Akash Surface-to-air Missile

ppgj

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Rajendra is not a Hyderabad product. developed by LRDE,bengaluru based on FLYCATCHER! BEL is the production agency for it!!!
you are right. radar is from BEL bengaluru and missile from BDL hyderabad.
must be typo.
 

Rage

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Finally, Missile Akash joins the world-class league

Member Request: I'd like this thread to remain independent for a period of one week, before it is merged with the Akaash SAM System thread please.


07/11/2009


Finally, Missile Akash joins the world-class league


Hyderabad: India’s long-criticised Akash anti-aircraft missile is now blazing towards success. Its counterparts in the DRDO’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, the Prithvi and Agni ballistic missiles, were on target from the start; the anti-tank Nag missile will also enter service shortly; the Trishul short-range anti-aircraft missile was abandoned unceremoniously. Now, after years of rejection from the military, the Akash is being accepted as a world-class missile.




The IAF's order last year for two Akash squadrons -- dismissed by sceptics as a face-saving burial for the Akash programme -- has just been doubled with a fresh IAF order for 16 more launchers that will be stationed in northeast India. And now, Business Standard has accessed even better news for the Akash programme: the Indian Army is considering ordering several Akash squadrons for its ground forces.

The DRDO's Chief Controller for R&D, Prahlada, has confirmed that the army is displaying fresh interest in the Akash. Asked for details, Prahlada told Business Standard, "I cannot say whether the army is interested in the Akash for its strike corps, or for another role. In any case, the Akash is a mobile system that is suitable for various roles."


But protecting fast-moving tank columns from enemy fighters is what the Akash does best. For years the DRDO laboured to fit the entire Akash system -- including radars, missile launchers and command centres -- into T-72 tanks. This provided the Akash with the cross-country mobility to advance deep into enemy territory along with Indian Army strike corps, shooting down enemy fighters at ranges as far out as 25 kilometres.

Planned as a replacement for the army's obsolescent Russian SAM-6 Kvadrat, the heart of an Akash missile battery is the Hyderabad-developed Rajendra phased-array radar that tracks up to 64 enemy fighter aircraft simultaneously, in a radius of 60 kilometres. The mobile command centre selects up to four of the most threatening air targets, and two Akash missiles are fired at each from the T-72 based Akash launchers, which move alongside. The Rajendra radar continuously guides the missiles, eventually "flying" them smack into the enemy fighters.


Theoretically, a "ripple" of two Akash missiles has a 99 per cent chance of shooting down a modern fighter aircraft. Practically, however, in 9 live Akash trials so far, all 9 missiles that were fired hit their targets. Videos of the firing trials, witnessed by Business Standard, show the Akash missiles smashing their targets into tiny fragments at ranges beyond 20 kilometres.

The DRDO has taken 20 years to develop the cross-country mobile, tank-mounted version of the Akash missile system that the army is now interested in. Criticism of this delay has been vocal, but the DRDO counters by pointing to the quality of its product: the Akash, says the DRDO, is the only system of its kind available globally.


A top DRDO scientist at the missile complex in Hyderabad points out, "Western countries like France, which make missiles in the technological league of the Akash, don't mount the entire system on a tank, something that the Indian Army insists on. Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat."

The defence PSU, Bharat Electronics Limited, is the nodal production agency for the Akash missile system, supported by a broad consortium of Indian public and private sector manufacturers who contribute components and sub-systems. Bharat Dynamics Limited manufactures the solid-fuel, two-stage, ramjet Akash missile itself.

Source: Business Standard


Courtesy: Finally, Missile Akash joins the world-class league - 4 - *National News ? News ? MSN India
 

mattster

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can any DFI members please answer these questions.

1) Do the Akash missiles have any manuvering capability or does it just fly in a straight trajectory ??

2) If it does have any manuvering capability, then how does it work ?? Flaps on the wings, etc ??

2) Does the missile chase the plane as it tries to outmanuver the missile.

3) What type of targets did they use to test the missiles - UAVs ??
 

bengalraider

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It seems this is a actively guided missile in that vein , the radar communicates with the missile, if it is through radio waves is it not possible that in a war the enemy ELINT might block the communication between radar and missile
 

bengalraider

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can any DFI members please answer these questions.

1) Do the Akash missiles have any manuvering capability or does it just fly in a straight trajectory ??

2) If it does have any manuvering capability, then how does it work ?? Flaps on the wings, etc ??

2) Does the missile chase the plane as it tries to outmanuver the missile.

3) What type of targets did they use to test the missiles - UAVs ??
A 1) The akash missile does maneuver to chase it's target based on input from ground based radar, however the trajectory must be reasonable.

A2)
The missile has all the way command guidance for full range of operation. The missile uses state-of-art integral ram jet rocket propulsion system and the onboard digital autopilot ensures syability and cintrol. Electro-pneumatic servo actuation system controls cruciform wings for quick response, and thermal batteries provide onboard power supply.
Source: AKASH
see attached image for some of the control surfaces of akash

A 2)As akash has thrust for the entire length of flight(within range) it is possible for it to chase enemy aircraft that are within range.
From wikipedia
An on-board guidance system coupled with actuator system makes the missile manoeuvrable up to 15g loads and a tail chase capability for end game engagement.
A 3) India uses the Lakshya pilot less target aircraft for such testing
 

qilaotou

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Good for Indians! India needs more SAMs.

Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat
I would say Russian SAMs are still the best SAMs in the world.
 

Sridhar

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Saturday, 7 November 2009

Army warms up to indigenous Akash missile




Photos: the Akash missile on BMP-II and vehicle mountings. The newer version, being offered to the army, is mounted and fully integrated on T-72 tank chassis

by Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 7th Nov 09
DRDO Missile Complex, Hyderabad


India’s long-criticised Akash anti-aircraft missile is now blazing towards success. Its counterparts in the DRDO’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, the Prithvi and Agni ballistic missiles, were on target from the start; the anti-tank Nag missile will also enter service shortly; the Trishul short-range anti-aircraft missile was abandoned unceremoniously. Now, after years of rejection from the military, the Akash is being accepted as a world-class missile.


The IAF’s order last year for two Akash squadrons --- dismissed by sceptics as a face-saving burial for the Akash programme --- has just been doubled with a fresh IAF order for 16 more launchers that will be stationed in northeast India. And now, Business Standard has accessed even better news for the Akash programme: the Indian Army is considering ordering several Akash squadrons for its ground forces.


The DRDO’s Chief Controller for R&D, Dr Prahlada, has confirmed that the army is displaying fresh interest in the Akash. Asked for details, Dr Prahlada told Business Standard, “I cannot say whether the army is interested in the Akash for its strike corps, or for another role. In any case, the Akash is a mobile system that is suitable for various roles.”


But protecting fast-moving tank columns from enemy fighters is what the Akash does best. For years the DRDO laboured to fit the entire Akash system --- including radars, missile launchers and command centres --- into T-72 tanks. This provided the Akash with the cross-country mobility to advance deep into enemy territory along with Indian Army strike corps, shooting down enemy fighters at ranges as far out as 25 kilometers.


Planned as a replacement for the army’s obsolescent Russian SAM-6 Kvadrat, the heart of an Akash missile battery is the Hyderabad-developed Rajendra phased-array radar that tracks up to 64 enemy fighter aircraft simultaneously, in a radius of 60 kilometers. The mobile command centre selects up to four of the most threatening air targets, and two Akash missiles are fired at each from the T-72 based Akash launchers, which move alongside. The Rajendra radar continuously guides the missiles, eventually “flying” them smack into the enemy fighters.


Theoretically, a “ripple” of two Akash missiles has a 99% chance of shooting down a modern fighter aircraft. Practically, however, in 9 live Akash trials so far, all 9 missiles that were fired hit their targets. Videos of the firing trials, witnessed by Business Standard, show the Akash missiles smashing their targets into tiny fragments at ranges beyond 20 kilometers.


The DRDO has taken 20 years to develop the cross-country mobile, tank-mounted version of the Akash missile system that the army is now interested in. Criticism of this delay has been vocal, but the DRDO counters by pointing to the quality of its product: the Akash, says the DRDO, is the only system of its kind available globally.


A top DRDO scientist at the missile complex in Hyderabad points out, “Western countries like France, which make missiles in the technological league of the Akash, don’t mount the entire system on a tank, something that the Indian Army insists on. Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat.”


The defence PSU, Bharat Electronics Limited, is the nodal production agency for the Akash missile system, supported by a broad consortium of Indian public and private sector manufacturers who contribute components and sub-systems. Bharat Dynamics Limited manufactures the solid-fuel, two-stage, ramjet Akash missile itself.


Broadsword: Army warms up to indigenous Akash missile
 

Sridhar

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command guidance as implemented in the Akash is not necessarily a bad thing. Not only does it keep cost/missile down - important for any AF which has only so much of the most important asset, ie money, but it offers significant operational advantages as well. The two key advantages are that the enemy plane does not know when the missile has gone into its terminal dive, all it knows is that it has been locked by a ground based radar. Second, the Rajendra as the primary ground based sensor, is a high power fire control radar with specific ECCM features, and very difficult to jam by most fighters limited power self protection suite. Deception jamming et al wont work that well either. We know, for instance, that before the IAF placed the order for Akash, the missile system was trialled in Gwalior AFB electronic warfare range, where it successfully demonstrated it could perform against whatever the IAF could throw against it.
Clearly, this is a world class system since the IAF operates a range of sophisticated Israeli, French and Indian jamming equipment which would be used for any tests.

On the flip side, command guidance means that the missile is not fire and forget and makes the radar vulnerable to anti radiation missiles. But that is true for both command guided missiles and missiles which are track via missile, as in most of the patriot class missiles and S-3XX series missile systems available. Only the latest use active seekers and cost has ballooned. And if we see DRDO's programs in the ABM space and its aim to indigenize the Astra seeker, it seems clear that even an active RF seeker for the Akash or newer missiles may be available, if required.

Right now, the Akash can act as a very valuable SAM system for choke points, especially in the north east where missile range against low flying attackers is anyways limited by terrain ie valleys and the like, and 25km is certainly enough. And aircraft which are counting on terrain for a masked approach may face destruction on being suddenly confronted by well sited, camouflaged Akash batteries.

https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=8726844009873922462&postID=705644945523540735
 

nitesh

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AKASH

Box configuration

Each battery is placed such that the four BCCs effectively cover the corner of a box of side 62 km. Each battery is defended by the other two adjacent batteries and the GCC is well within the coverage of all the four batteries. Full 360-degree radar coverage can be obtained without slewing the tracking radar. This deployment pattern can defend an area of 62km x 62km.



Linear array configuration

All the BCCs are arranged in a straight line. GCC can be placed such that the distance between GCC and each BCC never exceeds more than 30km. This type of pattern can defend a coverage zone with maximum length in any direction. It covers an area of 98km x 44km. This deployment pattern can act as air defense support to large extended moving columns.




Trapezoidal configuration

The placement of batteries is such that they are at the corner of a trapezoid. This pattern gives defense to the largest area as compared to any other pattern of deployment. This pattern can defend an area of size 5000 square km.

The Diamond and Semi-circles are other variations that can be adopted.







 

Vladimir79

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the Akash, says the DRDO, is the only system of its kind available globally.


A top DRDO scientist at the missile complex in Hyderabad points out, “Western countries like France, which make missiles in the technological league of the Akash, don’t mount the entire system on a tank, something that the Indian Army insists on. Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat.”
Funny considering how similar it looks to the Kub series. I don't see how they think it is far inferior when the Grizzly is far superior. :sarcastic:
 

Daredevil

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Old but very significant and confusing news

Nuclear-capable Akash missile test fired

Agencies Posted: Dec 13, 2007 at 0000 hrs

Balasore, Orissa, December 13: On the heels of conducting trials of interceptor missiles, India revived its surface-to-air nuclear-capable Akash missile programme by carrying out its fresh test firing near Balasore.
The multi-target missile with a strike range of 25 kms and capable of carrying a nuclear warhead of 50kg was test fired from a mobile launcher, defence sources said.

The missile targeted a flying object using Pilotless Target Aircraft (PTA) "Lakshya" as support system, they said, adding the PTA was flown at 11.36 hrs and ‘Akash’ missile test-fired at around 11.55 am from the ITR.

For the next ten days, a series of test firings of the missile would be carried out to pave the way for its induction into the Indian Air Force.

IAF had not been satisfied by performance of the missile in earlier test firings and this had led to Government clearing a deal to procure ground-to-air missiles from Israel.

The trial was carried out to fine-tune the sophisticated missile, though Akash has undergone several tests earlier as part of the country's Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGPMD), sources said.

The Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) at Hyderabad, the nodal agency which designed the missile, has also approved its ‘flight consistency’, they said.

The 5.6-metre-long missile weighing about 700 kg uses an integral ‘Ramjet’ rocket propulsion system and has a low reaction time.
 

Rage

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And even more significantly....


India's Akash missile gets another order

Published: Nov. 12, 2009 at 11:00 AM

NEW DELHI, Nov. 12 (UPI) -- The Indian army is set to order an unspecified number of Akash anti-aircraft missiles to replace its aging Russian SAM-6 Kvadrat air defense missile system.

The missile system is for the T-72 main battle tank and has a Hyderabad-developed Rajendra phased-array radar capable of tracking up to 64 aircraft simultaneously over a radius of just under 40 miles. It can shoot down aircraft within 15 miles, according to Indian media reports.

The Akash is part of India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. Its main target will be use against attacks from unmanned combat aerial vehicles including Cruise missiles and aircraft.

The order is another win for the BEL consortium set up in January 2008 by two Indian public sector companies -- Bharat Dynamics Ltd and Bharat Electronics Ltd. -- and which included private-sector firms specifically to manufacture the medium-range Akash missiles.

BEL tied up with Larsen & Toubro, Tata Power, Walchand Industries and ECIL. But Bharat Dynamics is the actual manufacturer of the solid-fuel, two-stage, ramjet Akash missile.

BEL signed its first major order in January this year when the Indian air force placed an order for two squadrons of the missile, according to a report in the national newspaper The Hindu.

The newspaper also noted that the Indian air force had had performance reservations about the missile. Specifically, the air force wanted a smaller, lighter missile with a longer range and that was more maneuverable, according to The Hindu. The missile also does not have a seeker, but batch-by-batch improvements and enhancements are planned.

Analysts have said that one Akash missile has an 88 percent probability of kill. But two missiles fired five seconds apart raises this to 98.5 percent. The payload is reportedly around 140 pounds.

The Akash has been developed by the Defense Research and Development Laboratory, which will oversee the weapon system integration and provide support throughout the missile's 20-year lifecycle.

The missile is in the same class as the U.S. Patriot, Israel's Barak and the U.K. SAM system, the article said. It is around 19 feet long, weighs 1,550 pounds and travels at nearly 2,000 feet per second, according to India's Business Line newspaper.

The air force's missiles are being delivered over three years.

Development of an indigenous defense missile has taken around 20 years, and criticism of the project has been harsh at times because of this.

Similar criticism has been leveled at the Defense Research and Development Organization over development of the Arjun Tank, of which the army only recently agreed to take 124 examples to replace some of its older Russian-made T-90 tanks.

The Arjun has been 35 years in the making, and getting the first batch operational has been a battle in itself, lasting a decade, according to a report in the Hindustan Times newspaper last May.
India's Akash missile gets another order - UPI.com
 

Daredevil

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50kg nuclear warheads. Does India possess such capability?
Briefcase nukes are small, only the US and Russia have them.

Suitcase nuke - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
What is confusing is, why would we use nukes in such short ranges of 25 kms??. I have been pulling my hair from the moment I read the article.

I'm sure India might possess small nuclear war heads otherwise why would they test missile with that specific payload.
 

bengalraider

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The soviet union and the united states both deployed nuclear tipped surface to air missiles for defense against ballistic missiles maybe the AKASH is going the same way.
a few details on the same all info from wikipedia
Soviet nuclear tipped SAM's

A view of a Soviet ABM-1B Galosh anti-ballistic missile in transporter launcher canister being towed by MAZ-537.
ABM-1 Galosh[3] is a nuclear tipped surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile (ABM).[4] The Galosh is based on the A-35 ABM System using Grushin model A-350 missile.[5] The primary mission was to destroy U.S. Minuteman and Titan Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) targeting Moscow.
American nuclear SAM's

MIM-14 Nike-Hercules Surface to Air Missile
The missile also had an optional nuclear warhead to improve the probability of a kill. The W-31 warhead had four variants offering 2, 10, 20 and 30 kiloton yields. The 20 KT version was used in the Hercules system. At sites in the USA the missile almost exclusively carried a nuclear warhead. Sites in foreign nations typically had a mix of high explosive and nuclear warheads. The fire control of the Nike system was also improved with the Hercules and included a surface-to-surface mode which was successfully tested in Alaska. The mode change was accomplished by changing a single plug on the warhead from the "Safe Plug" to "Surface to Air" or "Surface to Surface".
 

K Factor

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The W31 was an American nuclear warhead used for two US missiles and as an atomic demolition munition. The W31 was produced from 1959, with the last versions phased out in 1989.

All versions were roughly the same dimensions and weight: 28 to 30 inches in diameter, 39 to 39.5 inches long, and weighing 900 to 945 pounds. The W31 is a boosted fission nuclear bomb.

~425-450kg.

Nowhere close to 50 kgs. And the Soviet missile is simply huge.

Now here's the interesting thing.

Nuclear artillery was both developed and deployed by a small group of nations, including the USA, USSR, France and India.
Nuclear artillery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

If we can fit one in an arty shell, its not impossible for us to do so on a SAM. :wink:
 

Sridhar

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Cross posting - post by Teer of key pub

The Akash IS a world class missile and this is from an evaluator who was actually witness to the trials at a seminar earlier this year.

The reasons:
-Akash specifications are actually understated - the 30 km range refers to the distance when Akash is actually maneuvering under active propulsion to engage a maneuvering target. It does not include the coast distance as an artificial maximum Rmax limit.
- Akash ECCM is world class. In tests, the FCR + Akash combo did exactly what it promised, namely counter ECM at tests in central India at an IAF base- the IAF by the way, operates a variety of DRFM equipped jammers. The Rajendra FCR also incorporates Track on Jam features.
- The main surveillance radar also incorporates a variety of ECCM features.
- In tests, the missile -radar system combo has been able to distinguish between and target closely aligned targets in an intense clutter environment, something which several of its worldwide peers have not been able to reliably demonstrate in tests.
-The entire system is very automated, the missile launch handoffs, the status checks, BITE - all exist, are functional and have been demonstrated repeatedly. The entire system feeds into a group grid which can keep track of around 200 high fidelity tracks and determine which battery should engage which priority threat, again available automatically. The system is very software intensive & offers the operators a range of options.
- The hardware is modern & built around a high degree of periodic technology insertion. Unlike legacy and even current gen systems from the erstwhile SU, which have a bewildering mix of legacy and modern COTS gear, the entire Akash system is built around modern, digital architecture. Not only does it make lifecycle support that much easier, it also allows for periodic upgrades.

There are several more advantages to the Akash, but let this be the starter..

SOC, about Akash versus Buk et al, I'm afraid for various reasons, I'd rather not get into details, but what the relevant authorities have said, about the Akash being superior (note: in some criteria, not all) - is actually dead to rights. What India has often discovered (a bit too late) is what is on offer on paper, in brochures, is not what it is, in reality. Where the difference is most apparent, is in the last point of my post.
Its not just that, its about customization. Whenever the IAF/IA usually purchase, they buy a system, they learn about it, and adopt tactics to match. Rarely has it been that they got a system that met their requirements to begin with. But the Akash actually does that.

-The IAF was unhappy with the limited functionality of the 2D surveillance part of its Pechoras, and the limited FC functionality of off the shelf imports with TELs : The DRDO developed a FCR with multiple functions - surveillance, tracking and guidance. ECCM and MF needs meant a phased array radar.

- They wanted long range surveillance as the investment in SAMs was to also cover up surveillance gaps in the sectors, without buying additional radars. Ergo, the 3D CAR with 150 km+ range.

- Wanted full C3I capability within the system itself, without time consuming and complex "handshake" interfaces to third party C3I systems - basically, the system had to be self contained and capable of being put up anywhere, anytime. Again, achieved.

- Had to be transportable and mobile across the board - as compared to legacy Pechoras which have semi-fixed missile units. For the Akash, the DRDO team developed trailers with missile batteries, and tracked FCR.

- Survivability concerns - protect the manpower. Each radar can be operated from a distance. Again, automation reduces the amount of manpower involvement both at the battery & group level.

- Missile cost had to be kept low: Akash relies on a command guidance system with the complexity transferred to the radar & C3I system to ensure high Pk. Again verified thoroughly by intensive tests.

The point is that the Akash system came about because of a group of competing requirements which are unique to Indian needs. It is this group of capabilities which makes Akash superior to what is on offer, as in this case, the IAF gets a system which can be kept viable to its needs and they dont keep having to adopt to what "is available from OEM".

As another case in point: take a look at the Rajendra FCR evolution, it has crossed many design changes which would, in many OEMs be classified as new systems in their own right. The latest version, the T-72 based one, is the most powerful yet & nor will it be the last.

The next series of radars on the way are AESA - these are intended to be fully "open radars" - ie multiple functions but decoupled from any particular weapons system. This family of systems will allow DRDO to have the basic building blocks for any IAF requirement - ie add missiles & C3I & you have a SAM system, add C3I and you have a sensor network etc.

Again, a very different approach from what is available on the worldwide market from some OEMs, who prefer to offer entire system packages which may not necessarily meet Indian requirements. Being a developing country, multi-functionality is big here, and also the savage criticism when any project is even (by western standards) marginally over budget or does not deliver the moon.
The brochure specifications of various missiles include a coasting range whereas the Akash range is for *only* powered flight throughout.

Which is why saying x missile has 10 km more range than the Akash etc is sort of meaningless.

The person in regard - again, not from the development side, actually scoffed when a well publicized system was named on grounds of greater range, saying that "printed claims" were not reliable unless verified.

Similarly, the Akash team has been very upfront about what it has and does not have, the IAF knows exactly what the status of what it can and cannot do and have and will continue to ask for additions, thats part of the deal.

The point made was this level of transparency and IAF deciding what is the trial capability is often not available for third party systems whose weapon trials occur in heavily scripted conditions with very limited IAF involvement.
Let alone upgrades even when newer tech becomes available. The IAF got so fed up of arm twisting over some legacy OEM gear costs re: upgrades for maintainability, that it actually did them on its own & got Bangalore & Hyderabad based firms to develop customized ATE that reduced MMH by a significant amount.

By the way, about the Akash & the Army...

Guess what cleared trials recently? The brand new 3D TCR - Tactical Control Radar, which is the Army customized variant - of the Akash's 3D CAR.

Along with that, the Akash trials for the AF used the Rajendra-III FCR, developed on a T-72 chassis..
Also, keep track of the massive orders for the Akash derived systems

IAF has ordered no less than 37 Rohini radars and eight Rajendras. Initial orders were for 7 Rohinis, once they trialled them, IAF asked for 30 more.

Army has indented for 28 weapon locating radars (rajendra derived).

Navy has ordered 2 revathi radars and will order more for its follow on ships.

The 3D TCR (another 3D CAR derivative) has just cleared trials, and is poised for orders.

Net, the Akash is one of DRDO's biggest breakthrough's - for it has met requirements in "adjacent markets" for radars across all three services, apart from the baseline SAM itself.
The TELAR radar is not multifunctional afaik, and has limited scanning volume as well, its primary role is to provide fire control for its missiles. Also, its ECCM features will be limited given the limited aperture and power capability plus space constraints on the vehicle with associated missiles as well. The Russians went for mobility and traded radar capability for survivability (ie lose the TELAR we have x more) we went for a different set of objectives.

About which missiles the TCR tracks, I'd rather not speculate at this point, but the Army is interested in theater protection systems which will come with their own dedicated surveillance sensors. The 3D TCR could however theoretically detect and track SBMs if not the faster IRBMs. This would assist the Army a lot, in any conflict if it gets advance impact warning.
The TELAR config does have advantages, they are more survivable and mission planning becomes a pain when dealing with so many emitters. But its also expensive, maintenance heavy, and if your main long range sensor/s get/s knocked out, your TELAR effectiveness diminishes.

In contrast our approach with the Akash was to develop the FCR as a substitute for the 3D CAR if it was - for whatever reason - not available, and also save on cost/battery by developing a one radar does all, approach.

When the Akash was first devised, the IAF was very keen that it get a system it could deploy without busting its bank - after all, the Pechoras etc we got were dirt cheap at friendship prices and replacing them was a daunting prospect. However, adding complexity to the Rajendra upped the price - its not cheap by any means and you can buy many top class flats in a metro at the price. However, it still works out much cheaper that multiple TELAR, plus it has more capability. The vulnerability is of course that the battery of 4 launchers is dependent on the Rajendra but thats a trade off which one gets.

About why North East, well because historically, we've never really bothered about the PRCs air force over the 80-90's, but now things have changed. Training, equipment, doctrine were deemed "not such a great threat" as far as the IAF eval was concerned. But now at least the equipment part has definitely changed with the Flanker acquisition and the development of long range cruise missiles being the primary threats.

Now as far as aircraft go, with a 25Km+ range, the Akash is well suited for deployment in camouflaged, well sited (keeping terrain in mind) in the North East around those areas with terrain masking which strike aircraft can use to get to the AFB via low flying. While doing that, at 0.6M, and a full warload, an Akash heading your way can make one's life very interesting. Even if the plane jinks and drops its load to escape, thats a mission kill right there.

Against missiles, the Akash can be equally effective provided it gets long range cueing in advance, which of course depends on the terrain and whether Aerostats and/or AWACS are available.
Bharani is a 2D radar for the Army Air Defence.

Aslesha is a 3D radar for the Indian Air Force for mountain ops, it will be used to look down into valleys.

Both are lightweight systems, and can be broken down into containers (slightly larger than a large suitcase) and transported to remote areas. Set up time is very less.

Both systems are on the cusp of series production and have already been trialled extensively.

Both utilize sub-systems from private sector partners who were first tapped for the BFSR-SR (Battlefield surveillance radar short range), with over 1100 produced over the past few years.

Both radars are also network capable and have LPI features by intentional design.

Based on trials so far, the IA has already ordered the Bharani & the IAF has indented for a number of Aslesha.

The Indian Navy is now looking at Aslesha, which with stabilization and some additional modes, will be a very useful addition for their small ships.

The Aslesha also gives India the capability, once Astra is completed over the next few years, to field a system like the Derby component of the SpyDer.
 

blade

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DRDO's success in making Akash SAM is often downgraded by mentioning its similarity with vintage russian (growler) SA 6. Rather than going very deep into the technical details we will try to undertsand the truth based on a sheer performance based comparison.

1. SA - 6 single shot kill probability 70% compared to AKASH's 88%. Is there any other instance where a considerably similiar SAM system with upgraded radar and eectronics
pakage can manage to enhance the kill accury by 18%? Strangely no one talks about this ?
Achieving anti cruise missile capability is a genarational change and no cup of tea for a upgradation pakage how ever smart it may be. Ad systems of class of Akash , patriot
come under extream technologies due to the degree of high complexity involved in the
business. When an AD system is asked to make a direct hit aginst a small speedy object like DRDO lakshya flying at a speed of .6 to .7 mach it needs an enormous number of achievements to be made. Even S 300 MLU's accuracy comes within a range of .77 to .81 , which is considerably less compared to the initial batches of Akash system.
in the field of computation, rapid data processing , radar technology , fluid mechanics , electronics etc. Accuracy of an AD system is a very complicated function of the speed and RCS of the target.

2. Its again argued that when Russia in order to develope a more power SAM disposed off the concept of ramjet and used Solid booster to power SA 11 then why did DRDO stuck to
its initial requirement of ramjet engine to power the Akash SAM?

Now lets look around a bit. The PAC I/II both used solid boosters for their SAM's but finally they had to get back to the use of ramjet for their PAC III system. The secret behind this fact is the absence of necessory peripheral , guidence , data processing system of the present class that is required to make a Ramjet driven missile a threat to the modern fighter & cruise/ ballastic missiles. The solid booster driver missiles run at slower pace in the initial phase then coast with much higher speed and thereby demand for a much higher G manuever and top speed. This leaves them with little or no chance of recovery once the target goes of the mark. As during early days the data collection and processing system or the radars were not accurate enough to detect a fighter like object
(without much fuzzyness, as even very old radars can hav same range as modern radars if its just about detection but a detection worth fire controlling is a vasly new genaration subject where electromagnetic fuzzyness of the radar is considerably reduced giving a much more realistic cotour of the target.) based on which a missile can be fired. So the need for a semi active seeker was realized. When defence techs made significant progess in these mentioned areas it was understood that a ram jet propelled missile will have far greater chance of interception because of its on flight guidence provided by highly attenuated active radar beams. Due to this high attenuation of the EM waves the fuzzyness of the target is drastically reduced to almost 0 and hence increases the tgt RCS assesment like never before. Once the missile is fired its guided through the course of action till it bangs the target and thus reduced the extreame need for very high G manuevers.

3. Artifical intelligence has made significant progress in the last couple of decated which has made a very serious impact on high complexity weapon systems which is suppose to performe under a crowd of different threats. Akash has significant capability to judge the threat perceptions and choose the most effective counter measure based on this AI enabled softwares. So Just because another SAM system has 25 to 35 km dosnt mean they are comparable to Akash. In BR forum some members are even questioning the need of MR SAM of 70km range as such missiles are already well into service with other nations but then why do we need a short range quick reaction SAM after all when we have a Akash ? Indo Israeli MR SAM is far more than just about a 70Km sam. It will be an eexteamly AI capable missile which will perhaps be able to tackle MIRV ballastic missiles. So we must try to undertsand that accuracy is the name of the game and if were to go just by the distance travelled by a missiles then the saturation in ballastic science must have taken place long back with SS 18 & MX 18 ICBMs.

3. SA 6 at its best was an isolated or very very poorly connected SAM which was powered by a next genation ramjet engine.It had insignificant ECCM capability. These days we dont make just a rocket like missile which can be kept in a bottle and lit up from below. Its a large system with thousands of components meticulously conceived and designed to complement each other in a very very intelligent way puting very less demand on human judgement , effeciancy & presence of mind. Hence a very high degree of security was required to protect the brain of Akash SAM. Which was achieved with flying colours. During the several tests one thing thats was heavily praised about Akash was its ECCM capability. It exhibited a very rugged, electronically insulated Conmand & Control system which takes this system far ahead of other systems with 25 to 35 km range.
 

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