学说是众多内容的主题,但我们将通过仅关注基础知识和一些重要场景来使它简短。让我们从小处开始,让我们看一下基本的BVR作战策略及其原因。



假设:-攻击方和防御方都知道如何在BVR战斗场景中最佳地进行攻击和防御

第2部分:BVR战斗策略
BVR攻击策略-

攻击敌人时,请牢记以下几点:
  1. 最大化导弹的动能 -要记住的最重要因素是最大化发射导弹的动能。这包括从最大化导弹速度的最佳高空发射导弹,增加自己的动能(飞机的速度),以及像扔向空中的石头一样“飞越”导弹以增加距离(我们将在后面讨论) 。
    因此,如果您有时间进行准备,这是理想的情况,这是当您是攻击者或希望您的敌人发动攻击时的情况,则爬升至约10公里(36,000英尺)的高度,并以较高的马赫数开始发射。

  2. 优化导弹发射,使其与敌人保持清晰的视线-击败远程导弹的一种清晰有效的方法是,躲藏在山岭地形和地面混乱之类的自然障碍物后面。如果导弹在航向追逐中失去寻找者的锁定,则它几乎被击落。

    例如,如果您的敌人躲藏在山谷中,爬上12公里(40,000英尺)的距离并发射导弹,这样,导弹将具有自上而下的导引头锁定在导弹上,这使得导弹的难度更大。敌人逃避。


  3. 对于远距离拍摄,请保持数据链接尽可能长时间处于活动状态-如果要发射BVR半主动雷达导弹,则实际上必须保持雷达锁定,直到导弹击中为止。对于有源雷达制导和红外制导导弹,数据链接处于活动状态的时间越长,导弹正确找到目标的机会就越高。

  4. 更多的导弹,更多的击杀可能性-在大多数情况下,为BVR方案(或任何攻击方案TBH)添加第二枚导弹进行“双重确认”实际上是可行的。当敌人快速逃跑并且您发射的导弹的射程远大于导弹在燃烧和减速之前可以追赶的射程时,它将无法工作。
BVR防御策略-

如果BVR导弹已经向您发射,或者您怀疑有导弹正在向您驶去,请遵循以下策略-
  1. 如果可能,将其隐藏在威胁雷达的视线之外-如果在山区低空飞行,则最好躲避威胁雷达信号的直接视线。飞行员通常潜入山谷深处,以使雷达波无法到达飞机。这将破坏飞机以及导弹的雷达锁定,在大多数情况下会终止飞机的归巢。
    尽管这并非总是可能的,但由于经常在没有自然障碍的海洋和平原上执行任务。

  2. 尝试尽可能地释放导弹的能量-主要目标是尽可能降低导弹的速度,以至于它不再有能量来追逐您。减少导弹能量的几种方法-
    • 潜入“浓密的空气”中-基本上每当覆盖单位距离时,空气密度就会变高,并且与更高的高度相比,导弹会损失更多的能量。

    • 使之字形转弯为导弹提供错误的引导-导弹试图“引导”目标,这意味着导弹会根据导弹的速度和目标飞机的速度来计算假想的撞击点。这将导致导弹多次急转,使其能量损失更快。

  3. 如果处于较低的高度,请尽可能紧紧地拥抱地面-地面杂波将使您很难被敌方雷达发现,并且经常低空飞行并跟随导弹,导弹会直接撞到地面或撞到一些地面杂波。

  4. 逃避导弹!(明智地,分裂-S机动) -如果您对面对敌人感到不是特别热情,或者不确定敌人的导弹特性,最好的选择就是逃避它!尽管如果您离得太近,它可能并不总是有效,并且由于其优越的运动学特性,导弹还是会抓住您。

    拆分-躲避导弹的机动-基本思想是进行浅潜并向后直行180度。这将做两件事-
    • 将导弹拖到更浓的空气中,然后进一步放慢速度,与此同时,您会因为失去高度而获得更多的动能。

    • 导弹将需要更多的动能来捕捉您,因为您正远离它。

分裂-S是空战中一种非常普遍但同样有效的机动。
  1. 使用电子对策(ECM) -将对策与上述动力学方法一起使用,可以更大程度地提高空空导弹的生存率
    ECM对抗跟踪您的雷达的基本思想是在您周围创建虚假的雷达目标,以使雷达
    的基本对策是“防护罩”,防护罩是由防御喷气机散布在空中的铝细发。敌人的雷达波将被漂浮在空中的铝细发束反射,从而形成错误的雷达目标。


    细铝毛的Chaff子弹



  2. 干扰/电子战-尽管电子战和干扰的话题是巨大而严密的,但我们将讨论一些基本的场景,即即使导弹在致命范围内发射(致命概率很高),有效干扰也能使雷达制导导弹无效。
    • 噪声干扰/弹幕干扰-涉及向敌方雷达/导弹发送相同频率的无线电波。这使敌方雷达接收器感到碰到,而无法从实际反射信号中识别出“虚假”反射信号。
      这种干扰通常对导弹雷达有效,因为它们主要是原始的脉冲多普勒雷达导引头。如果导弹被AESA雷达倾倒,那么干扰噪声的效率将大大降低。

    • 数字射频存储器(DRFM)干扰-一种非常复杂的干扰方法,包括处理对准的雷达信号并发回“假”反射,这样雷达将看到“假”目标,而不是像上面那样被阻止检测案子。
      DFRM干扰,尽管只有少数几个国家成功地掌握了该技术,但如果执行得当,则非常有效。受到DRFM干扰的导弹可能会完全失去雷达锁定目标飞机的飞行能力,并飞向某些“错误”创建的目标。

现在我们已经掌握了基本战术,让我们更深入地研究使用BVR导弹的某些特定战术,如果正确执行这些战术,则可以改变空战的结果。
  1. 通过“游说”直径范围来发射导弹-它涉及爬升到更薄的大气层(约10 km,36,000 ft),加力燃烧室以实现相当大的速度,并在30-40度左右发射导弹。鼻角。该方法利用两个因素来增加杀死概率:
    1. 向导弹分配更高的动能会增加其击杀概率。

    2. 自上而下的搜寻器可以看到目标飞机,视野更清晰,而敌机在自然障碍物后高空飞行的可能也较小。

  2. ˚F杆演习-这是一种进攻手段,又是一种防御手段˚F极机动的想法是,在发射超视距导弹时要尽可能地靠近敌机,同时保持很高的防御机率,以防敌方BVR导弹向您袭来。
    它由以下多个步骤组成-
    • 通过加力燃烧器直奔敌人,以达到最大速度。

    • 当您认为敌人向您发射了BVR导弹时(通过RWR警告或视觉方式),向45度移动。偏离敌机的方向继续在此轨迹上移动2-4秒(取决于导弹类型和距目标的距离)。

    • 锐化90度。转向敌机,使您处于-45度。从您的初始飞行轨迹开始。同时,向敌人发射自己的BVR导弹。这种发射距离更近的导弹将具有更高的击杀概率。

      在最后一步,向您发射的敌方导弹将必须转弯更锐利的90度以上。

  3. 分裂-S循环-这既是进攻性也是防御性的动作,并且是当您与一个不孤单且对付具有BVR能力的多个敌人时使用的最常见的战术之一。这种策略可以确保您对敌人进行防御,同时保持对战场的态势感知,还可以对敌人采取可行的杀伤方案。
    这包括以下步骤-
    • 当您的机翼后方在您的背后几公里远时,您将正面朝敌。

    • 您锁定敌人,并向其发射BVR导弹,射程很远,从而导致躲避。您迅速做出了分裂-S弯并返回以防御敌人发射的任何BVR导弹。

    • 在您身后的Wingman不断向敌方进军,并在敌机射程内时发射BVR导弹。温曼(Wingman)也在发射导弹进行防御后转一圈-S转弯。

    • 如果没有,您将进行伊梅尔曼转弯(读取高度并返回),然后重复前面的步骤。

      这种机动有效,以至于在双方具有相似的导弹参数和电子战能力的情况下,如果对方不执行这种机动,则执行该机动的一方将总是在对对方方面占上风。


View attachment 53516
[/引用]
 
[QUOTE =“ mist_consecutive,帖子:1722103,成员:27303”]
现代的BVR空战已经从仅仅试图与遥远的敌人交战演变为更复杂的学说,不仅使敌人失去能力,而且还具有禁区,姿态和主动防御的能力。

尽管BVR作战策略和学说是众多内容的主题,但我们将通过仅关注基础知识和一些重要场景来使它简短。让我们从小处开始,让我们看一下基本的BVR作战策略及其原因。



假设:-攻击方和防御方都知道如何在BVR战斗场景中最佳地进行攻击和防御

第2部分:BVR战斗策略
BVR攻击策略-

攻击敌人时,请牢记以下几点:
  1. 最大化导弹的动能 -要记住的最重要因素是最大化发射导弹的动能。这包括从最大化导弹速度的最佳高空发射导弹,增加自己的动能(飞机的速度),以及像扔向空中的石头一样“飞越”导弹以增加距离(我们将在后面讨论) 。
    因此,如果您有时间进行准备,这是理想的情况,这是当您是攻击者或希望您的敌人发动攻击时的情况,则爬升至约10公里(36,000英尺)的高度,并以较高的马赫数开始发射。

  2. 优化导弹发射,使其与敌人保持清晰的视线-击败远程导弹的一种清晰有效的方法是,躲藏在山岭地形和地面混乱之类的自然障碍物后面。如果导弹在航向追逐中失去寻找者的锁定,则它几乎被击落。

    例如,如果您的敌人躲藏在山谷中,爬上12公里(40,000英尺)的距离并发射导弹,这样,导弹将具有自上而下的导引头锁定在导弹上,这使得导弹的难度更大。敌人逃避。


  3. 对于远距离拍摄,请保持数据链接尽可能长时间处于活动状态-如果要发射BVR半主动雷达导弹,则实际上必须保持雷达锁定,直到导弹击中为止。对于有源雷达制导和红外制导导弹,数据链接处于活动状态的时间越长,导弹正确找到目标的机会就越高。

  4. 更多的导弹,更多的击杀可能性-在大多数情况下,为BVR方案(或任何攻击方案TBH)添加第二枚导弹进行“双重确认”实际上是可行的。当敌人快速逃跑并且您发射的导弹的射程远大于导弹在燃烧和减速之前可以追赶的射程时,它将无法工作。
BVR防御策略-

如果BVR导弹已经向您发射,或者您怀疑有导弹正在向您驶去,请遵循以下策略-
  1. 如果可能,将其隐藏在威胁雷达的视线之外-如果在山区低空飞行,则最好躲避威胁雷达信号的直接视线。飞行员通常潜入山谷深处,以使雷达波无法到达飞机。这将破坏飞机以及导弹的雷达锁定,在大多数情况下会终止飞机的归巢。
    尽管这并非总是可能的,但由于经常在没有自然障碍的海洋和平原上执行任务。

  2. 尝试尽可能地释放导弹的能量-主要目标是尽可能降低导弹的速度,以至于它不再有能量来追逐您。减少导弹能量的几种方法-
    • 潜入“浓密的空气”中-基本上每当覆盖单位距离时,空气密度就会变高,并且与更高的高度相比,导弹会损失更多的能量。

    • 使之字形转弯为导弹提供错误的引导-导弹试图“引导”目标,这意味着导弹会根据导弹的速度和目标飞机的速度来计算假想的撞击点。这将导致导弹多次急转,使其能量损失更快。

  3. 如果处于较低的高度,请尽可能紧紧地拥抱地面-地面杂波将使您很难被敌方雷达发现,并且经常低空飞行并跟随导弹,导弹会直接撞到地面或撞到一些地面杂波。

  4. 逃避导弹!(明智地,分裂-S机动) -如果您对面对敌人感到不是特别热情,或者不确定敌人的导弹特性,最好的选择就是逃避它!尽管如果您离得太近,它可能并不总是有效,并且由于其优越的运动学特性,导弹还是会抓住您。

    拆分-躲避导弹的机动-基本思想是进行浅潜并向后直行180度。这将做两件事-
    • 将导弹拖到更浓的空气中,然后进一步放慢速度,与此同时,您会因为失去高度而获得更多的动能。

    • 导弹将需要更多的动能来捕捉您,因为您正远离它。

分裂-S是空战中一种非常普遍但同样有效的机动。
  1. 使用电子对策(ECM) -将对策与上述动力学方法一起使用,可以更大程度地提高空空导弹的生存率
    ECM对抗跟踪您的雷达的基本思想是在您周围创建虚假的雷达目标,以使雷达
    的基本对策是“防护罩”,防护罩是由防御喷气机散布在空中的铝细发。敌人的雷达波将被漂浮在空中的铝细发束反射,从而形成错误的雷达目标。


    细铝毛的Chaff子弹



  2. 干扰/电子战-尽管电子战和干扰的话题是巨大而严密的,但我们将讨论一些基本的场景,即即使导弹在致命范围内发射(致命概率很高),有效干扰也能使雷达制导导弹无效。
    • 噪声干扰/弹幕干扰-涉及向敌方雷达/导弹发送相同频率的无线电波。这使敌方雷达接收器感到碰到,而无法从实际反射信号中识别出“虚假”反射信号。
      这种干扰通常对导弹雷达有效,因为它们主要是原始的脉冲多普勒雷达导引头。如果导弹被AESA雷达倾倒,那么干扰噪声的效率将大大降低。

    • 数字射频存储器(DRFM)干扰-一种非常复杂的干扰方法,包括处理对准的雷达信号并发回“假”反射,这样雷达将看到“假”目标,而不是像上面那样被阻止检测案子。
      DFRM干扰,尽管只有少数几个国家成功地掌握了该技术,但如果执行得当,则非常有效。创建的目标。

现在我们已经掌握了基本战术,让我们更深入地研究使用BVR导弹的某些特定战术,如果正确执行这些战术,则可以改变空战的结果。
  1. 通过“游说”直径范围来发射导弹-它涉及爬升到更薄的大气层(约10 km,36,000 ft),加力燃烧室以实现相当大的速度,并在30-40度左右发射导弹。鼻角。该方法利用两个因素来增加杀死概率:
    1. 向导弹分配更高的动能会增加其击杀概率。

    2. 自上而下的搜寻器可以看到目标飞机,视野更清晰,而敌机在自然障碍物后高空飞行的可能也较小。

  2. 杆F杆演习-这是一种进攻手段,又是一种防御手段防敌方BVR导弹向您袭来。
    它由以下多个步骤组成-
    • 通过加力燃烧器直奔敌人,以达到最大速度。

    • 当您认为敌人向您发射了BVR导弹时(通过RWR警告或视觉方式),向45度移动。 )。

    • 锐化90度。转向敌机,使您处于-45度。从您的初始飞行轨迹开始。同时,向敌人发射自己的BVR导弹。这种发射距离更近的导弹将具有更高的击杀概率。

      在最后一步,向您发射的敌方导弹将必须转弯更锐利的90度以上。

  3. 分裂-S循环-这既是进攻性也是防御性的动作,并且是当您与一个不孤单且对付具有BVR能力的多个敌人时使用的最常见的战术之一。这种策略可以确保您对敌人进行防御,同时保持对战场的态势感知,还可以对敌人采取可行的杀伤方案。
    这包括以下步骤-
    • 当您的机翼后方在您的背后几公里远时,您将正面朝敌。

    • 您锁定敌人,并向其发射BVR导弹,射程很远,从而导致躲避。

    • 在您身后的Wingman不断向敌方进军,并在敌机射程内时发射BVR导弹。温曼(Wingman)也在发射导弹进行防御后转一圈-S转弯。

    • 如果没有,您将进行伊梅尔曼转弯(垂直高度并返回),然后重复

      前面的步骤。这种机动有效,以至于在双方具有相似性的导弹参数和电子战能力的情况下,如果对方不执行这种机动,则执行该机动的一方将总是在对对方方面占上风。


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