Akash Surface-to-air Missile

Dark Sorrow

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Launchers

Army Self-Propelled Launcher (ASPL)

The Army Self-Propelled Launcher (ASPL) is a tracked vehicle carrier, which carries and launches three missiles in succession, if required. It is capable of remote operation from the BCC and needs minimum time for preparation. The launcher is 360 degrees slewable and its arc in elevation is from 6 to 60 degrees.


Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL)

The Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL) is configured on a trailer based mobile vehicle, which can deploy in three ways; the vehicle mode, the trailer mode and the stand-alone mode. It carries three ready to fire missiles and is capable of remote operation. 360 degree slewable, in elevation it can fire from 8 to 75 degrees in all directions depending on the mode of deployment.

The launch platforms are microprocessor driven and controlled through an electro-mechanical servo system. They have there own inbuilt gas turbine engine (GTE) driven power sources.
 

Dark Sorrow

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Akash missile

The Akash missile uses an Integral Ram Rocket (IRR) solid propulsion system, which gives it a very high-speed intercept range of 30km. The missile has an all-up weight of 720kg and a length of nearly 6m.The digital on-board command and guidance unit coupled with a highly responsive actuator system, makes the missile highly maneuverable upto 15g loads and a tail chase capability for end game engagement. A digital proximity fuze is coupled with a 55kg pre-fragmented warhead, while the safety arming and detonation mechanism enables a controlled detonation sequence. A self-destruct device is also integrated.
 

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Support vehicles

To enable the Akash group to perform self-sufficient in the combat zone, a number of supporting specialist vehicles have been designed and developed. They are mobile and field-worthy. Their design is based on the role and task to be performed and the vehicles are accordingly allocated to the Group HQ, the Batteries, Assembly Line Area and the Field maintenance workshop.

Some of the vehicles are: the Missile Transportation Vehicle (MTV), the Transportation and Loading Vehicle (TLV), the Mobile Station for Missile Checkout (MSMC) Vehicle, the Air Compressor Vehicle (ACV), the Power Supply vehicles (GPSV, BPSV), the Engineering Support, Maintenance and Repair vehicles (GEM, BEM) and a few others. These specialist vehicles assemble and prepare missiles, deliver them to Batteries, carry maintenance spares and fuel, and provide logistical engineering support. Their allocation provides for flexibility and self-sufficiency to the whole Akash Group.

 

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Operational scenarios

The Akash Group is extremely flexible in employment and deployment. It is best employed as a Group. However, Batteries can be employed on independent tasks if required. This is called the Autonomous Mode.

The four Batteries can be deployed in various geometric formations, as suited to the vulnerable area being protected and the extent desired to be sanitized from enemy air threat.

Similarly, the Battery can deploy its launchers in a way as to be optimal for target engagement as the threat is perceived ab-initio or as it evolves during combat. Mobility enables quick redeployment and the sensors can be so positioned as to achieve the optimum kill zone.

The Akash Group and Batteries can protect static, semi-mobile as well as mobile assets. These may be critical national assets in the hinterland or large armour formations thrusting into the enemy territory.


The GCC and the BCCs must be deployed in a manner, which will provide a clear line of sight (LOS) to the batteries, which may be placed upto a maximum of 30km away from it. This requires the mast of the communication antenna to be raised to the required appropriate height.

The 3D CAR antenna vehicle must be placed keeping in mind the screening constraints. The antenna vehicle needs to be aligned accurately by knowing its position and orientation with respect to the north. This information is made available to the CAR computer from ALNS. Care has been taken to align the antenna with the mounting of the ALNS and the system has been calibrated. The leveling of the antenna needs to be accurate in order to avoid any tilt, which would introduce a bias.

The BSR is also provided with ALNS to measure its latitude, longitude and orientation with respect to true north. This information is required by both GCC and the computer of the BSR.

The BLR is also provided with ALNS to measure its latitude and longitude and orientation with respect to the true north. This information is required by GCC, BCC and BLR computers.

The ASPL is a mobile launch system for missiles. It is based on a tracked vehicle and carries three prepared missiles for launch. The equipment operates fully automatically and is remotely controlled by the BCC (Battery Control Center) which may be upto 500m away. Control is effected via radio or line links. ALNS system of ASPL is also connected to its computer.

Akash has an advanced automated functioning capability. The 3D CAR automatically starts tracking targets at a distance of around 150 km providing early warning to the system and operators. The target track information is transferred to GCC. GCC automatically classifies the target. BSR starts tracking targets around a range of 100km. This data is transferred to GCC. The GCC performs multi-radar tracking and carries out track correlation and data fusion. Target position information is sent to the BLR which uses this information to acquire the targets.

The BCC which can engage a target(s) from the selected list at the earliest point of time is assigned the target in real time by the GCC. The availability of missiles and the health of the missiles are also taken into consideration during this process. Fresh targets are assigned as and when intercepts with assigned targets are completed. A single shot kill probability of 88% has been achieved by the system taking into consideration various parameters of the sensors, guidance command, missile capabilities and kill zone computations.

There are a number of possibilities for deploying Akash weapon system in autonomous mode and in group mode for neutralizing the threat profiles with defined multi-target engagement scenarios. In the Group mode we can have number of configurations to defend vulnerable areas depending upon nature and expected threat pattern, characteristics of threat. Similarly, multiple batteries in autonomous mode can be deployed to defend vulnerable areas/points.
 

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Operation Configuration

Box configuration

Each battery is placed such that the four BCCs effectively cover the corner of a box of side 62 km. Each battery is defended by the other two adjacent batteries and the GCC is well within the coverage of all the four batteries. Full 360-degree radar coverage can be obtained without slewing the tracking radar. This deployment pattern can defend an area of 62km x 62km.


Linear array configuration

All the BCCs are arranged in a straight line. GCC can be placed such that the distance between GCC and each BCC never exceeds more than 30km. This type of pattern can defend a coverage zone with maximum length in any direction. It covers an area of 98km x 44km. This deployment pattern can act as air defense support to large extended moving columns.


Trapezoidal configuration
he placement of batteries is such that they are at the corner of a trapezoid. This pattern gives defense to the largest area as compared to any other pattern of deployment. This pattern can defend an area of size 5000 square km.



The Diamond and Semi-circles are other variations that can be adopted.
Within each Battery the launchers can be sited in various configurations. Thus the battery can also adopt the Box, the Linear, the Trapezoid or other geometries.
 

venom

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Can anyone state the minimum engagement altitude of akash?

i'd read that Akash had the capability to engage targets at tree top level[8-10 mts] & later i read that it is 60 feet [20mts] i m confused......Which 1 is true
 

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Can anyone state the minimum engagement altitude of akash?

i'd read that Akash had the capability to engage targets at tree top level[8-10 mts] & later i read that it is 60 feet [20mts] i m confused......Which 1 is true
I checked it and I found it 20 meters... "The 5.78-metre long missile has a diameter of 35 cm and a length of 5.78 meters. The Mach 2.5 missile can engage targets as far as 25 km away flying at heights ranging from 20m to 18kms. "

http://kuku.sawf.org/News/56157.aspx
 

venom

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I checked it and I found it 20 meters... "The 5.78-metre long missile has a diameter of 35 cm and a length of 5.78 meters. The Mach 2.5 missile can engage targets as far as 25 km away flying at heights ranging from 20m to 18kms. "

IAF orders Akash missiles
20mts was when the Akash system had Rajendra block-1.....now it has Rajendra block 3....
 

venom

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Can Akash engage low flying cruise missiles say at 10 mts....? It yes than at what range.....?
While engaging a cruise missile the range of Sam reduces by almost 40%.
what about Akash?
 

venom

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Just give it a thought.....

Stealth fighters are very difficult to detect using radars but the OLS systems[Like the one on Mig-35] can detect a stealth aircraft at nearly 40-45 kms. So why not put a similar sensor on the Akash Missile [OLS with a range of 30 kms] & at present Akash uses Rajendra which is a PESA radar with a range of 60 kms[Block-2] to illuminate the target which is of no use against Stealth fighters.So instead of Rajendra for detection use a larger & modified OLS system with detection capability of around 60-70 kms.This will make Akash Sam a fire & forget missile Capable of dealing with both,stealth & normal fighter aircrafts.

What you people think of it......?
 

Chota

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Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL)



Not sure how the IAF has accepted such a large vehicle to carry 3 missiles. This is a common Tata civil vehicle trailler.

Why can't the IAF/DRDO ask TATA/ Ashok Leyland to design and build a army carrier something like this:s
 

khatarnak

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Stealth fighters are very difficult to detect using radars but the OLS systems[Like the one on Mig-35] can detect a stealth aircraft at nearly 40-45 kms. So why not put a similar sensor on the Akash Missile [OLS with a range of 30 kms] & at present Akash uses Rajendra which is a PESA radar with a range of 60 kms[Block-2] to illuminate the target which is of no use against Stealth fighters.So instead of Rajendra for detection use a larger & modified OLS system with detection capability of around 60-70 kms.This will make Akash Sam a fire & forget missile Capable of dealing with both,stealth & normal fighter aircrafts.

What you people think of it......?
do you think pakistan or china have stealth aircraft??

i think you got the answer of your question.

we can improve Akash later but it could be inducted in the current form as well by a good number.
 

NiketRC

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do you think pakistan or china have stealth aircraft??

i think you got the answer of your question.

we can improve Akash later but it could be inducted in the current form as well by a good number.
China is developing numerous stealth aircrafts .
It is better to be prepared
 

bengalraider

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Akash Air Force Launcher (AAFL)



Not sure how the IAF has accepted such a large vehicle to carry 3 missiles. This is a common Tata civil vehicle trailler.

Why can't the IAF/DRDO ask TATA/ Ashok Leyland to design and build a army carrier something like this:s
The IAF does not need a high tech 8x8x or 8x6 vehicle near it's airfields as the surfaces on which the IAF Akash launcher is expected to move will anyways be paved and motorable. The TATA chassis means that launch vehicles are cheap(relatively), easily maintainable(commonality with civilain vehicles means that civilan parts can be used) and relatively mobile.It may not look good but at the end it gets the job done
The Indian army uses a launcher based on a T-72 hull for the Akash

 

ppgj

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Broadsword: Army warms up to indigenous Akash missile

Saturday, 7 November 2009
Army warms up to indigenous Akash missile

Photos: the Akash missile on BMP-II and vehicle mountings. The newer version, being offered to the army, is mounted and fully integrated on T-72 tank chassis

by Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 7th Nov 09
DRDO Missile Complex, Hyderabad

India’s long-criticised Akash anti-aircraft missile is now blazing towards success. Its counterparts in the DRDO’s Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme, the Prithvi and Agni ballistic missiles, were on target from the start; the anti-tank Nag missile will also enter service shortly; the Trishul short-range anti-aircraft missile was abandoned unceremoniously. Now, after years of rejection from the military, the Akash is being accepted as a world-class missile.

The IAF’s order last year for two Akash squadrons --- dismissed by sceptics as a face-saving burial for the Akash programme --- has just been doubled with a fresh IAF order for 16 more launchers that will be stationed in northeast India. And now, Business Standard has accessed even better news for the Akash programme: the Indian Army is considering ordering several Akash squadrons for its ground forces.

The DRDO’s Chief Controller for R&D, Dr Prahlada, has confirmed that the army is displaying fresh interest in the Akash. Asked for details, Dr Prahlada told Business Standard, “I cannot say whether the army is interested in the Akash for its strike corps, or for another role. In any case, the Akash is a mobile system that is suitable for various roles.”

But protecting fast-moving tank columns from enemy fighters is what the Akash does best. For years the DRDO laboured to fit the entire Akash system --- including radars, missile launchers and command centres --- into T-72 tanks. This provided the Akash with the cross-country mobility to advance deep into enemy territory along with Indian Army strike corps, shooting down enemy fighters at ranges as far out as 25 kilometers.

Planned as a replacement for the army’s obsolescent Russian SAM-6 Kvadrat, the heart of an Akash missile battery is the Hyderabad-developed Rajendra phased-array radar that tracks up to 64 enemy fighter aircraft simultaneously, in a radius of 60 kilometers. The mobile command centre selects up to four of the most threatening air targets, and two Akash missiles are fired at each from the T-72 based Akash launchers, which move alongside. The Rajendra radar continuously guides the missiles, eventually “flying” them smack into the enemy fighters.

Theoretically, a “ripple” of two Akash missiles has a 99% chance of shooting down a modern fighter aircraft. Practically, however, in 9 live Akash trials so far, all 9 missiles that were fired hit their targets. Videos of the firing trials, witnessed by Business Standard, show the Akash missiles smashing their targets into tiny fragments at ranges beyond 20 kilometers.

The DRDO has taken 20 years to develop the cross-country mobile, tank-mounted version of the Akash missile system that the army is now interested in. Criticism of this delay has been vocal, but the DRDO counters by pointing to the quality of its product: the Akash, says the DRDO, is the only system of its kind available globally.

A top DRDO scientist at the missile complex in Hyderabad points out, “Western countries like France, which make missiles in the technological league of the Akash, don’t mount the entire system on a tank, something that the Indian Army insists on. Only the Russians build tank-mounted missile systems, but their missile technology is far inferior to that of the Akash. All that the Russians can offer today is the next generation of the Kvadrat.”

The defence PSU, Bharat Electronics Limited, is the nodal production agency for the Akash missile system, supported by a broad consortium of Indian public and private sector manufacturers who contribute components and sub-systems. Bharat Dynamics Limited manufactures the solid-fuel, two-stage, ramjet Akash missile itself.
 

venkat

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Rajendra is not a Hyderabad product. developed by LRDE,bengaluru based on FLYCATCHER! BEL is the production agency for it!!!
 

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