Republic of India - Nuclear Programme and Reactors

Hindustani78

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Department of Atomic Energy
3 -January, 2018 03:51IST

Nuclear installations

As per International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), India presently ranks third in number of reactors under construction after China and Russian Federation (based on the placement of first pour of concrete) and seventh in number of reactors in operation.

Some of the suppliers / contractors of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) had reported financial difficulties, as a result of which there was a delay in supplies of equipment and execution of Kakrapar Atomic Power Project (KAPP) 3&4 (2X700 MW) and Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP) 7&8 (2X700 MW) projects. The issue of financial difficulty of vendors / contractors was appropriately addressed by NPCIL.

There are presently 59 reactors under construction in 17 countries with an aggregate capacity of 60,366 MW in the world as reported by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The decisions on addition of nuclear power capacity are country specific and depend on factors like the country’s nuclear and energy policies, requirements, availability of various energy options, market conditions etc.

This was stated by the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh in a written reply to question in the Lok Sabha today.


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Department of Atomic Energy
3 -January, 2018 03:42IST


Technical fault at KNPP


Kudankulam Units 1&2 (2x1000 MW) set up are VVER 1000 type Light Water Reactors. These units have the distinction of being the highest capacity units in the country. The VVER 1000 is a safe and robust technology and VVERs are in safe operation in several countries like Russian Federation, Ukraine, China, Iran, etc. They have advanced, state of the art safety features like four safety trains, Passive Heat Removal system, Core catcher etc.

The first unit was shutdown in June 2015 for refueling for the first time after generating about 6875 Million Units of electricity. During the first refueling shutdown, in parallel with refueling, detailed inspections, surveillance tests, mandatory checks and routine maintenance works were carried out. Thereafter the unit was reconnected to the grid in January 2016. Apart from the long refueling shutdown of Unit-1, there have been some instances of unit trips. Each of the instances have been investigated, the root cause determined and necessary measures taken in consultation with the Russian experts and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). In none of these instances the safety of plants was challenged.

The Kudankulam Units 1&2 are each of capacity 1000 MW (rated electrical output). This is corresponding to the rated reactor power. Even as the unit operates at the rated reactor power, the electrical output may at times exceed 1000 MW on account of enhanced efficiency due to favourable environmental conditions (like cooling water temperature), condenser vacuum etc.

Nuclear power plants are operated strictly in line with laid down procedures and technical specifications approved by the AERB and in no case the rated reactor power has been exceeded. On November 28, 2017, at no point the reactor power exceeded the rated power.

Periodic safety audit of all atomic power plants in India is carried out by the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). All Nuclear Power Projects (NPP) undergo an elaborate in-depth safety review during all stages, viz. siting, construction, commissioning and operation. After satisfactory review during project state, AERB issues operating license to the NPP for a period of five years. During the project stage of a power plant, quarterly regulatory inspections and during operation of a power plant, regulatory inspections are carried out by AERB once every six months. A consolidated safety assessment of the plant is undertaken while renewing the operating license after every five years. Further, all plants are required to undergo a comprehensive Periodic Safety Review (PSR) as per the established guidelines, where the safety of the plant is assessed considering cumulative effects of ageing, plant modifications, operating experience as well as comparison with the current safety standards/practices. The recommendations made in all these reviews are appropriately addressed.

This was stated by the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh in a written reply to question in the Lok Sabha today.


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Hindustani78

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Department of Atomic Energy
04 -January, 2018 08:39IST

Shortage of Nuclear Fuel

The Government has provided fuel from both indigenous and imported sources in required quantities for operation of nuclear power reactors at their rated power.

As per the vision plan prepared, in order to fulfil the requirement of Uranium to fuel nuclear power plants, Department of Atomic Energy will achieve nearly ten-fold rise in uranium production in next 15 years (by 2031-2032). The uranium mining projects have been planned in three phases. On completion of the projects in first phase, it is expected to produce 3.5 times of existing uranium production by the 12th year. On completion of the projects in second phase, uranium production is expected to achieve seven times of existing production. With the completion of phase three projects uranium production of the country is expected to record ten-fold increase by 2031-32.

The above is subject to obtaining all statutory clearances and external constraints.

Consequent upon the Civil Nuclear cooperation, DAE has been importing Uranium to meet the fuel requirements of IAEA Safeguarded Nuclear Power Plants. The details of quantities of Uranium imported so far since the year 2009 and the anticipated supplies during the year 2017-18 is as follows:-


Sr.No.
Firm/Country
Date of entering into Contract
Total Quantity to be procured as per Contract
Total Quantity received up to 19-12- 17
Anticipated deliveries in 2017-18


1.
M/s. AREVA,France
17.12.2008
300 MT of Natural Uranium Ore Concentrate
299.88 MT
Nil


2.
M/s. PJSC
TVEL Corporation, Russia
11.02.2009
2000 MT of Natural Uranium Oxide Pellets
2005.88 MT
Nil


11.02.2009
58 MT of Enriched Uranium Oxide Pellets
58.30 MT
Nil


03.03.2015
42 MT of Enriched Uranium Oxide Pellets
42.15 MT
Nil



3.
M/s. Navoi Mining & Metallurgical Combinat, Uzbekistan
28.09.2013
2000 MT of Natural Uranium Ore Concentrate
Nil
Nil


4.
M/s.Cameco,Canada
15.04.2015
The Contract permits procurement of a minimum of 2750 MT and maximum 5500 MT of Natural Uranium Ore Concentrate.
2473.87 MT
Nil


5.
M/s. JSC NAC Kazatom Prom,Kazakhstan
12.11.2009
2100 MT of Natural Uranium Ore Concentrate
2095.9 MT
Nil

08.07.2015
The Contract permits procurement of a minimum of 3750 MT and maximum 7000 MT of Natural Uranium ore Concentrate
2667.08 MT
2076 MT *


* inclusive of part consignment of around 576 MT pertaining to the Calendar Year 2016 and 1500 MT pertaining to the Calendar Year 2017. Both the consignments are expected to be received during the Financial Year 2017-18.

The quantity of uranium imported from various countries and expenditures incurred thereon during the last three years and the current year, country-wise and year-wise are mentioned below:

M/s JSC NAC Kazatomprom,Kazakhstan (Uranium Ore Concentrate)

Year
Quantity(MT)
Cost (` in Crore)

2014-15
283.419
216.93


2015-16
Nil
Nil


2016-17
999.807
590.01

2017-18 (up to28-12- 17)
923.856
332.52


M/s Cameco Canada (Uranium Ore Concentrate)

Year
Quantity(MT)
Cost (` in Crore)

2014-15
Nil
Nil

2015-16
250.743
158.28

2016-17
1233.681
543.51

2017-18(up to 28-12- 17)
989.452
373.82


M/s PJSC TVEL Corporation, Russia (Natural Uranium Oxide Pellets)


Year
Quantity(MT)
Cost (` in Crore)


2014-15
296.548
541.55

2015-16
303.787
565.17

42.150 *
303.64

2016-17
187.334
395.29

2017-18 (up to 28-12- 17)
Nil
Nil


* One-time import of Enriched Uranium Oxide Pellets.


This was stated by the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh in a written reply to question in the Rajya Sabha today.



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Department of Atomic Energy
04 -January, 2018 08:38IST

Extraction of Uranium from Mines

Uranium Corporation of India Ltd. (UCIL), a Public Sector Undertaking under the Department of Atomic Energy, is engaged in mining and processing of uranium ore in the country. The company is operating seven uranium mines in the State of Jharkhand and one uranium mine in the State of Andhra Pradesh.

Extraction and processing cost of uranium in the country is very high as compared to other countries.

This was stated by the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh in a written reply to question in the Rajya Sabha today.

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Department of Atomic Energy
04 -January, 2018 08:37IST
Agreement between Westinghouse and NPCIL

Presently, discussions with M/s. Westinghouse Electric Company (WEC) are in progress to arrive at a viable project proposal for setting up six nuclear power reactors.

The project is planned to be set up at Kovvada in Andhra Pradesh and comprises of six units of 1208 MW each. The cost and schedule of the project will emerge upon finalisation of the project proposal and accord of its administrative approval and financial sanction by the Government.

This was stated by the Minister of State (Independent Charge) of the Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region (DoNER), MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr. Jitendra Singh in a written reply to question in the Rajya Sabha today.



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sorcerer

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Nuclear reactor in Karnataka nabs world record for running 895 straight days
The 220 MW atomic power reactor in Unit 1 at Kaiga in Karnataka set a world record among Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) by running continuously for 895 days, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL) has said.

In a statement, NPCIL said the Unit 1 in Kaiga stands first among PHWRs and second in terms of all kinds of nuclear reactors in terms of continuous operation.

The indigenous reactor powered by domestic fuel has been operating continuously since 16 May, 2016

It started commercial operation on 16 November, 2000.



According to NPCIL, Indian nuclear reactors have demonstrated continuous operation for long periods exceeding a year 28 times so far.

Three reactors — Kaiga Unit 1 (895 days), Unit 3 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS - 777 days) and UnitA at RAPS (765 days) — have operated continuously for more than two years, NPCIL said

https://www.firstpost.com/tech/scie...rd-for-running-895-straight-days-5449681.html
 

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