India's Air Defense System and its Capabilities

Kunal Biswas

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Indian EL/M-2075 Phalcon AEW&C system





Phalcon uses the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA), an active phased array radar. This radar consists of an array transmit/receive (T/R) modules that allow a beam to be electronically steered, making a physically rotating rotodome unnecessary. AESA radars operate on a pseudorandom set of frequencies and also have very short scanning rates, which makes them difficult to detect and jam. Up to 100 targets can be tracked simultaneously to a range of 200 nmi (370 km), while at the same time, over a dozen air-to-air interception or air-to-ground attack can be guided. The radar can be mounted on the an aircraft's fuselage or on the top inside a small dome. Either position gives the radar 360 degree coverage. The phased array radar allows positions of aircraft on operator screens to be updated every 2-4 seconds, rather than every 20-40 seconds as is the case on the rotodome AWACS.
 

dineshchaturvedi

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Will LCA not come under same category after induction? Also how good are the bison's, I heard they are not having the same problems as other Mig21, is that right?
 

venkat

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Pardon me brothers .The posts about our AD are too crystal clear for the enemy to comprehend.eventhough they may be available open source,shall we have some restraint?
 

zolpidam

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I dont have much knowledge about this topic , but I know one thing there is long way to go . Keep it up . Jai hind
 

smartindian

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Pardon me brothers .The posts about our AD are too crystal clear for the enemy to comprehend.eventhough they may be available open source,shall we have some restraint?
this are all general information regarding of AD. nobody can access the classified information
 

bhramos

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this are all general information regarding of AD. nobody can access the classified information
Nothing is Impossible in India, Corruption Plays big game here..........
weather its Govt or Some of Army Officers........
 

Kunal Biswas

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Will LCA not come under same category after induction? Also how good are the bison's, I heard they are not having the same problems as other Mig21, is that right?
no basically bison are upgraded. can any one elaborate on its capability

LCA will be a very good interceptor, She can carry R-77 as well as Astra BVR..
MIG-21 bison can carry four R-77 BVR ( DATA given in previous posts )..

Improvents on the baseline Mig-21 to make the bison :

>multifunctional coherent Doppler-pulse airborne radar "Kopyo" with slot antenna
> onboard digital computer
>helmet-mounted target designato
>double screen (HUD and CRT) display system
>stores management system
>inertial navigation system
>air data computer system, digital
>short range radio navigation system
>onboard radio command receiving equipmen
> new flare dispenser (26 mm 120 rounds)
>new electric power supply system, controlling and recording system
>Sextant's TOTEM RLG-INS with NSS-100P GPS embedded GPS receivers
> El-Op HUD, infrared search and track system (IRST) from Russia's URALs optical-mechanical plant
>two Sextant MFD-55 LCD displays
>autopilot
>radar warning receivers (RWR)
>new liquid air cooling system
>HOTAS controls

It has a mix of French, Israeli, Indian and Russian aveonics equipment.(like the MKI). It is claimed that the fighters are equivalent to any 4th Generation fighter, with the ability to lock on to 8 different targets at once.

It's weaponry includes the not so commonly seen seeker module of the KAB-500Kr TV guided bomb, R-73and an R-77 BVRAAM carried underwing. The aircraft's sophisticated EW suite comprises of a DRDO Tarang RWR/RHAWS, "Tempest" internal Self-protection jammer (SPJ) and the conformal CMDS.

Other features include a SURA HMS, a semi-glass cockpit and a Sextant Totem-3000 Ring laser gyro nav. system with GPS, to mention a few. Note the conformal countermeasure dispensers, the new Tarang RWR's antennae on the tailfin and the single piece windshield.
and its being made more stealthier than ever before :









Mig-21 bisons are equipped with Koyopo-M X-band pulse Doppler radar....

Kopyo was the first private venture radar by Phazotron. Drawing on technology developed for the Zhuk radar, Phazotron produced Kopyo as a lighter, smaller radar suitable for equipping trainers and light attack aircraft as well as for upgrading older aircraft like the MiG-21. It uses both high PRF and medium PRF modes for optimum detection and tracking at all aspects. Kopyo weighs 120kg, occupies 250dm3, with a 500mm antenna that achieves 29dB gain. Tracking limits of the radar are ±40°. Kopyo has 2 recievers, and transmits with a peak power of 5kw, 1kw average. It uses an MPS data processor, and a TS175 digital computer. Its MTBF is 120 hours. Kopyo has an air-to-air track-while-scan ("SNP") mode, it tracks 10 targets, and engages 2 simultaneously. The simultaneous engagement capability has been demonstrated. It retains a single target track mode. Search range is 57km headon and 25 - 30 km pursuit, with a tracking range of 45km, against a 3 sq m RCS target. It has vertical scan, automatic HUD scan (+- 14°), optical (pilot selected target on HUD) and helmet close combat modes. Air-to-surface operating modes are comprehensive, something Phazotron only introduced in the current crop of radar designs. There are three mapping modes; low resolution (real beam); medium resolution (Doppler beam sharpening, 10:1); high resolution (synthetic aperture, 100:1). Allows detection of moving ground targets, sea surface search, map freezing and interfaces with the Kh-31A antiship missile for target handoff.

Air-to-air operating mode

1. Detection range (Ddet), km:

- against free airspace:
head-on >50
in pursuit >30
- against surface background:
head-on >50
in pursuit >25

2. Single target detection and tracking range 0.75 Ddet
3. Track-while-scan with simultaneous engagement of two targets
4. Air-to-air missile targeting and launch zone generation
5. Close air combat in the following modes of radar operation

- vertical
- collimating
- visual, with the helmet-mounted target designator used
- interfacing with the helmet-mounted target designator
- interfacing with the R-27, RVV-AE and R-73E missiles
- radar built-in test

Air-to-surface operating mode:

- mapping:
low resolution (real beam)
medium resolution (Doppler sharpening beam)
high resolution (synthetic aperture)
- interfacing with the Kh-31A antiship missile
- detection of moving ground targets




Regarding Engine its same as Mig-21Bis, hence only good spare parts and better maintenance can ensure good running fighter.........
 

smartindian

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can any one tell me, weather lca will carrying python-5 missile , because radar which is used at present is Israeli want .
 

smartindian

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Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) Akash Medium Altitude Surface-to-Air Missile System


Development
AKASH, developed as a part of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) initiated by India in 1983, is an all weather medium range surface to air missile system having a multi- directional, multi target area defence capability. The weapon can simultaneously engage several air targets in a fully autonomous mode of operations.

Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has fully realized and integrated Mark-I Version of Akash Weapon system. DRDL, Hyderabad has been responsible for system integration and missile development, LRDE Banglaore for radar development , R&DE Pune for launcher,CVRDE for Tracked Vehicles, ARDE for Warhead, and HEMRL for Propellants. Extensive tests of the Weapon system have proved the consistency of various sub systems of the flight and ground elements thereby confirming accuracy, robustness and reliability.

The flight and ground elements of the weapon system are integrated in a plug and fight architecture. The hardware and software integration of various weapon system elements permits autonomous management of air defence functions such as programmable surveillance, target detection, target acquisition, tracking, identification, threat evaluation, prioritization, assignment and engagement. The weapon system can simultaneously engage multiple air targets in a fully autonomous mode of operation.Command and control nodes, communication links, self propelled launchers and sensors are integrated to achieve these functionalities. The system is designed to enable integration with other air defence command and control networks through secure communication links. The system is also provided with advanced ECCM Features at various levels. The weapon system is cost effective relative to equivalent systems in the market. The weapon system has cross – country mobility and has air, road and rail deployability.

The first trial firings occurred in 1990, with the 10th test in September 1998. As of August 2006, the Akash system has been tested 16 times since January 2005, including two crossing targets taken with live warheads. Akash has multiple-targeting handling capacity, with digitally coded command guidance. Demonstration of simultaneous target intercept capability against two live aerial targets was successfully conducted in Nov 2005



Akash Air force launcher

AKash Launcher
Description

The Akash Weapon System architecture is based on a Group Headquarters and a number of batteries. The system is customized on tracked or wheeled chassis to provide area air defense against multifarious air treats to mobile, semi-mobile and static vulnerable forces and areas. The Akash air defence group sanitizes a large volume of air space over the combat zone. The system can be operated either in the autonomous mode or in the Group Mode. The Akash Group consists of surveillance radars, Control Centres, phased array tracking and missile guidance radars, launchers and ground support equipment.

Surveillance Sensor (3 D CAR) is capable of detecting and tracking aerial targets upto a range of 150kms and altitude of 18 kms. It provides coordinates in three dimensions of upto 200 targets to the Group Control Centre (GCC) through secure communication links. The data is used to cue the weapon control radar.

Control Centers at the group (GCC) and the battery (BCC) have ruggedised computers where real time air picture from various sensors is integrated and data is processed. Decision support software carries out threat

analysis and generates options for commanders. Automated target assignment and launch commands are generated for optional engagement in kill Zone.

C 4 I software specially designed to meet Indian defence requirements, provides fusion of air pictures from various sensors, automatic tracking of air targets, designation of track numbers to different targets, identification of friend or foe, automatic assignment of target to GW batteries, automatic selection of launcher and decision support system for commander for launch and control of missiles. This feature also drastically reduces the requirement of manpower for operation of the system as the complete operations from target detection to engagement are hands free. The advanced battle management software has been extensively field tested under realistic combat development conditions using multiple live targets. The system can also be integrated with legacy or futuristic radars and networks.

Multifunction phased array radar variants have been configured on BMP and T-72 based tracked vehicle. The tracking and missile guidance radar configuration consists of a slewable phased array antenna of more than 4000 elements, spectrally pure TWT transmitter, two stage superhetrodyne correlation receiver for three channels, high speed digital signal processor, real time management computer and a powerful radar data processor. The system has multiple target handling capability from any direction. Each radar can simultaneously engage four targets and guide eight missiles in ripple mode. The radar has advanced ECCM features.

Akash launcher carries three ready to fire Akash missiles. It is interfaced with BCC via line or radio, is fully automatic and remotely controllable, has a microprocessor controlled electromechanical servo system and is capable of checkout and auto launch of the missiles. It has its own built in GTE power source and can also be operated by DC power from housed DC batteries.

The surveillance radar, launcher and control centre have been configured on T-72 and low bed trailer (Wheeled) chassis. Significant customization to user requirements has been incorporated. Akash surface-to-air missile has a launch weight of 720kg, diameter 350mm and a length of 5.8m. Its integral Ram Rocket propulsion provides all the way thrusting to a range of 25-30 km with a velocity of 600-700m/s from 1.5 km onwards. The Ram jet system enables powered intercept, high maneuverability, much higher terminal velocities, high average speed, lesser reaction time, lower flight time and better engagements of receeder targets vis-à-vis boost coast type of missiles. It also has wider no escape zones. The digital autopilot and guidance system are microprocessor based.

The missile has all the way command guidance for full range of operation. The missile uses state-of-art integral ram jet rocket propulsion system and the onboard digital autopilot ensures syability and cintrol. Electro-pneumatic servo actuation system controls cruciform wings for quick response, and thermal batteries provide onboard power supply. The Radio Proximity Fuse has advanced signal processing features. Together with the prefragmented warhead and safety arming mechanism, a high kill probability of maneuvering targets flying upto 600m/s is achieved. The missile has number of safety and abort features ensuring its safe handling and operations. The missiles do not require any maintenance in the field as it is fully integrated in the factory.

Akash Ground Support system is designed for high reliability and maintainability. The system has built in diagnostics and checkout systems with card level fault diagnostics and field replacement. The system has built in simulator for operators training.
Status
The weapon system designs have been fine tuned through number of development tests. Extensive field trials of the system were conducted by the services (both Army & Air Force) to include mobility cum performance checks at Pokharan (Rajasthan),in realistic combat conditions in desert terrain, the complete group of Akash Weapon System was fielded and its mobility and functionality assessed. These trials have beencarried out on equipment mounted on modified T-72 chassis. The extensive field trials included post mobility performance assessment and metering of time of into and out of action which is critical for mobile air defence. The rigorous trials have established the ruggedness of various electronic and mechanical packages of the ground systems. Also the response of the Akash weapon system to various air threat scenarios has been assessed in detail. The tests have conclusively proved the combat worthiness of hardware and software integration of Akash weapon system. The immunity of Akash weapon system to electronic countermeasure environment was separately tested and proven at an Indian Air Force base.
 

smartindian

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A truism in many sports holds that offence gets headlines, but defence wins championships. Although it is only roughly analogous to sport, war and military technology exhibits the same skew in media coverage, as the evolution of India's strategic missile capability shows. Judging by recent test results, the second half of the equation may hold as well.

The defence doesn't rest: programmatic outperformance

Sandwiched between successful 2009 trials of the BrahMos cruise missile on 5 March and the Prithvi II nuclear-capable SRBM in mid-April, the 7 March test of an indigenous ABM missile was equally successful in terms of test objectives (although it received a fraction of the coverage, judging from Google hit statistics). Taken in programmatic context, however, the ABM test is much more impressive in three ways: success rate, development speed and technical challenge.

Success rate

So far India has gone three for three in ABM interceptor flight trials, each of which had a different test profile. In the first trial, a two-stage interceptor missile later named the Pradyumna incapacitated the target, an incoming Prithvi-II missile, at the upper edge of the stratosphere, 48km up. A year later, a single-stage missile developed under the advanced air defence (AAD) programme defeated another Prithvi-II 15km up (the altitude of many transcontinental plane flights). In the most recent test, another Pradyumna sporting improvements such as a gimballed directional warhead achieved an explosive kill of its target at an altitude of 75km, well into the mesosphere.

In contrast, the Prithvi SRBM itself failed three of its first six trials, and the newer Agni-III MRBM failed its first test. Failure rates of 50% in the first few tests of new weapons are neither unusual nor portents of ultimate futility, but this makes the Indian BMD track record even more impressive.

Development speed

India's Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) publicly revealed its BMD programme right after the first test in November 2006, less than three years ago.

At that time, Indian programme managers conceded that BMD research had been underway 'for years', but given that DRDO had tried diligently to make the Trishul SAM work in ABM mode for years, as well, the Pradyumna programme couldn't have been DRDO's primary initiative.[I was saying in another discussion that Trishul served as basic block for the other programme] In any event, ABM weapon testing could be completed by 2010 given current rates of progress, according to VK Saraswat, head of missile development at DRDO.

In contrast, DRDO has pursued offensive ballistic missile development since 1983, when it initiated the integrated guided missile development programme (IGMDP). Even now, according to one Indian commentator, the Agni-I is the only fully operational nuclear-capable ballistic missile in India's arsenal. Most of this protracted development cycle has consisted of post-testing production and field integration delays, which should quell undue optimism about the young BMD programme, but even so, both ABM interceptors are ahead of all previous IGMDP timetables.

Technical challenge

Judging technical difficulty of a mission by the number of nations that can execute it, BMD is the most challenging military task, as only the US and Russia have independently fielded fully indigenous BMD systems (the Israeli Arrow is a US-Israel joint venture). The anti-satellite task is actually second (US, Russia, and China), and long-range ballistic missiles currently run third, although this club seems to be in the process of doubling.

If any nation can benefit from BMD, it's India

Indeed, ballistic missile proliferation in Asia makes India's BMD programme even more significant in the long term than its offensive nuclear ballistic missile programmes.

First and foremost, the November 2008 Mumbai attack and the current spread of Taliban influence in Pakistan have raised the spectre of Pakistani missiles and/or nuclear warheads falling into the hands of terrorists, against whom traditional deterrence is at best uncertain.

Beyond the Pakistani threat, whether national or subnational, India's offensive ballistic missile programme lags behind that of its main regional rival, China. Although DRDO has improved its success rate for offensive tests recently, China has just as much momentum and occupies a more advanced position, especially in terms of long-range ICBMs either operational or in the pipeline.

BMD is therefore India's most likely countervailing asset in the foreseeable future. China's high-altitude SAMs can engage some ballistic missiles, but only to a 30km ceiling, and evidently China has no R&D effort comparable to India's BMD programme at this time. In this respect, China's ASAT capability doesn't really count, as ballistic missiles are to satellites as fighter aircraft are to armoured personnel carriers. Last but not least, India is significantly better than China at software development and programming, which are critical to BMD system effectiveness.

Finally, India itself lags in deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles, the most survivable leg of the nuclear triad. Should India's naval missile programme follow the same timetable as India's other strategic naval and missile programmes, a BMD capability could add significant survivability to India's nuclear deterrent.

Can failure breed success?

To be fair, India's offensive ballistic missiles don't deserve direct managerial comparison to the BMD programme. As noted previously, the BMD programme hasn't yet reached the point where Indian R&D usually derails; as Saraswat himself cautioned, deployment rates are 'not in [DRDO's] hands'.

More important, early failures pave the way to ultimate success: as Thomas Edison said in response to derision at the thousandth failure of the prototype light bulb: 'now we know a thousand ways that it won't work'. Current BMD development benefits from the advances and setbacks of IGMDP, which included the Akash and Prithul SAM projects as well as the Agni and Prithvi. In fact, the Pradyumna ABM was originally called the Prithvi air defence (PAD) missile because it used the generic Prithvi missile design. Conversely, the DRDO strenuously attempted to give the Prithul ABM capability before ultimately admitting failure.

However, other factors may underpin programmatic BMD outperformance. In no particular order:

The one way in which interceptor missiles are less complex than offensive ballistic missiles is that modern versions of the former don't carry nuclear warheads. [India doesnt have such problem, it can if needed very much augment Interceptor missiles warheads with N warhead, case in point is Akash]
The BMD was not developed under the auspices of IGMPD, suggesting that the latter may have been (or would become) too bureaucratic.
The BMD programme not only post-dated the IGMPD, but also probably started during, and quite possibly because of, the ramping up of Pakistan's missile capability. In this regard, the 1999 Kargil conflict occurred just a year after Pakistan detonated its first nuclear munition.
Is true danger the mother of efficiency?

There is in fact an exact historical precedent for the correlation of serious perceived threat and speedy weapons development: the first generation of US strategic nuclear missiles.

By 1952, nuclear warheads had become small enough to put on missiles, but the US missile programmes did not really kick into high gear until 1957, when the Sputnik launch, along with faster-than-expected Soviet development of its first ICBM (the SS-6), created fears of a Soviet-US 'missile gap'. Consequently, the USAF and USN made development of ICBM and SLBM systems their top priority, creating all-star teams of scientists and engineers with essentially unlimited resources.

The effect of concentrating talent, subordinating bureaucratic processes to a tight deadline, enabled by top-level political support and underpinned by strong psychological fear, produced results. A 1958 US catch-up plan called for full operational deployment of nine Atlas squadrons and four Titan squadrons by March 1963. By October 1961, the Strategic Air Command subsequently activated 13 Atlas and six Titan squadrons – 18 months early. The Polaris SLBM project was similarly successful: the first successful test launch was in 1960, just four years from project initiation, and IOC occurred in 1961.

"India's ballistic missile programme lags behind that of its main regional rival – China."In contrast, the second generation of US strategic nuclear weapons systems came in behind schedule, over budget, and arguably under promised capability – at a time when nuclear weapons had become much more survivable and effective in their deterrent role.

If past is prologue, then India's long record of military procurement frustration might be ending – at least in the strategic nuclear weapons space. Indeed, the DRDO is on a roll with its recent tests of offensive missiles; even the January 2009 BrahMos test failure was rectified within weeks.

In the end, the best military procurement principle may have come from essayist Samuel Johnson: 'nothing so wonderfully concentrates the mind as the prospect of hanging in the morning'

link:India?s Missiles Head up the Learning Curve - Air Force Technology

link:India's Missiles Head up the Learning Curve - Air Force Technology
 

smartindian

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spyder missile:
The SPYDER (Surface-to-air PYthon and DERby) is an anti-aircraft missile system developed by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems (with use of Czech Tatra chassis) and using surface-to-air versions of the Python 5 and Derby missiles, also made by Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. It is a quick reaction medium range missile system. SPYDER is capable of engaging aircraft, helicopters, unmanned air vehicles, drones and precision-guided munitions. It provides air defence for fixed assets and for point and area defence for mobile forces in combat areas.



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Indian Army's QR-SAM. The Times of India reports that India's Ministry of Defence has finally given the go-ahead for the army's INR 40 billion (about $820 million) Quick-Reaction SAM program. These mobile missiles would protect Indian maneuver elements like armored columns and troop concentrations, as well as important areas and installations. The Army seeks to equip 3 regiments with this contract, which is over twice the size of the IAF's 18 squadron purchase.



 

sayareakd

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Any news on when the PDV test is going to happen??
it appears that DRDO dont want to take any chance with the test of this new missile, that is why all this delay in the first test flight of PDV.

Lets wait for the test and let them make it successful median test flight. I want successful test therefore i am not in hurry i will give them some more time to have successes.:happy_2:
 

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