Akash is a good SAM, but it is still not induced also it have a major drawback!You forgot
The C4I centres are the nerve centres of the Akash group. The Group Control Centre (GCC) commands and controls four batteries. It is at the apex of the weapon system organization and interfaces with ground and airborne sensors. It establishes links with four Battery Control Centres and acts as the command and control headquarters of the Group. The GCC conducts air defense operations in a large area, in coordination with the overall air defense set-up in a zone of operations. It is based on a single mobile platform, which is self-sufficient in terms of power, communications and essential utilities for continuous operations.
The Battery Control Centre (BCC) is based on a tank vehicle for enhanced cross-country mobility. At one level, it functions as the junior partner of the GCC, while in its independent (autonomous) role, it is self-sufficient to conduct air defense operations of the Battery, in coordination with the overall air defense set-up in an area of operation. The BCC interfaces with the external C&R agencies and with a dedicated set of sensors and launchers.
3D Central Acquisition Radar (3D CAR )
The Akash Group comprises a set of surveillance radars, one at the Group HQ and the other as part of the Battery. The tracking –cum-guidance radar is only at the Battery level.
3D Central Acquisition Radar (3D CAR ) is a long-range surveillance sensor interfaced with the GCC. It provides azimuth, range and height of targets. It is capable of detecting ,tracking and processing more than 200 tracks
Battery Surveillance Radar (BSR)
The Battery Surveillance Radar (BSR) is a track vehicle based, long range sensor, interfaced with the BCC. It can detect and track upto 40 targets in range and azimuth.
Battery Level Radar (BLR)
The Battery Level Radar (BLR) is a phased array, multi-function sensor interfaced with the BCC. It acquires and tracks upto 20 targets in range, azimuth and height. Slewable and mobile, the BLR also tracks and guides upto eight missiles simultaneously towards the targets assigned by the BCC.
Army Self-Propelled Launcher (ASPL)
The Army Self-Propelled Launcher (ASPL) is a tracked vehicle carrier, which carries and launches three missiles in succession, if required. It is capable of remote operation from the BCC and needs minimum time for preparation. The launcher is 360 degrees slewable and its arc in elevation is from 6 to 60 degrees.
Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL)
The Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL) is configured on a trailer based mobile vehicle, which can deploy in three ways; the vehicle mode, the trailer mode and the stand-alone mode. It carries three ready to fire missiles and is capable of remote operation. 360 degree slewable, in elevation it can fire from 8 to 75 degrees in all directions depending on the mode of deployment.
The launch platforms are microprocessor driven and controlled through an electro-mechanical servo system. They have there own inbuilt gas turbine engine (GTE) driven power sources.
The Akash missile uses an Integral Ram Rocket (IRR) solid propulsion system, which gives it a very high-speed intercept range of 30km. The missile has an all-up weight of 720kg and a length of nearly 6m.The digital on-board command and guidance unit coupled with a highly responsive actuator system, makes the missile highly maneuverable upto 15g loads and a tail chase capability for end game engagement. A digital proximity fuze is coupled with a 55kg pre-fragmented warhead, while the safety arming and detonation mechanism enables a controlled detonation sequence. A self-destruct device is also integrated.bTo enable the Akash group to perform self-sufficient in the combat zone, a number of supporting specialist vehicles have been designed and developed. They are mobile and field-worthy. Their design is based on the role and task to be performed and the vehicles are accordingly allocated to the Group HQ, the Batteries, Assembly Line Area and the Field maintenance workshop.
Some of the vehicles are: the Missile Transportation Vehicle (MTV), the Transportation and Loading Vehicle (TLV), the Mobile Station for Missile Checkout (MSMC) Vehicle, the Air Compressor Vehicle (ACV), the Power Supply vehicles (GPSV, BPSV), the Engineering Support, Maintenance and Repair vehicles (GEM, BEM) and a few others. These specialist vehicles assemble and prepare missiles, deliver them to Batteries, carry maintenance spares and fuel, and provide logistical engineering support. Their allocation provides for flexibility and self-sufficiency to the whole Akash Group
The Akash Group is extremely flexible in employment and deployment. It is best employed as a Group. However, Batteries can be employed on independent tasks if required. This is called the Autonomous Mode.
The four Batteries can be deployed in various geometric formations, as suited to the vulnerable area being protected and the extent desired to be sanitized from enemy air threat.
Similarly, the Battery can deploy its launchers in a way as to be optimal for target engagement as the threat is perceived ab-initio or as it evolves during combat. Mobility enables quick redeployment and the sensors can be so positioned as to achieve the optimum kill zone.
The Akash Group and Batteries can protect static, semi-mobile as well as mobile assets. These may be critical national assets in the hinterland or large armour formations thrusting into the enemy territory.
The GCC and the BCCs must be deployed in a manner, which will provide a clear line of sight (LOS) to the batteries, which may be placed upto a maximum of 30km away from it. This requires the mast of the communication antenna to be raised to the required appropriate height.
The 3D CAR antenna vehicle must be placed keeping in mind the screening constraints. The antenna vehicle needs to be aligned accurately by knowing its position and orientation with respect to the north. This information is made available to the CAR computer from ALNS. Care has been taken to align the antenna with the mounting of the ALNS and the system has been calibrated. The leveling of the antenna needs to be accurate in order to avoid any tilt, which would introduce a bias.
The BSR is also provided with ALNS to measure its latitude, longitude and orientation with respect to true north. This information is required by both GCC and the computer of the BSR.
The BLR is also provided with ALNS to measure its latitude and longitude and orientation with respect to the true north. This information is required by GCC, BCC and BLR computers.
The ASPL is a mobile launch system for missiles. It is based on a tracked vehicle and carries three prepared missiles for launch. The equipment operates fully automatically and is remotely controlled by the BCC (Battery Control Center) which may be upto 500m away. Control is effected via radio or line links. ALNS system of ASPL is also connected to its computer.
Akash has an advanced automated functioning capability. The 3D CAR automatically starts tracking targets at a distance of around 150 km providing early warning to the system and operators. The target track information is transferred to GCC. GCC automatically classifies the target. BSR starts tracking targets around a range of 100km. This data is transferred to GCC. The GCC performs multi-radar tracking and carries out track correlation and data fusion. Target position information is sent to the BLR which uses this information to acquire the targets.
The BCC which can engage a target(s) from the selected list at the earliest point of time is assigned the target in real time by the GCC. The availability of missiles and the health of the missiles are also taken into consideration during this process. Fresh targets are assigned as and when intercepts with assigned targets are completed. A single shot kill probability of 88% has been achieved by the system taking into consideration various parameters of the sensors, guidance command, missile capabilities and kill zone computations.
There are a number of possibilities for deploying Akash weapon system in autonomous mode and in group mode for neutralizing the threat profiles with defined multi-target engagement scenarios. In the Group mode we can have number of configurations to defend vulnerable areas depending upon nature and expected threat pattern, characteristics of threat. Similarly, multiple batteries in autonomous mode can be deployed to defend vulnerable areas/points.
Each battery is placed such that the four BCCs effectively cover the corner of a box of side 62 km. Each battery is defended by the other two adjacent batteries and the GCC is well within the coverage of all the four batteries. Full 360-degree radar coverage can be obtained without slewing the tracking radar. This deployment pattern can defend an area of 62km x 62km.
Thanks to Dark Sorrow!Linear array configuration
All the BCCs are arranged in a straight line. GCC can be placed such that the distance between GCC and each BCC never exceeds more than 30km. This type of pattern can defend a coverage zone with maximum length in any direction. It covers an area of 98km x 44km. This deployment pattern can act as air defense support to large extended moving columns.
he placement of batteries is such that they are at the corner of a trapezoid. This pattern gives defense to the largest area as compared to any other pattern of deployment. This pattern can defend an area of size 5000 square km.
The Diamond and Semi-circles are other variations that can be adopted.
Within each Battery the launchers can be sited in various configurations. Thus the battery can also adopt the Box, the Linear, the Trapezoid or other geometries.
But it is in the process of being inducted,Akash is a good SAM, but it is still not inducted
Is it because they are passively guided ?also it have a major drawback!
if this is what you are talking about for your info that version is for IAFthey should do something for the truck mounted Akash i doubt its that mobile
What are the major modification on Akash2 when compare to Akash1..Kunal,
As aakash is our own missile we can modify that into what we want, scope of the upgrade is very high such as navigation system and all. Cheap alternate solution to Pechora
longer range............... had long chat with the guys.What are the major modification on Akash2 when compare to Akash1..
If both system have almost same range with minor changes to missle why give a new designation why not to say a upgrade to existing system ?
P-15 'Flatface' Radar of a SA-3, though its heavily use in mass for surveillance, The P-15 was designed to detect aircraft flying at low altitude, The P-15 uses two open frame elliptical parabolic antenna accomplishing both transmission and reception, each antenna being fed by a single antenna feed. The radar can rapidly shift its frequency to one of four pre-set frequencies to avoid active interference with passive interference being removed by a coherent doppler filter. Azimuth was determined by mechanical scanning with an associated accompanying PRV-11 (NATO reporting name "Side Net") used to determine elevation. A secondary radar for IFF is generally used in conjunction with the P-15,
Range 150 km
Altitude 3 km
Diameter 11 meters
Azimuth 360 degrees
Elevation 2-14 degrees
Precision 0.3 km range
Power 270 kW
It is a variant of INDRA radar for ground controlled interception of targets. The radar uses pulse compression for detection of low flying aircraft in heavy ground clutter with high range resolution and ECCM capabilities. The radar has been produced by Bharat Electronics Limited and is used by Indian Air Force and Army. Seven INDRA-IIs have been ordered by the Indian Air Force.
* Fully coherent system
* Frequency agility
* Pulse compression
* Advanced signal processing using MTD and CFAR Techniques
* Track while scan for 2-D tracking
* Full tracking capabilities for manoeuvering targets
* Multicolour PPI Raster Scan Display, presenting both MTI and Synthetic Video
* Integral IFF
* Ease of transportation and fast deployment
* Range up to 90 km (for small sized fighter aircraft)
* Height coverage 35m to 3000m subject to Radar horizon
* Probability of detection : 90% (Single scan)
* Probability of false alarm: 10E-6
* Track While Scan (TWS) for 2D tracking
* Capability to handle 200 tracks
* Association of primary and secondary targets
* Automatic target data transmission to a digital modem/networking of radars
* Deployment time of about 60 minutes
The ST-68 'Tin Shield' Radar equip mobile 'TRU's or Transportable Radar Units in the Indian Air Force. The ST-68/U is known by NATO as the 'Tin Shield' radar and has a maximum range of some 350 km with a peak power output of 1.23MW, operating in the S/E/F bands. It is optimised for the detection of low-flying aircraft and cruise missiles
PSM-33 Mk.2 have surveillance ranges of up to 317 (510km) with a peak power output of 660-700kW operating in the E/F bands and possess a very significant ECCM capability.
The backbone of the Indian Air Defence Ground Environment system is the huge THD-1955 3-D long-range surveillance radar that was once in widespread use in NATO. This radar, originally of French design, has been license produced in India for a number of years. This THD-1955 E/F-band radar, though somewhat elderly, still has sterling performance characteristics and is capable of maximum detection ranges of up to 1000 km, though the Indian Air Force usually limits its power to a 400km detection range.
Weight 175 kg (R-77), 226 kg (R-77M1)
Length 3.6 m (R-77)
Diameter 200 mm
Warhead 22 kg  HE, fragmenting
mechanism laser proximity fuze
Engine Solid fuel rocket motor (R-77), air-breathing ramjet (R-77M1)
Wingspan 350 mm
range Strongly varying according to source:
R-77:40 km (21.6 nm) - 50 km (27 nm)
R-77M1:60 km (32.4 nm) - 80 km (43.2 nm)
Flight altitude 5 m-25 km (16.5-82,000 ft)
Speed Mach 4.5 (R-77)
system Inertial with mid-course update and terminal active radar homing
* Crew: 2
* Length: 21.935 m (72.97 ft)
* Wingspan: 14.7 m (48.2 ft)
* Height: 6.36 m (20.85 ft)
* Wing area: 62.0 mÂ² (667 ftÂ²)
* Empty weight: 18,400 kg (40,565 lb)
* Loaded weight: 24,900 kg (54,895 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 38,800 kg (85,600 lb)
* Powerplant: 2Ã— Lyulka AL-31FP turbofans with thrust vectoring, 131 kN with afterburner (27,557 lbf) each
* Maximum speed: Mach 1.9 (2,120 km/h, 1,317 mph)
* Range: 3,000 km (1,620 nmi) at altitude; (1,270 km, 690 nmi near ground level; with no external fuel tanks)
* Endurance: 3.75 hrs (up to 10 hrs with in-flight refueling)
* Service ceiling: 17,300 m (56,800 ft)
* Rate of climb: >230 m/s (>45,275 ft/min)
* Wing loading: 401 kg/mÂ² (82.3 lb/ftÂ²)
* Thrust/weight: 1.0
* Guns: 1 Ã— GSh-30-1 gun (30 mm caliber, 150 rounds)
12 hardpoints: 2 Ã— wing-tip AAM launch rails, 6 Ã— pylons under-wing, 2 Ã— pylon under-engine nacelle, and 2 Ã— pylons in tandem in the "arch" between the engines. It can be increased to 14 using multiple ejector racks. It can carry up to 8 tonnes of external stores.
Air to Air Missiles:
* 10 Ã— R-77 (AA-12) active radar homing medium range AAM, 100 km
* 10 Ã— Astra missile active radar homing medium range AAM, 120 km
* 6 Ã— R-27P (AA-10C) semi-active radar guided, long range AAM 130 km
* 6 Ã— R-27P (AA-10D) Infrared homing extended range version, long range AAM 120 km
* 2 Ã— R-27R/AA-10A semi-active radar guided, medium range AAM,80 km
* 2 Ã— R-27T (AA-10B) infrared homing seeker, medium range AAM, 70 km
* 6 Ã— R-73 (AA-11) short range AAM, 30 km
* 3 Ã— Novator KS-172 AAM-L 400 km/Russian air-to-air missile designed as an "AWACS killer"
The MiG-21 Bison is the most advanced variant with further improved avionics incl MFDs, HOTAS, RWRs and R-77 BVR Capability. The Bison was built upon the MiG-21 Bis variant
* Crew: 1
* Length: 14.5 (with pitot) m (47 ft 6.86 in)
* Wingspan: 7.154 m (23 ft 5.66 in)
* Height: 4.125 m (13 ft 6.41 in)
* Wing area: 23.0 mÂ² (247.3 ftÂ²)
* Gross weight: 8,825 kg (19,425 lb)
* Powerplant: 1 Ã— Tumanskiy R25-300, 40.21 kN (9,040 lbf) thrust dry, 69.62 kN (15,650 lbf) with afterburner each
* Maximum speed: 2,350 km/h (1,468 mph)
* Maximum speed: Mach 1.9
* Range: (internal fuel) 1,210 km (751 miles)
* Service ceiling: 17,800 m (58,400 ft)
* Rate of climb: 225 m/s (44,280 ft/min)
* 1x internal 23 mm GSh-23 cannon, plus
* 2x R-27R1 or R-27T or 4x Vympel R-77 or 4x R-60M or R-73E AAM or
* 2x 500 kg (1,102 lbs) bombs
The MiG-29's good operational record prompted India to sign a deal with Russia in 2005—2006 to upgrade all of its MiG-29s for US$888 million. Under the deal, the Indian MiGs were modified to be capable of deploying the R-77RVV-AE (AA-12 'Adder') air-to-air missile, also known as the Amraamski. The missiles had been successfully tested in October 1998 and were integrated into IAF's MiG-29s.
* Crew: One
* Length: 17.37 m (57 ft)
* Wingspan: 11.4 m (37 ft 3 in)
* Height: 4.73 m (15 ft 6 in)
* Wing area: 38 mÂ² (409 ftÂ²)
* Empty weight: 11,000 kg (24,250 lb)
* Loaded weight: 16,800 kg (37,000 lb)
* Max takeoff weight: 21,000 kg (46,300 lb)
* Powerplant: 2Ã— Klimov RD-33 afterburning turbofans, 8,300 kgf (81.4 kN, 18,300 lbf) each
* Maximum speed: Mach 2.25 (2,400 km/h, 1,490 mph) At low altitude: Mach 1.25 (1,500 km/h, 930 mph)
* Range: 1,430 km (772 nmi, 888 mi) with maximum internal fuel
* Ferry range: 2,100 km (1,800 mi) with 1 drop tank
* Service ceiling: 18,013 m (59,100 ft)
* Rate of climb: initial 330 m/s average 109 m/s 0-6000 m (65,000 ft/min)
* Wing loading: 442 kg/mÂ² (90.5 lb/ftÂ²)
* Thrust/weight: 1.01
* 1 x 30 mm GSh-30-1 cannon with 150 rounds
* 7 Hard points: 6 x pylons under-wing, 1 x under fuselage
* Up to 3,500 kg (7,720 lb) of weapons including six air-to-air missiles — a mix of semi-active radar homing (SARH) and AA-8 "Aphid", AA-10 "Alamo", AA-11 "Archer", AA-12 "Adder", FAB 500-M62, FAB-1000, TN-100, ECM Pods, S-24, AS-12, AS-14
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