- Aug 13, 2009
A 1) The akash missile does maneuver to chase it's target based on input from ground based radar, however the trajectory must be reasonable.can any DFI members please answer these questions.
1) Do the Akash missiles have any manuvering capability or does it just fly in a straight trajectory ??
2) If it does have any manuvering capability, then how does it work ?? Flaps on the wings, etc ??
2) Does the missile chase the plane as it tries to outmanuver the missile.
3) What type of targets did they use to test the missiles - UAVs ??
Source: AKASHThe missile has all the way command guidance for full range of operation. The missile uses state-of-art integral ram jet rocket propulsion system and the onboard digital autopilot ensures syability and cintrol. Electro-pneumatic servo actuation system controls cruciform wings for quick response, and thermal batteries provide onboard power supply.
A 3) India uses the Lakshya pilot less target aircraft for such testingAn on-board guidance system coupled with actuator system makes the missile manoeuvrable up to 15g loads and a tail chase capability for end game engagement.
I would say Russian SAMs are still the best SAMs in the world.Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat
Funny considering how similar it looks to the Kub series. I don't see how they think it is far inferior when the Grizzly is far superior.the Akash, says the DRDO, is the only system of its kind available globally.
A top DRDO scientist at the missile complex in Hyderabad points out, “Western countries like France, which make missiles in the technological league of the Akash, don’t mount the entire system on a tank, something that the Indian Army insists on. Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat.”
Nuclear-capable Akash missile test fired
Agencies Posted: Dec 13, 2007 at 0000 hrs
Balasore, Orissa, December 13: On the heels of conducting trials of interceptor missiles, India revived its surface-to-air nuclear-capable Akash missile programme by carrying out its fresh test firing near Balasore.
The multi-target missile with a strike range of 25 kms and capable of carrying a nuclear warhead of 50kg was test fired from a mobile launcher, defence sources said.
The missile targeted a flying object using Pilotless Target Aircraft (PTA) "Lakshya" as support system, they said, adding the PTA was flown at 11.36 hrs and ‘Akash’ missile test-fired at around 11.55 am from the ITR.
For the next ten days, a series of test firings of the missile would be carried out to pave the way for its induction into the Indian Air Force.
IAF had not been satisfied by performance of the missile in earlier test firings and this had led to Government clearing a deal to procure ground-to-air missiles from Israel.
The trial was carried out to fine-tune the sophisticated missile, though Akash has undergone several tests earlier as part of the country's Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGPMD), sources said.
The Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL) at Hyderabad, the nodal agency which designed the missile, has also approved its ‘flight consistency’, they said.
The 5.6-metre-long missile weighing about 700 kg uses an integral ‘Ramjet’ rocket propulsion system and has a low reaction time.
India's Akash missile gets another order - UPI.comNEW DELHI, Nov. 12 (UPI) -- The Indian army is set to order an unspecified number of Akash anti-aircraft missiles to replace its aging Russian SAM-6 Kvadrat air defense missile system.
The missile system is for the T-72 main battle tank and has a Hyderabad-developed Rajendra phased-array radar capable of tracking up to 64 aircraft simultaneously over a radius of just under 40 miles. It can shoot down aircraft within 15 miles, according to Indian media reports.
The Akash is part of India's Integrated Guided Missile Development Program. Its main target will be use against attacks from unmanned combat aerial vehicles including Cruise missiles and aircraft.
The order is another win for the BEL consortium set up in January 2008 by two Indian public sector companies -- Bharat Dynamics Ltd and Bharat Electronics Ltd. -- and which included private-sector firms specifically to manufacture the medium-range Akash missiles.
BEL tied up with Larsen & Toubro, Tata Power, Walchand Industries and ECIL. But Bharat Dynamics is the actual manufacturer of the solid-fuel, two-stage, ramjet Akash missile.
BEL signed its first major order in January this year when the Indian air force placed an order for two squadrons of the missile, according to a report in the national newspaper The Hindu.
The newspaper also noted that the Indian air force had had performance reservations about the missile. Specifically, the air force wanted a smaller, lighter missile with a longer range and that was more maneuverable, according to The Hindu. The missile also does not have a seeker, but batch-by-batch improvements and enhancements are planned.
Analysts have said that one Akash missile has an 88 percent probability of kill. But two missiles fired five seconds apart raises this to 98.5 percent. The payload is reportedly around 140 pounds.
The Akash has been developed by the Defense Research and Development Laboratory, which will oversee the weapon system integration and provide support throughout the missile's 20-year lifecycle.
The missile is in the same class as the U.S. Patriot, Israel's Barak and the U.K. SAM system, the article said. It is around 19 feet long, weighs 1,550 pounds and travels at nearly 2,000 feet per second, according to India's Business Line newspaper.
The air force's missiles are being delivered over three years.
Development of an indigenous defense missile has taken around 20 years, and criticism of the project has been harsh at times because of this.
Similar criticism has been leveled at the Defense Research and Development Organization over development of the Arjun Tank, of which the army only recently agreed to take 124 examples to replace some of its older Russian-made T-90 tanks.
The Arjun has been 35 years in the making, and getting the first batch operational has been a battle in itself, lasting a decade, according to a report in the Hindustan Times newspaper last May.
What is confusing is, why would we use nukes in such short ranges of 25 kms??. I have been pulling my hair from the moment I read the article.
American nuclear SAM'sABM-1 Galosh is a nuclear tipped surface-to-air anti-ballistic missile (ABM). The Galosh is based on the A-35 ABM System using Grushin model A-350 missile. The primary mission was to destroy U.S. Minuteman and Titan Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBMs) targeting Moscow.
The missile also had an optional nuclear warhead to improve the probability of a kill. The W-31 warhead had four variants offering 2, 10, 20 and 30 kiloton yields. The 20 KT version was used in the Hercules system. At sites in the USA the missile almost exclusively carried a nuclear warhead. Sites in foreign nations typically had a mix of high explosive and nuclear warheads. The fire control of the Nike system was also improved with the Hercules and included a surface-to-surface mode which was successfully tested in Alaska. The mode change was accomplished by changing a single plug on the warhead from the "Safe Plug" to "Surface to Air" or "Surface to Surface".
Nuclear artillery - Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaNuclear artillery was both developed and deployed by a small group of nations, including the USA, USSR, France and India.
The Akash IS a world class missile and this is from an evaluator who was actually witness to the trials at a seminar earlier this year.
-Akash specifications are actually understated - the 30 km range refers to the distance when Akash is actually maneuvering under active propulsion to engage a maneuvering target. It does not include the coast distance as an artificial maximum Rmax limit.
- Akash ECCM is world class. In tests, the FCR + Akash combo did exactly what it promised, namely counter ECM at tests in central India at an IAF base- the IAF by the way, operates a variety of DRFM equipped jammers. The Rajendra FCR also incorporates Track on Jam features.
- The main surveillance radar also incorporates a variety of ECCM features.
- In tests, the missile -radar system combo has been able to distinguish between and target closely aligned targets in an intense clutter environment, something which several of its worldwide peers have not been able to reliably demonstrate in tests.
-The entire system is very automated, the missile launch handoffs, the status checks, BITE - all exist, are functional and have been demonstrated repeatedly. The entire system feeds into a group grid which can keep track of around 200 high fidelity tracks and determine which battery should engage which priority threat, again available automatically. The system is very software intensive & offers the operators a range of options.
- The hardware is modern & built around a high degree of periodic technology insertion. Unlike legacy and even current gen systems from the erstwhile SU, which have a bewildering mix of legacy and modern COTS gear, the entire Akash system is built around modern, digital architecture. Not only does it make lifecycle support that much easier, it also allows for periodic upgrades.
There are several more advantages to the Akash, but let this be the starter..
SOC, about Akash versus Buk et al, I'm afraid for various reasons, I'd rather not get into details, but what the relevant authorities have said, about the Akash being superior (note: in some criteria, not all) - is actually dead to rights. What India has often discovered (a bit too late) is what is on offer on paper, in brochures, is not what it is, in reality. Where the difference is most apparent, is in the last point of my post.
Its not just that, its about customization. Whenever the IAF/IA usually purchase, they buy a system, they learn about it, and adopt tactics to match. Rarely has it been that they got a system that met their requirements to begin with. But the Akash actually does that.
-The IAF was unhappy with the limited functionality of the 2D surveillance part of its Pechoras, and the limited FC functionality of off the shelf imports with TELs : The DRDO developed a FCR with multiple functions - surveillance, tracking and guidance. ECCM and MF needs meant a phased array radar.
- They wanted long range surveillance as the investment in SAMs was to also cover up surveillance gaps in the sectors, without buying additional radars. Ergo, the 3D CAR with 150 km+ range.
- Wanted full C3I capability within the system itself, without time consuming and complex "handshake" interfaces to third party C3I systems - basically, the system had to be self contained and capable of being put up anywhere, anytime. Again, achieved.
- Had to be transportable and mobile across the board - as compared to legacy Pechoras which have semi-fixed missile units. For the Akash, the DRDO team developed trailers with missile batteries, and tracked FCR.
- Survivability concerns - protect the manpower. Each radar can be operated from a distance. Again, automation reduces the amount of manpower involvement both at the battery & group level.
- Missile cost had to be kept low: Akash relies on a command guidance system with the complexity transferred to the radar & C3I system to ensure high Pk. Again verified thoroughly by intensive tests.
The point is that the Akash system came about because of a group of competing requirements which are unique to Indian needs. It is this group of capabilities which makes Akash superior to what is on offer, as in this case, the IAF gets a system which can be kept viable to its needs and they dont keep having to adopt to what "is available from OEM".
As another case in point: take a look at the Rajendra FCR evolution, it has crossed many design changes which would, in many OEMs be classified as new systems in their own right. The latest version, the T-72 based one, is the most powerful yet & nor will it be the last.
The next series of radars on the way are AESA - these are intended to be fully "open radars" - ie multiple functions but decoupled from any particular weapons system. This family of systems will allow DRDO to have the basic building blocks for any IAF requirement - ie add missiles & C3I & you have a SAM system, add C3I and you have a sensor network etc.
Again, a very different approach from what is available on the worldwide market from some OEMs, who prefer to offer entire system packages which may not necessarily meet Indian requirements. Being a developing country, multi-functionality is big here, and also the savage criticism when any project is even (by western standards) marginally over budget or does not deliver the moon.
The brochure specifications of various missiles include a coasting range whereas the Akash range is for *only* powered flight throughout.
Which is why saying x missile has 10 km more range than the Akash etc is sort of meaningless.
The person in regard - again, not from the development side, actually scoffed when a well publicized system was named on grounds of greater range, saying that "printed claims" were not reliable unless verified.
Similarly, the Akash team has been very upfront about what it has and does not have, the IAF knows exactly what the status of what it can and cannot do and have and will continue to ask for additions, thats part of the deal.
The point made was this level of transparency and IAF deciding what is the trial capability is often not available for third party systems whose weapon trials occur in heavily scripted conditions with very limited IAF involvement.
Let alone upgrades even when newer tech becomes available. The IAF got so fed up of arm twisting over some legacy OEM gear costs re: upgrades for maintainability, that it actually did them on its own & got Bangalore & Hyderabad based firms to develop customized ATE that reduced MMH by a significant amount.
By the way, about the Akash & the Army...
Guess what cleared trials recently? The brand new 3D TCR - Tactical Control Radar, which is the Army customized variant - of the Akash's 3D CAR.
Along with that, the Akash trials for the AF used the Rajendra-III FCR, developed on a T-72 chassis..
Also, keep track of the massive orders for the Akash derived systems
IAF has ordered no less than 37 Rohini radars and eight Rajendras. Initial orders were for 7 Rohinis, once they trialled them, IAF asked for 30 more.
Army has indented for 28 weapon locating radars (rajendra derived).
Navy has ordered 2 revathi radars and will order more for its follow on ships.
The 3D TCR (another 3D CAR derivative) has just cleared trials, and is poised for orders.
Net, the Akash is one of DRDO's biggest breakthrough's - for it has met requirements in "adjacent markets" for radars across all three services, apart from the baseline SAM itself.
The TELAR radar is not multifunctional afaik, and has limited scanning volume as well, its primary role is to provide fire control for its missiles. Also, its ECCM features will be limited given the limited aperture and power capability plus space constraints on the vehicle with associated missiles as well. The Russians went for mobility and traded radar capability for survivability (ie lose the TELAR we have x more) we went for a different set of objectives.
About which missiles the TCR tracks, I'd rather not speculate at this point, but the Army is interested in theater protection systems which will come with their own dedicated surveillance sensors. The 3D TCR could however theoretically detect and track SBMs if not the faster IRBMs. This would assist the Army a lot, in any conflict if it gets advance impact warning.
The TELAR config does have advantages, they are more survivable and mission planning becomes a pain when dealing with so many emitters. But its also expensive, maintenance heavy, and if your main long range sensor/s get/s knocked out, your TELAR effectiveness diminishes.
In contrast our approach with the Akash was to develop the FCR as a substitute for the 3D CAR if it was - for whatever reason - not available, and also save on cost/battery by developing a one radar does all, approach.
When the Akash was first devised, the IAF was very keen that it get a system it could deploy without busting its bank - after all, the Pechoras etc we got were dirt cheap at friendship prices and replacing them was a daunting prospect. However, adding complexity to the Rajendra upped the price - its not cheap by any means and you can buy many top class flats in a metro at the price. However, it still works out much cheaper that multiple TELAR, plus it has more capability. The vulnerability is of course that the battery of 4 launchers is dependent on the Rajendra but thats a trade off which one gets.
About why North East, well because historically, we've never really bothered about the PRCs air force over the 80-90's, but now things have changed. Training, equipment, doctrine were deemed "not such a great threat" as far as the IAF eval was concerned. But now at least the equipment part has definitely changed with the Flanker acquisition and the development of long range cruise missiles being the primary threats.
Now as far as aircraft go, with a 25Km+ range, the Akash is well suited for deployment in camouflaged, well sited (keeping terrain in mind) in the North East around those areas with terrain masking which strike aircraft can use to get to the AFB via low flying. While doing that, at 0.6M, and a full warload, an Akash heading your way can make one's life very interesting. Even if the plane jinks and drops its load to escape, thats a mission kill right there.
Against missiles, the Akash can be equally effective provided it gets long range cueing in advance, which of course depends on the terrain and whether Aerostats and/or AWACS are available.
Bharani is a 2D radar for the Army Air Defence.
Aslesha is a 3D radar for the Indian Air Force for mountain ops, it will be used to look down into valleys.
Both are lightweight systems, and can be broken down into containers (slightly larger than a large suitcase) and transported to remote areas. Set up time is very less.
Both systems are on the cusp of series production and have already been trialled extensively.
Both utilize sub-systems from private sector partners who were first tapped for the BFSR-SR (Battlefield surveillance radar short range), with over 1100 produced over the past few years.
Both radars are also network capable and have LPI features by intentional design.
Based on trials so far, the IA has already ordered the Bharani & the IAF has indented for a number of Aslesha.
The Indian Navy is now looking at Aslesha, which with stabilization and some additional modes, will be a very useful addition for their small ships.
The Aslesha also gives India the capability, once Astra is completed over the next few years, to field a system like the Derby component of the SpyDer.
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