Hypersonic Missiles

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by LETHALFORCE, Mar 25, 2009.

  1. p2prada

    p2prada Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

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    The Brahmos has the longest range in cruise missiles with IN. Range is equivalent to the klub.
     
  2. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Techinfo Brahmos-2

    Brahmos-2


    Brahmos is India’s indegenously built SuperSonic Cruise missile capable of achieving speeds upto mach 2.5 to 2.8 . The project was a joint venture between Russia and India and hence the name Brahmos [Brahmaputra-Moscow].The missile is the pride of each and every Indian because till date it is the fastest of its kind.The second is the U.S subsonic Harpoon cruise missile and it is nearly three and half times slower than the Brahmos.

    The DRDO and theNPOM have now gone a step further in improving the Brahmos.The upgraded version named Brahmos-2 is believed to be ready by 2012-13.The Brahmos-2 will be the first Hypersonic Cruise missile ever made. It can reach speeds upto mach 5.6 making it the most lethal weapon in missile history.At such speeds the missile would be non-counterable taking its accuracy to over 99%.But even with all these weapons, India still has vowed to use them for defensive purposes sticking to its age-old policy of Peace With All.
     
  3. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Bangalore-Delhi in 20 minutes by hypersonic jet

    Defenceindia : Bangalore-Delhi in 20 minutes by hypersonic jet

    Bangalore-Delhi in 20 minutes by hypersonic jet

    New Delhi, B S Arun (DH News Service)

    A Bangalore to Delhi flight in 20 minutes flat compared to the 140 minutes it takes now? That might well happen if a project, now in its initial stages at the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), Hyderabad, turns into reality.

    In a development that may revolutionise the way we fly, a plane will scream through the sky at not just supersonic speed, but at hypersonic pace. The scramjet (short for Supersonic Combustion Ramjet) being developed will cruise at 6,000 km an hour or about eight times the speed of sound.

    The dream project is now entering a crucial stage at DRDL and a demonstration vehicle should be ready by 2008, if not a year earlier.

    Disclosing this to Deccan Herald on Wednesday, DRDL director Prahlada said: “Right now it may look foolish if you say India will make a jet that will zoom at this mind boggling speed. We need to reach that speed. When you think of the cost of the airplanes that we are purchasing, I think we should start producing them at home and at speeds that match the needs of future generations.”

    First flilght

    However he added, “Right now it is totally research and development work. We began the project five years ago and we plan to complete in five more years. The first flight test should be done in 2007 or latest by 2008.”

    Bangalore’s National Aeronautical Laboratory is participating in the project. According to the Bangalore-born director, DRDL is now in the process of acquiring materials and fabrication of the demonstration vehicle will begin in 2006.

    A ground test of the Scramjet is also planned for next year. “All theoretical studies are on. Reviews of the project are being done by experts in different fields,” he said.

    What will the scramjet look like? The aeronautical engineer who has worked on missile systems such as Prithvi, Trishul, Akash and Nag, remarked: “It will be a small unmanned vehicle. It won’t be a mean-looking missile or an aircraft,” said Dr Prahlada.

    Interestingly, the hypersonic jet will not fly on hydrogen but on the common man’s fuel — kerosene. However, DRDL has not yet thought of the project cost.

    Dream project

    Dr Prahlada said, “So far we did not need much money. We will approach the government whenever we need funds. Our aim is to reduce costs. If it costs the US $300 million to make, I want India to produce the scramjet for Rs 300 crore. At DRDL we are excited. It is our dream project. About 200 people are working on it now, with 40 people exclusively on the project. The US and Russia are developing similar vehicles which will no doubt revolutionise the aviation secto.” NASA last November developed and tested its X-43A research vehicle, flying it at nearly 10 times the speed of sound.

    Data from the scramjet-powered research vehicle showed its revolutionary engine worked successfully at approximately Mach 10, nearly 7,000 miles per hour, as it flew at an altitude of approximately 1,10,000 feet.

    The flight took place in restricted airspace over the Pacific Ocean northwest of Los Angeles.

    The flight was the last and fastest of three unpiloted tests in NASA’s Hyper-X programme.

    The programme’s purpose was to explore an alternative to rocket power for space access vehicles which will also expected to help advance commercial aviation technology.
     
  4. youngindian

    youngindian Senior Member Senior Member

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    Strike-Anywhere Missile Plan Could Get Hypersonic Boost

    July 10, 2009

    The Pentagon’s controversial plan to strike any target on the planet in under an hour could be getting a boost, from one of the U.S. military’s “Holy Grail” technologies. Last month, the Pentagon modified a $12-million contract, to allow Lockheed Martin’s ultrafast FALCON Hypersonic Test Vehicle project to become a component of an Air Force effort to launch intercontinental ballistic missiles at America’s enemies.

    The Air Force’s Conventional Strike Missile is a modified Minuteman III ballistic missile, with a conventional warhead, in place of the nuke. For years, the military has wanted to use a de-nuked ballistic missile to enable U.S. forces to hit a target, anywhere in the world, in less than 60 minutes. But the missile has gotten hung up on diplomatic concerns: how would Russia or China feel, if we started launching ballistic missiles, with little or no warning? Plus, the CSM would be pricey: $10 million, or more, to kill a single target. “This is another bad idea by someone who thinks that there has to be a technical solution to every possible military challenge,” our own Jason Sigger quipped.

    But U.S. Strategic Command boss Gen. Kevin Chilton wants the CSM, bad — and is pushing for a 2015 debut. To make the strike missile more accurate, Lockheed will take the body from its FALCON hypersonic test craft, and use it as a maneuverable “shroud” to protect the CSM’s warhead, as it streaks towards its target. “With an HTV-type system, you have a vehicle with more lift and less drag. It could stay in the atmosphere much longer, thus cruising longer so it’s trajectory wouldn’t have to be ballistic,” a source familiar with the program notes. “You might also launch it on a more generic rocket as opposed to an existing ICBM. But the key point is it would likely not be confused with a nuclear warhead.”

    The shroud application represents one of the first, practical uses for FALCON. The Pentagon has poured millions of dollars into researching “hypersonic” aircraft, capable of traveling at speeds up to Mach 6. But problems with the engines have kept the speedy planes from seeing day-to-day use. The Pentagon had aimed to produce a super-fast spy plane, based on FALCON. But missile applications, for hypersonic tech, are not totally unheard-of. The Navy has experimented with a hypersonic cruise missile, called RATTLRS. Ultrafast advocates are now putting their hopes in the Mach 5 tests of the X-51 Waverider, expected in December,

    Strike-Anywhere Missile Plan Could Get Hypersonic Boost | Danger Room | Wired.com
     
  5. prahladh

    prahladh Respected Member

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    I'm not in touch with the info lately but what's the expected range of Brahmos-2 (hypersonic).
     
  6. bhramos

    bhramos Elite Member Elite Member

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    as of Brahmos-II its Joint Devolopment between India & Russia,
    as Russia is a signatary of MCTR. it wouldn't make or produce or transfer a Missile tech more then 300 kms.

    but India can produce and Hypersonic Cruise Missiles Based on Brahmos-II Tech & Experience ,

    as now we developing a cruise missile Nirbhay based on Experience gained from Brahmos.
    but Nirbhay has a long range 500-1000kms [approx]
     
  7. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    The Brahmos II has an Indigenous hypersonic engine I guess. The whole airframe is totally changed. I dont think russia is a part of the Block II brahmos.
     
  8. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    MTCR will not apply as the engine is developed in India and already testing has been started. Nirbhay is a subsonic missile not supersonic/hypersonic one :)
     
  9. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    Nitesh,
    Can you tell me wether we are going to use a SCRAMJET or a RAMJET engine in Brahmos II. There are totally 2 hypersonic engine projects going on in DRDO. I dont know what kind of engine is to be used. Can you help me out?
     
  10. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Sagarika / K-15 / Shourya / Nirbhay

    [​IMG]

    Sagarika / K-15 / Shourya / Nirbhay

    While published reports are generally consistent about the characteristics and chronology of this system, there is general disagreement on one fundamental point, whether the missile is a ballistic missile or a cruise missile. The reported physical dimensions of the missile seem to support the reporting that it is a cruise missile. Sagarika appears to be the designation of the sea-based version of the missile which is designated Shourya when deployed on a land-based Transporter Erector Launcher. The K-15 launch sile is well attested, and appears to be intended for the Advanced Tehnology Vessel nuclear submarine. It is, however, far too large for the Sagarika missile. It is reasonable to believe that this launcher would initially be employed with 3 Sagarika cruise missiles in each tube, which could subsequently be back-fitted with a single Agni-III ballistic missile.

    Sagarika (Oceanic)

    Started in the early 1990s, DRDO was reported to have developed a 300-km submarine-launched ballistic missile, Sagarika, based on the Prithvi. The program is reported to have started in 1992 and was originally reported to involve adapting a ramjet engine to the missile to reduce the need for heavy oxidizers. In 1994 the periodical Flight International reported that India's Aeronautical Development Establishment (ADE) had for the past two years been engaged in designing a ramjet-powered, submarine-launched missile dubbed the Sagarika. Other reports state that Sagarika was initially designed as a solid-fuelled version of the Prithvi. But the idea was shelved after the navy indicated its preference for a cruise missile. India did not have a submarine configured for launching ballistic missiles.

    In October 2005 it was reported that India was developing the Sagarika, said to be a submarine-launched cruise missile with a range of about 300 km.

    Something about the Sagarika inspires a cloak of secrecy. In 2005 defence minister Pranab Mukherjee confirmed the program: “This is a DRDO project but we would not like to make a premature advertisement.” Later, in Parliament, he denied the project even existed. As late as 2006 one observer suggested that the Sagarika was merely a figment of the Non-Proliferation community’s imagination

    In April 2007 it was reported that the indigenously-built Sagarika cruise missile, with a range of nearly 1,000 km and a 500-kg warhead, had two variants capable of being launched from aircraft and submarines. Sagarika was said to be the primary armament for the long-delayed Advanced Technology Vessel indigenous nuclear submarine, and the IAF was said to be considering equipping the forthcoming Medium Transport Aircraft with the stand-off missile. And in June 2007 it was reported that DRDO was currently working on the Sagarika submarine launched cruise missile. The nuclear capable Sagarika was said to have the capability to carry a 500 kg warhead over a distance of 1,000 km. It is also planned to develop an air launched version of Sagarika.

    In April 2007 India conducated a test of the Sagarika from a submersible pontoon launcher.

    In July 2007 it was reported that India's Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) had started work on three new types of missiles: a superior version of the Agni III, a hypersonic BrahMos and a naval missile known as Sagarika. The Sagarika would be a submarine launched, nuclear-armed, missile with a range of 1000 kilometers.

    On 27 February 2008 India proved that it had the capability to launch missiles from underwater by successfully test-firing the Sagarika missile from a pontoon off the coast of Visakhapatnam. The pontoon simulated the conditions of a submarine. Shortly after noon, the missile's booster ignited and Sagarika rose from the pontoon. It impacted the sea over 700 km away. A Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) missile technologist said "It has been consistently successful. This is not the first time that we have launched the missile. We have done it earlier a few times although it went by different names."

    This test, the sixth test of the 700-km range Sagarika missile, completed its goal of having air, land and sea ballistic systems, the defence ministry said. The launch from a submerged pontoon took place off India’s southeast coast near the port city of Visakhapatnam around 1:00 pm (0730 GMT), a defence ministry spokesman said. With the latest test, India joins an elite group — the United States, Russia, France and China — that has such ability. The test came two months after India’s chief military scientist M. Natarajan said New Delhi would test a ballistic missile with a range of 6,000 kilometers in 2008.

    The tactical, submarine-to-surface missile was said to be a light, miniaturised system, which was about 6.5 meters long and weighed seven tons. Powered by solid propellants, it was reported to be able to carry a payload of about 500 kg and can be launched from different platforms - from the ground, from underwater and mobile launchers. Other reports said the missile was powered by a turbojet, could carry a 500-kg payload, and was 8.5 metres long and about a metre in diameter. Ultimately, it will be launched from the indigenous nuclear powered submarine under construction at Kalpalrkam in Tamil Nadu and Visakhapatnam. The missile can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads.

    Sagarika was developed at the DRDOs missile complex in Hyderabad. The complex consists of the Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL), the Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL) and the Research Center, Imarat (RCI). The missile was designed and developed by the DRDL, the ASL provided the motors and propulsion systems. The RCI's contribution was in avionics, including control and guidance systems and inertial navigation systems.

    In July 2008 DDRO was reported to be near breakthrough in test firing the country's first underwater launch ballistic missile, Sagarika. Sagarika had already been test-fired from a pontoon, but now DRDO is planning a full-fledged test of the missile from a submarine and for this purpose may use the services of a Russian Amur class submarine.

    Project K-15 Launcher

    The Project K-15 launcher was designed and developed for testing of missiles. The system was been delivered to the user in 2004 and mounted inside a pontoon. Design by analysis approach has been adopted for final configuration of the launcher. The material used for launcher structure is high-strength-lowalloy (HSLA) steel. Sets of guide rails are bolted to the container to hold the launcher. Advanced fabrication technology has been used to ensure the desired perpendicularity, parallesim and concentricity. A 2.3 m static seal, which restricts water ingress to the bottom of the container, was designed and experimentally validated for extreme hydrostatic pressure.

    Platform launcher has been designed for launching medium range surface-to-surface missiles. It comprises a launcher structure, a set of shock isolation systems, a set of launcher locking mechanism, a set of special seals and a connector alignment mechanisms for connector blind mating. The launcher structure is having precision dimensional features for perfect interfacing with the missile and other subsystems. The structure is made of special high strength stainless steel for a maintenance-free service life. This material does not need any corrosion protection against any aggressive marine environment.

    The shock isolation systems protect the launcher against shock load. The shock isolation systems comprise disc spring stacks in longitudinal direction and elastic beams in lateral direction. This particular non-conventional combination takes care of compactness and mode decoupling. The locking mechanism locks the shock isolation suspension system and provide rigid support during launch operation. It is a fail-safe all mechanical device. The 2.4 m diameter diaphragm seal prevents water entrance and flexes when the launcher vibrates on the shock isolation mounts. The seal has been developed based on steel reinforced radial tire technology. The connector alignment mechanism has all six degrees of freedom and, therefore, capable to take care of any misalignment within the envisaged limit during blind mating of connector.

    In early 2008 India announced that it had perfected the technology for launching missiles from a submerged submarine. That meant the silo design had been perfected as well.

    K-15 Missile

    DRDO is working on the K-15 SLBM, having tested it from submersible pontoon launchers, with the aim to integrate it on the indigenous nuclear submarines being built under the secretive ATV (advanced technology vessel) project. Though not in the range of the over 5,000-km SLBMs in the arsenal of US, Russia and China, the 750-km range K-15 will accord India with the desperately-needed third leg of the nuclear weapon triad.

    The launch of the K-15 Sagarika missile on 26 February 2008 from a submerged pontoon in the Bay of Bengal simulated the conditions of a submarine launch. India, for the first time on Wednesday 12 November 2008, test-fired from a defence base in Orissa its submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) K-15 from a land-based launcher. It was test-fired successfully from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur in the district of Balasore, about 230 km from state capital Bhubaneswar. The test was intended to check speed, trajectory, azimuth and other parameters of the missile. The missile had earlier undergone a few tests in an underwater platform.

    The K-15 missile has two stages fitted into its half-meter diameter body. It can carry a payload up to one ton and has a maximum range of 700 km. The K-15 missile has a length of around 11 meters [other reports say only 7 meters], larger than the 8.5-meters-long Prithvi short-range ballistic missile but smaller than the 15-meter-long Agni-1 ballistic missile - both of which have a diameter of 1 meter, twice that reported for the K-15.

    Shourya (Valor)

    On 12 November 2008 India conducted the fourth successful test of its K15 Sagarika SLBM (Sea Launched Ballistic Missile). This test was from a land-based missile silo. In the last few tests, the metal silo was being tested as well. The K-15 seven ton has a 1,000 kilometer range, and a half ton payload. India test fired the submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) K-15 from a land-based launcher from Orissa. The land based version is named as ‘Shourya’.

    The Shourya missile is said to be about 10 meters long. It can carry warheads weighing more than 500 kg. W. Selvamurthy, Chief Controller (R&D), DRDO, said the Shourya missile provided the country with “a second strike capability” because it was a variant of the under-water launched K-15 missile (Sagarika). “We can keep the missile in a secured position [silo] to carry either conventional or nuclear warheads,” Dr. Selvamurthy said. Reportedly, although the Shourya needed a silo with a maximum depth of 50 meters to lift off, it could be launched from 30-meter deep silos [these numbers are too big, and don't make much sense]. It had a booster which fired underground and another which fired in the air.

    The DRDO termed as “successful” the flight-test of the ‘Shourya’ missile system from the Interim Test Range (ITR) at Balasore in Orissa at 1125 hours 12 November 2008. The “Shourya” missile "flew at five times the speed of sound, that is Mach 5, for 300 km” of its 600-km range, according to M. Natarajan, Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister. Its velocity gradually tapered off during the remaining 300 km of its flight and then it plunged vertically over the targeted site in the Bay of Bengal. What was outstanding about the Shourya’s success was the performance of its indigenous navigation system with the help of a ring-laser gyroscope, Mr. Natarajan said. He called it “a sophisticated navigation and guidance system produced by the Research Centre, Imarat” (RCI) in Hyderabad.

    The missile was test fired from a 30-40 feet deep pit with in-built canister specially designed for this purpose. There was no water in the pit. The missile has a range of 600 km and flight duration of 485 seconds. The test was intended to check speed, trajectory, azimuth and other parameters of the missile. What was outstanding about the Shourya’s success was the performance of its indigenous navigation system with the help of a ring-laser gyroscope, according to M. Natarajan, Scientific Adviser to the Defence Minister.

    According to one report Shourya can reach targets 700 km away, carrying both conventional and nuclear warheads. It is 10 meters long and 74 cm in diameter and weighs 6.2 tonnes. It is a two-stage missile and both its stages are powered by solid propellants. Its flight time is 500 seconds to 700 seconds. It can carry warheads weighing more than 500 kg.

    The missile has a unique feature of simplicity of operation and maintenance. It can be easily handled, transported and stored within the canister for longer shelf life. The missile, encased in a canister, is mounted on a single vehicle, which has only a driver’s cabin, and the vehicle itself is the launch platform. This “single vehicle solution” reduces its signature – it cannot be easily detected by satellites – and makes its deployment easy. The composite canister make the missile much easier to store for long periods without maintenance as well as to handle and transport. It also houses the gas generator to eject the missile from the canister before its solid propellant motors take over to hurl it at the intended target.

    The high manoeuvrability of the missile makes it less vulnerable to available anti-missile defence systems. The missile performed a maneuver of rolling to spread the heat uniformly on its surface. Its high manoeuvrability makes it less vulnerable to present-day anti-missile defence systems.
    Nirbhay

    In mid-2007 it was reported that India was developing a new medium-range, multi-platform missile, called the Nirbhay [Dauntless or Fearless], that was slated to be tested by end-2009. The missile, with a range of 1,000 km, was being developed at the Advanced Systems Laboratory (ASL), a unit of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) under the defence ministry. The latest in the series of India's missile development programme, the Nirbhay follows the Agni (I, II and III), the Prithvi (I and II), the Indo-Russian joint venture supersonic Brahmos, Akash, Trishul and Nag.

    "It (Nirbhay) will be better than Babur," explained Avinash Chander, director of ASL, referring to Pakistan's first subsonic, low-level terrain-mapping missile, developed originally with a 500 km range and later upgraded to 700 km. First tested in 2005, the Babur is similar in design to the US BGM-109 Tomahawk land attack cruise missile-the two being roughly the same size and shape. Pakistan is said to be working on a more advanced version with a range of 1,000 km.

    The subsonic Nirbhay weighs 1,000 kg with a 1,000 km range and a speed of 0.7 mach. A missile is subsonic when its speed is less than the speed of sound (1 mach). Nirbhay was said to be six meters in length with a 520 mm diameter. While the missile was being developed in-house, India was looking at partnerships for the engine. The requirement for Nirbhay was anticipated by India's three armed forces. Nirbhay is to have multiple platforms and can be launched from ground, sea and air.
     
  11. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India test-fires submarine missile from land
    By siliconindia news bureau
    India test-fires submarine missile from land

    Thursday,13 November 2008, 03:17 hrs

    Balasore: India Wednesday test-fired a submarine ballistic missile (SLBM) Shauriya from land for the first time, defence sources said.

    It was test fired successfully from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) at Chandipur in the district of Balasore in Orissa, about 230 km from state capital Bhubaneswar.


    The missile has two stages fitted into its half-metre-wide body. It can carry a payload up to one tonne and has a highest range of 700 km.

    The missile had earlier undergone three tests previously in an underwater platform. The Wednesday test was intended to check speed, trajectory, maximum height and other parameters of the missile.

    The new weapon, a K-15 missile, is an undersea submarine-launched ballistic missile with a range of up to 435 miles. The K-15 missile has a length of around 11 metres, larger than the 8.5-metre-long Prithvi short-range ballistic missile but smaller than the 15-metre-long Agni-1 ballistic missile.

    The district administration evacuated temporarily about 3,010 people from about five villages located within the a two-km radius of the defence base hours before the test in the area, district collector A.C. Padhiary told IANS.

    According to an Associated Press report, India and longtime rival Pakistan routinely test-fire missiles. They usually notify each other ahead of missile launches in keeping with an agreement between the two nations. India test-fired the K-15 missile from a pontoon immersed in the sea earlier this year. India's current crop of missiles are mostly intended for confronting neighboring archrival Pakistan.

    The Agni 3, in contrast, is India's longest-range missile, designed to reach 1,900 miles � putting China's major cities well into range, as well as targets deep in the Middle East.

    India and Pakistan have fought three wars since their independence from Britain in 1947. They have been holding peace talks since 1994 aimed at resolving their differences, including their dispute over the Himalayan region of Kashmir.
     
  12. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Breakthrough achieved in SCRAMJET propulsion | India Defence

    Breakthrough achieved in SCRAMJET propulsion

    Thiruvananthapuram: As part of the Advanced technology initiative in the area of Air- Breathing propulsion, the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre of ISRO at Thiruvananthapuram, has successfully carried out the design, development, characterisation and realisation of the Supersonic Combustion Ramjet (SCRAMJET).

    Through a series of ground tests, a stable supersonic combustion has been demonstrated for nearly 7 seconds with an inlet Mach number of 6 (i.e., six times the speed of sound).

    As such technologies are in a very nascent stage of development the world over, ISRO considers this achievement as a major technology breakthrough in Air-Breathing propulsion. Other than USA, which has recently carried out in-flight demonstration of supersonic combustion for a short duration, work related to supersonic combustor designs in other countries like Japan, China, Russia, Australia, Europe and others are either in their initial or ground testing phase.

    Currently, the space transportation systems are expendable in nature and use the conventional chemical rocket systems for their propulsion. The cost per kg of payload of such expendable systems is quite high, and is in the range of $12,000 to $15,000 per kg. If we have to make the access to space more affordable, this cost needs to be brought down by an order of magnitude to something like $500 - $1000 per kg. This will require a two pronged approach (a) the systems are made recoverable and reusable (b) adopt more efficient propulsion systems like Air- Breathing rockets.

    Air- Breathing rocket systems are the ones which use the atmospheric oxygen from their surroundings and burn it with the stored on- board fuel for producing the forward thrust in contrast to the conventional chemical rocket systems which carry both the oxygen and the fuel on-board. As a result, the Air-Breathing systems become much lighter and more efficient leading to reduced overall costs. As the Air- Breathing systems have the capability to operate only during the atmospheric phase of flight, they always have to be adopted along with the conventional chemical rockets, for meeting the final orbital velocity requirements.

    A good example of Air-Breathing engines is the Turbojet engines used in aircrafts; however, they have limitations in operating only up to a maximum of Mach number 3. To travel beyond these Mach number regimes, SCRAMJET propulsion is the only viable option. The development of SCRAMJET system is quite complex and it involves a number of technological challenges, especially the ones related to the mixing of very high speed air (velocity around 1.5 km/s) with fuel, achieving stable ignition and flame holding in addition to ensuring efficient combustion, within the practical length of the combustor.

    In the coming years, ISRO is planning to flight test an integrated SCRAMJET propulsion system comprising of air-intake, combustor and nozzle, by using a cost effective two stage RH-560 sounding rocket. Development of such a high technology system will come in a big way towards meeting the futuristic space transportation needs of our country.
     
  13. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Israel helps India develop scramjet demonstrator-11/07/2007-London-Flight International

    Israel helps India develop scramjet demonstrator
    By Arie Egozi
    Click Here

    Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) is co-operating with India's Defence Research and Development Organisation on a hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle (HSTDV), with the target of conducting a flight test in 2008.

    Some of the windtunnel testing is being being performed at IAI. DRDO is developing the HSTDV to demonstrate a kerosene-fuelled scramjet engine capable of powering air-breathing vehicles to a speed of Mach 6.5-7, with the goal of reducing the cost of putting payloads into orbit by a factor of 100, to $200/kg ($90/lb).

    India is researching special materials for thermal protection of the HSTDV, which would resemble NASA's X-43A, including carbon-carbon composites, nickel-based superalloys, niobium alloys and high thermal conducting copper alloy.
     
  14. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India joins elite nations with scramjet technology

    India joins elite nations with scramjet technology
    By agencies
    Wednesday,11 January 2006, 00:00 hrs


    BANGALORE: India has joined a handful of countries with the technology to build a new type of supersonic rocket that could reduce satellite-launching costs by nearly 90 percent, the Indian space agency said.

    The Supersonic Combustion Ramjet or Scramjet technology should eventually help India build lighter and faster rockets, the Indian Space Research Organization said.


    Earlier this week Indian scientists tested a prototype Scramjet engine for seven seconds, simulating travel at six times the speed of sound, S. Krishnamurthy, spokesman, ISRO said.
    Conventional rockets carry their own oxygen to burn as fuel, but Scramjet rockets will take oxygen from the atmosphere, making them lighter and faster.

    "We need this new technology to do that (take in air) at a velocity of Mach six," Krishnamurthy said, adding that Indian scientists hope Scramjets will eventually be able to reach speeds as high as 24 times the speed of sound.

    The U.S. has already carried out a flight test with a Scramjet engine, while the Europe Union, Japan, China, Russia and Australia are in various stages of testing their technologies.
    Indian scientists hope that Scramjets could bring the cost of launching satellites from the current level of $12,000 or more for 2.2 pounds of payload to less than $1,000.

    "We have now proven our technology on the ground and hope to do flight-test within two years, though mastering the technology might take up to 10 years from now," he added.
     
  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    domain-b.com : Israel and India working on hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle


    Israel and India working on hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle



    Hyderabad: The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI) and India's Defence Research and Development Organisation are working together on a hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle (HSTDV). The work is moving apace with the intention of conducting a test flight sometime in 2008.

    DRDO is developing the HSTDV to demonstrate a kerosene-fuelled scramjet engine capable of powering air-breathing vehicles to a speed of Mach 6.5-7. It is the stated aim of the project to reduce the cost of putting payloads into orbit by a factor of 100, i.e. to $200/kg ($90/lb). Some of the wind tunnel testing for the project is being performed by the IAI.

    India is already conducting extensive research on special materials for thermal protection of the HSTDV, including carbon-carbon composites, nickel-based superalloys, niobium alloys and high thermal conducting copper alloy.

    Indo-Israeli RAM/SCRAMJET cooperation
    Meanwhile, at a prestigious scientific conference dealing with "High speed trans-atmospheric air and space transportation" conducted in the Indian city of Hyderabad from June 29-30 and inaugurated by the Indian president, and distinguished aerospace scientist Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, some hints were dropped about the Indo-Israeli cooperation in this area.

    The Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI)'s president & CEO, Itzhak Nissan, was invited as a guest of honor at the event in deference to his personal activities in India, where he leads a number of advanced technological projects.

    Speaking on the occasion, Dr Kalam mentioned that Ram/Scramjet engine technology had already been designed and tested by both Russia and the US since the 1960s and most recently by the US through the Flight Technology Demonstrator, X-43. The president also mentioned that India too had "…designed and tested scramjet engines, both kerosene fueled and hydrogen fueled, on ground test facilities.

    In his speech, the President of India, Dr APJ Abdul Kalam, praised the growing cooperation between India and Israel at large and the cooperation with IAI in particular.

    In his lecture, IAI's president & CEO, Itzhak Nissan, said "IAI, the leading aerospace industry in Israel, is partner for a wide range of commercial and military projects in India. In these projects, we manage to express the capabilities that are mutual to both countries. We are proud to be partners with the superb capabilities demonstrated by the Indian development and manufacturing teams working on some of the most advanced projects in the world."

    Mr. Nissan added that: "IAI expresses profound appreciation for the high level of scientific level and motivation that can be found at India's research institutions and aerospace industry."

    During the conference, VK Saraswat, the chief controller (R&D), DRDO and chairman of the Aeronautical Society of India, made a presentation on the commercial Hyper Sonic Technology Demonstrator Vehicle. The ground test for HTDV scramjet propulsion system using kerosene as fuel has been conducted by DRDO scientists at a high speed material testing laboratory abroad and the results have been encouraging, he told reporters at the event.

    This would be a reference to the wind tunnel and other experiments being carried out by the IAI.
     
  16. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Syed Akbar Journalist: India to develop super hypersonic missiles with Mac7 speed

    Friday, November 14, 2008
    India to develop super hypersonic missiles with Mach 7 speed

    November 14, 2008
    By Syed Akbar
    Hyderabad, Nov 13: India is developing a whole new family of missiles that are quite light in weight and capable of hitting targets with speeds ranging between 7410 km and 8645 km per hour.
    According to Defence Research and Development Organisation chief controller (research and development) Dr VK Saraswat, these hypersonic missiles with such great speeds cannot be intercepted by enemies. They will fly at low altitudes of 30 mts and hit the target with great precision.
    "The DRDO is spending Rs 50 crore to develop the hypersonic technology demonstrator vehicle. The present-day missiles are quite bulky and weighs between 20 and 30 tonnes. Moreover, they fly quite high. We are looking at futuristic missiles with hypersonic speeds and flying low. They are also lighter in weight," Dr Saraswat told reporters a day after India successfully tested 600 km range surface-to-surface missile Shourya.
    The DRDO, he said was looking for hypersonic missiles with Mac6 to Mac7 speed (six to seven times the speed of sound. Sound travels at a speed of 1235 km per hour). The new missile will be build using indigenous technology without any foreign collaboration. It will also double up as a long-range cruise missile.
    Saraswat said the DRDO was also doing research to make the hypersonic missile as a launch vehicle for satellites. This will help DRDO improve its resources through commercial launch of satellites.
    He said the success of Chandrayaan-1 and India's signing of 123 agreement with the USA had opened new avenues in aerospace and nuclear sector. India is going to open up market for 60,000 crore to Rs 70,000 crore in the next 10 years. "But the Indian industry should gear up to grab the opportunity by producing globally competitive projects. There will be eight to 10 new nuclear reactors coming up in the country opening 15 billion to 20 billion US dollars investment opportunities," he said.
     
  17. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/008200801071858.htm


    The Hindu News Update Service

    India to develop high speed interceptors

    Visakhapatnam (PTI): After demonstrating capabilities in missile defence, India aims at developing long-range, high speed interceptors that can strike down missiles fired from deep within the enemy territory.

    "We are now going to build AD-1 and AD-2 -- high speed interceptors for engaging 5000 km class targets," V K Saraswat, Project Director, Air Defence wing in the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) told reporters here.

    These systems are essential to shoot down enemy missiles launched from locations from deep inside hostile territory.

    "Currently, we have capabilities to defend ourselves from 2500 km range ballistic missiles. But suppose missiles are launched by our immediate neigbours from their rear formations, they will be using long-range missiles -- Intermediate Range Ballistic Missiles and Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles.

    "We should now develop technologies to defend against them. That is our effort," he said.

    Defence scientists have already demonstrated the capability to shoot down enemy missiles at an altitude of 50 km. as also 15 km.

    In November 2006, DRDO scientists tested an exo-atmospheric anti-missile system that could intercept targets 50-km above the atmosphere while last month it fired supersonic interceptors that shot down enemy rockets 15-km within the atmosphere known as the endo-atmospheric zone.
    __________________
     
  18. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India tests hypersonic interceptor missile | Top Russian news and analysis online | 'RIA Novosti' newswire

    India tests hypersonic interceptor missile

    19:1006/12/2007
    NEW DELHI, December 6 (RIA Novosti) - India successfully tested on Thursday a hypersonic Advanced Air Defense (AAD-02) interceptor missile, part of the future multi-layer Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) system, national media reported.
    The new interceptor missile was fired from a mobile launcher at the Integrated Test Range on Wheeler Island off Orissa's east coast, and hit a Prithvi target missile, which was fired 70 nautical miles (around 130 km) away, from the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur-on-sea.
    The interceptor flies at a velocity of Mach 4 and is fitted with up-to-date navigation and homing equipment.
    "All the elements of BMD required for control and monitoring performed in a copybook fashion validating the design of the 'endo-atmospheric' layer of BMD system," Newstrack India quoted a military official as saying.
    The Indian military also said the "totally new" missile could destroy any incoming ballistic missiles at low altitude.
    India's Defense Research and Development Organization successfully carried out a missile interception test at an altitude of 50 km on November 27, 2006.
    India, encouraged by a number of successful missile interceptor launches, is steadily moving closer to the exclusive BMD club currently shared by the U.S., Russia and Israel.
     
  19. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    domain-b.com : India to start work on a reusable hypersonic missile: Pillai

    India to start work on a reusable hypersonic missile: Pillainews

    16 February 2007



    Visakhapatnam: India is now all set to start work on a hypersonic reusable missile, which will have the ability to cruise to a target at Mach 4 speeds, deliver its warhead and return to base. This fact was revealed by Dr. A. Sivathanu Pillai, CEO & MD, BrahMos Aerospace.

    "We are studying the project and the missile system, when developed, could cruise to the enemy's target at a maximum speed of Mach 4," said Pillai. He made this interesting revelation while speaking on the "Indian Aerospace Programme - present and future" before the students of the Andhra University College of Engineering.

    Typically, the appellation hypersonic is given to aircraft with the ability to fly at speeds in excess of 3,000 mph.

    Pillai has largely been identified with the successful development of the BrahMos programme, which is a supersonic cruise missile, traveling at speeds of 2.8-3 Mach. A unique product, the BrahMos has already been inducted for operational service by the Indian Navy and Army. Work is in progress to develop an air-launched version for the Indian Air Force.


    Prithvi and Nag
    Speaking about the advances made in rocket and missile systems by Indian space and military scientists, Pillai made another interesting revelation. The Prithvi missile, he said, was the first in the world with a maneuverable trajectory. This allows the Prithvi to evade all defensive mechanisms deployed by the enemy and strike its target precisely.

    The anti-tank Nag missile, Pillai said, was a "fire and forget" weapon, which freed the operator from the task of continuously guiding the missile to its target. Pillai also said that with the Nag the operator could be rest assured that the target would be destroyed.

    Referring to India's mission to the moon, Pillai said that things were moving in the right direction.
     
  20. venom

    venom DFI Technocrat

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    How can a missile be reused....?
     

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