Rain Water Harvesting - Methods and Studies

ajay7322

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What is RWH?

Rainwater harvesting is the collection and storage of rainwater that runs off from rooftops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. This water runoff can be either stored or recharged into the groundwater. A rainwater harvesting system consists of the following components:

  1. the catchment from where water is captured and stored or recharged,
  2. conveyance system that carries the water harvested from the catchment to the storage/recharge zone,
  3. first, flush that is used to flush out the first spell of rain,
  4. filter used to remove pollutants,
  5. storage tanks and/or various recharge structures.

Why do RWH?
Rain may soon be the only source of clean water. Rainwater harvesting systems use the principle of conserving rainwater where it falls and has the following benefits:

  • Helps meet the ever-increasing demand for water
  • Improves quality and quantity of groundwater.
  • Reduces flooding.
Where?
Individual homes.
Colonies.
Apartments.
Institutions.
Schools/colleges/universities.
Clubs.
Hospitals.
Industries.
Slums.
Everywhere……the potential for rainwater harvesting is huge



Source - https://www.cseindia.org/rainwater-...is collection,recharged into the ground water.
 

ajay7322

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The Rain Water Harvesting Implementation Network, otherwise known as RAIN, recently published a guidebook solely dedicated to instructing users on rainwater harvesting. Information was taken from researchers and institutions using concrete experiences in the field and best-practice examples. The ultimate objective is to help users “improve and maintain an acceptable water quality of harvested rainwater for drinking purposes.”

Based on WHO drinking water quality standards and field studies conducted in Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, and Nepal, the RAIN Network has established the following standards:



To achieve these standards, RAIN has recommended the following techniques:
First, sampling and collection should be done carefully, clearing debris and silt from storage tanks and runoff pipes. Also, take into account that direct handling of collected water must be done in a hygienic manner. It is also very important that sampling is done between rainfalls; agricultural pesticides and pathogens such as E-Coli are more concentrated immediately after runoffs from rainfall.

Second, the testing process should be conducted by a trained professional, capable of collecting accurate storage samples in the field. Though laboratory tests are done under very accurate conditions, many harvesting systems are distant from large cities and require long transportation times which can alter results. Thus, testing can be done directly on-site. To improve drinking water quality, the following techniques may be used:

Chlorination; treating collected water with chlorine effectively removes and disinfects bacteria and virus, but may adversely affect taste.
Bio-sand filter; achieves moderate reduction in bacterial and virus removal and should be accompanied by other filtration techniques.

Aluminum Sulphate; treatment is especially effective for bacterial removal and moderately effective for virus removal. Post-cure may alter color, but not taste.
Moringa olelfera and stenopetala; these potent antioxidants enhances flocculation and are highly effective in removing bacteria and virus. May result in turbid water, but no affect on taste.

Boiling; this timeless method kills bacteria’s through heat with no affect on taste or color.
SODIS (Solar Water Disinfection); Place a PET or glass bottle, with tightened cap, under direct sun for 6 hours. Prolonged UV-radiation effectively removes bacterial pathogens and has no effect on taste or color.
 

ajay7322

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Every now and then we read reports on rapidly depleting groundwater levels in many parts of India. The problem is further exacerbated during some parts of the year when water becomes scarce across the length and breadth of the country. Over the years, India has emerged as the largest user of groundwater in the world for irrigation, industrial and domestic needs. The country's burgeoning population is further putting a lot of pressure on its water resources.

We can take a few little step ..

1. Cleaning your catchment area: This is the place where most of the rainwater is received and can be diverted from. First of all, you need to clean your roof or catchment area to prevent any dirt or other unnecessary materials from contaminating the water. Over the years, rooftop rainwater harvesting has emerged as one of the most popular options in India as it is easily doable.

2. Redirecting water with pipes: Rainwater will be redirected towards the container through PVC pipes. These PVC pipes or gutters come in cylindrical shapes and can be easily attached to the drain pipes on the roof to redirect the water towards the storage tank.

3. Installing rain separator and storage tank filter: The next step is to install the first rain separator or the washout pipe. It is basically a simple valve to block the entry of water into the tank while cleaning the roof and also during the initial stages of raining, when the water could be of poor quality due to air pollution and other factors. This valve requires cleaning after every rain to discharge wastewater or dust-filled water, which we usually get during the start o ..

4. Overflow pipe for the extra water: You also need to install an overflow pipe on top of your storage tank to release excess water. It is recommended that you put your storage tank at an elevated place to prevent any sort of bacterial or fungi growth around it and also for keeping it away from the reach of stray dogs or other animals.

https://economictimes.indiatimes.co...ofinterest&utm_medium=text&utm_campaign=cppst
 

ajay7322

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Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is a simple method by which rainfall is collected for future usage. The collected rainwater may be stored, utilised in different ways or directly used for recharge purposes. With depleting groundwater levels and fluctuating climate conditions, RWH can go a long way to help mitigate these effects. Capturing the rainwater can help recharge local aquifers, reduce urban flooding and most importantly ensure water availability in water-scarce zones. Though the term seems to have picked up greater visibility in the last few years, it was, and is even today, a traditional practice followed in rural India. Some ancient rainwater harvesting methods followed in India include madakas, ahar pynes, surangas, taankas and many more.
 

ajay7322

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A great resource to know the process of RWH by TamilNadu water board.
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Roof top Rain Water Harvesting (RRWH)

Although rainwater harvesting has been implemented in all the Urban Local Bodies, it is now felt that there is a need to modify some of the structures. The recharge bore wells and open wells have now proved to be more successful to recharge deep fractures, fissures. Hence, the individual households may be advocated to practice the methodologies under “SuWaSeM”.
In rooftop harvesting, the roof becomes the catchments, and the rainwater is collected from the roof of the house/building. It can either be stored in a tank or diverted to artificial recharge system. This method is less expensive and very effective and if implemented properly helps in augmenting the groundwater level of the area.
Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting can be done at any building, large or small, where each of the following form a part of the RWH structure. The RWH system mainly consist of catchment area, transportation, flushing and filter media (Sand gravel filter/Charcoal filter). The roof top rainwater is collected and stored for direct use or it can be recharged the groundwater level.
1. RRWH for direct use
  • Suitable roof
  • Gutter to collect water from the roof
  • Down pipe to divert water from gutter to storage tank
  • A pre-collection filter
  • Storage tank
2. RRWH for groundwater recharge
The rainwater collected from the rooftop can be used for recharging the groundwater aquifers by various kinds of structures to ensure percolation of rainwater in the ground instead of draining away from the surface.
  • Open well
  • Bore well
  • Recharge pit
  • Recharge trench
  • Recharge shaft
  • Percolation tanks
To sustain the benefits of RRWH systems in urban areas the concerned ULBs should take following initiatives:
  • The executive authority of the ULBs are at liberty to design and implement its own incentive systems for the successful adoption of RRWH system
  • To establish a mechanism to monitor 100% of RRWH provisions in all the buildings above 10002 m with annual physical verification while buildings less than 10002 m shall be monitored on the basis of 10% of random verification.
Activities to be taken up/Design/Methods
Rooftop Rain Water Harvesting systems can provide good quality of potable water, if the design features outlined below are taken into account:
  • The substances that go into the making of the roof should be non-toxic and chemically inert.
  • Roof surfaces should be smooth, hard and dense since they are easier to clean and are less likely to be damaged and release materials/fibres into the water.
  • Roof painting is not advisable since most paints contain toxic substances and may peel off.
  • No overhanging trees should be left near the roof.
  • Nesting of birds on the roof should be prevented.
  • All gutter ends should be fitted with a wire mesh screen to keep out leaves, etc.
  • Appropriate arrangement for discarding the first flow of rainfall should be made.
  • A hygienic soak away channel should be built at water outlets and a screened overflow pipe should be provided.
  • The storage tank should have a tight fitting roof that excludes light, a manhole cover and a flushing pipe at the base of the tank (for standing tanks).
  • There should be a reliable sanitary extraction device such as a gravity tap or a hand pump to avoid contamination of the water in the tank.
  • There should be no possibility of contaminated wastewater flowing into the tank (especially for tanks installed at ground level).
  • Water from other sources, unless it is a reliable source, should not be emptied into the tank through pipe connections or the manhole cover.
Maintenance
Roof top catchment tanks, like all water supplysystems, demand periodic management andmaintenance to ensure reliable and quality watersupply. If the various components of the system arenot regularly cleaned, water use is not properlymanaged, problems are not identified or necessaryrepairs not performed, the roof catchment system willcease to provide reliable and good quality water.Following is a time table of maintenance andmanagement requirements that can provide a basis formonitoring and checking:
  • During the rainy season, the whole system (roof catchment, gutters, pipes, screens, firstflush and overflow) should be checked before and after each rain and preferably cleaned after every dry period exceeding a month.
  • At the end of the dry season and just before the first shower of rain is anticipated, the storage tank should be scrubbed and flushed of all sediment and debris (the tank should be refilled afterwards with a few centimetres of clean water to prevent cracking). Ensure timely service (before the first rains are due) of all tank fixtures, including replacement of all worn screens and servicing of the outlet tap or hand pump.
The runoff water collected from roof tops can artificially recharge and augment the depleting ground water resources especially in the urban areas, where the natural recharge has diminished considerably. The areas having depth to water table greater than 8 m below ground level and underlain by permeable strata are suitable for artificial recharge.
Design
The design involves consideration of data onhydrological and hydrogeological aspects andhydro meteorological parameters. The backgroundinformation to be collected is as given below:
  • Layout plan of the area.
  • Demarcation of the roof, paved and open areas.
  • Delineation of storm water drains and flow of storm water.
  • Details of the existing ground water abstraction structures in and around the vicinity of the project site.
  • Computation of the runoff for recharge. Apart from the above mentioned parameters. Selection of appropriate recharge structure depends on the availability of space for construction of recharge structures and invert levels of storm water drains at inlets to recharge structures. While preparing the recharge scheme, depth and shape of the storage facility in recharge structure depends on the availability of runoff, depth of storm water drainage and space availability in an area. The recharge scheme as prepared may also be got vetted by appropriate authorities/TWAD to incorporate suggestions for improvement.
The most suitable recharge structures for roof top rain water harvesting are:
  • Recharge pits
  • Recharge trenches
  • Recharge through dry or operational dugwells
  • Recharge through abandoned/existing tube wells
  • Recharge wells, etc.
Recharge Pits
  • In alluvial areas where permeable rocks are exposed on the land surface or at very shallow depth, recharge pits are suitable for artificial recharge of water collected from the roof tops.
  • The technique is suitable for buildings having a roof area of 100 m2 the recharge pits are constructed for recharging the shallow aquifers.
  • Recharge pits may be of any shape and size and are generally constructed I to 2 m wide and 2 to 3 m deep which are backfilled with boulders (5-20 cm), gravels (5-10 mm), and coarse sand (1.5-2 mm) in graded form boulders at the bottom, gravels in between and coarse sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with runoff will be deposited on the top of the coarse sand layer and can easily be removed. For smaller roof area, pit may be filled with broken bricks/cobbles.
  • A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste/debris are prevented from entering the pit and a desilting/ collection chamber may also be provided at the ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the recharge pit.
  • The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate.
Recharge Trenches
  • Recharge trenches are suitable for buildings having roof area of 200-300 m2 and where permeable strata is available at shallow depths.
  • Trench may be 0.5 to 1 m wide, 1 to 1.5 m deep and 10 to 20 m long depending upon availability of water to be recharged.
  • These are backfilled with boulders (5-20 cm), gravels (5-10 mm), and coarse sand (1.5-2 mm) in graded form - boulders at the bottom, gravel in between and coarse sand at the top so that the silt content that will come with runoff will be deposited on the top of the sand layer and can easily be removed.
  • A mesh should be provided at the roof so that leaves or any other solid waste/debris is prevented from entering the trench and a desilting/collection chamber may also be provided on ground to arrest the flow of finer particles to the trench.
  • The top layer of sand should be cleaned periodically to maintain the recharge rate.
Recharge through Dry or Operational Dug Wells
  • Dry/operational dug wells if exist in the area may be utilized as recharge structures after cleaning and desilting the same.
  • Recharge water is guided through a pipe from desilting chamber to the bottom of the well or below the water level to avoid scouring of bottom and entrapment of air bubbles in the aquifer.
  • Recharge water should be silt-free. For removing the silt content, the runoff water should pass either through a desilting chamber or filter chamber.
  • Periodic chlorination should be done for controlling the bacteriological contamination in operational dug well.
  • Wire mesh filter should be provided just before the inlet to avoid entry of any foreign material, tree leaves, etc., in to the dug well.
Recharge through Abandoned/Existing Tube Wells
  • Abandoned/existing tube wells may be used as recharge structures.
  • The abandoned tube well should be properly developed before use as recharge structure.
  • PVC pipes of 10 cm diameter are connected to roof drains to collect rainwater.
  • The first roof runoff is drained through the bottom of drain pipe if existing tube well is used as recharge structure. After closing the bottom pipe, the rainwater of subsequent rain showers is taken through a 'Tee' to an online PVC filter in case of small roofs. If the roof area is larger, a filter pit may be provided. Rainwater from roofs is taken to collection/desilting chambers located on ground. These collection chambers are interconnected as well as connected to the filter pit through pipes.
  • A connecting pipe with recharge well is provided at the bottom of the pit for recharging of filtered water through well.
  • Wire mesh filter should be provided just before the inlet to avoid entry of any foreign material, tree leaves. etc., in to the system.
Recharge Wells
  • In areas where the aquifers are overlain by a considerable thickness of impervious formation, a new recharge tube well can be constructed for recharging the harvested rainwater.
  • It is used for recharging single/multiple aquifers.
  • A settlement-cum-storage tank is constructed near the tube well for settlement of silt particles and storage of excess water.
  • Roof top water is diverted to the settlement tank through pipes.
  • Clear water of storage tank is diverted to the recharge tube well for recharge.
  • It is suitable for recharging roof top rainwater of big buildings/blocks.
  • If runoff availability is less then online filter may be used in the pipe line connecting roof water with recharge well.

Construction of Recharge Well
These are drilled by deploying the appropriate rig unitor by hand boring as per the site conditions and depthof the tube wells.
A well assembly of pipes with diameters varying from100 to 250 mm may be lowered throughout the depth.Both M.S. and PVC pipes can be used. PVC pipes arerigid, light pipes in 6 or 9 m lengths available in alldiameters. The main advantage of PVC pipes is theirresistance to corrosion and slots of the pipes will notclose with time. As the slotted pipes in recharge wellsare in fluctuation zones of water levels, slots of M.S.pipes may become closed due to rusting. The maindrawback of PVC pipes is that, these pipes cannot beused in large diameter recharge wells. M.S. Pipes maybe coated with bituminous coating to avoid rusting.
After excavation of the recharge trench/shaft orfiltration chamber is over, pipes should be rechecked and cleaned with wire brush. Depth sounding ofrecharge wells should be taken with tape to make surethat no silt or soil has gone into the recharge wellsduring the excavation of trench/shaft. Width of slots inrecharge well should be in accordance with the aquifersystem encountered. Slotted pipes should be placedagainst the aquifer or dried-up aquifers encounteredin the recharge wells. A slotted pipe at the top of therecharge well will need to be placed to permit the entryof clean/clear water into the recharge well.
The annular space around the well assembly may beshrouded with appropriate size of gravel. The gravelshould be washed so that it is silt-free. The rechargetube well should be developed by low capacity aircompressor or by bailing method as required.The wellmay also be cleaned and developed by pouring thewater from outside if required. The water levels of thetube well should be recorded and the well covered withcap with a provision to monitor the well in future. A vent pipe of about one inch diameter is alsorecommended which can act as escape for gases and for measuring the water levels. Once the rechargetrench or shaft is constructed around the recharge tube well, recharge wells may be developed with hand bailers to avoid the disturbance of filter media.
Filters: Generally, the following two types of filters are used:
1.Online Filter
  • This filter is used when availability of runoff as well as recharge rate of recharge well is less.
  • Manufactured from reinforced engineering plastic material.
  • Available in various sizes and flow rates ranging from 3 to 25 m3/h.
  • Easy to open and clean.
2.Purpose Built Filter
  • The filter material recommended is coarse sand of 1.5 to 2 mm size at the top, followed by gravel of 5 to 10 mm size and boulders of 5 to 20 cm at bottom. The thickness of each layer should be about 0.5 m. Coarse sand should be placed at the top so that the silt content that comes with runoff will be deposited on the top of the coarse sand/pea gravel and can easily be removed. For smaller roof area the pit may be filled with over burnt broken bricks/cobbles.
  • After excavation of filter chamber, boulders and gravel should be filled up first to the foundation of wall of the structure.
  • After filling of boulder and gravel, filter material should be covered with polythene/jute bags to avoid spilling of construction material, which may damage the filter bed. After the construction of walls, the polythene/jute bags should be removed and the sand/pea gravels filled up to the recommended depth as per the design.
  • Filter media should be free from silt and any other foreign material. Before putting the filter material into the chamber, filter material should be sieved and washed to remove all the finer material. During operation the scouring effect of flow of water into the structure should be checked upon and if flow is disturbing the filter media, the water can be released near the filter media. This can be done by providing an 'I' shape joint in the inlet pipe in trench.
  • Regular inspection of filter material is essential in recharge structures. Silt deposited on the filter media should be cleaned regularly. Once in a year the top 5-10 cm sand/pea gravel layer should also be scraped to maintain a constant recharge rate through filter material.
  • Growth of grass or bushes hampers the filtration rate of the chamber. The grass and bushes should be cleared regularly.
Maintenance of Catchment Area, Water Drains and Recharge Structures
  • The catchments should be neat and clean. The roof top/terrace of the building spaces around the buildings should not be used for dumping of unwanted items and scrap material.
  • The washing machine water having heavy dose of detergents should not be allowed to enter into the water drains which are connected with recharge structures.
  • Open water drains covered with perforated detachable RCC slabs are best as the maintenance of these drains is easy and pollution, especially bacteriological pollution, can be avoided. If the storm water drainage is through pipe system, provide manholes andchambers at regular intervals as well as close to the suspected silt and waste accumulation places within the channel.
  • Protect the drainage system from tree leaves, polythene bags, plastic bottles and pouches of eatables.
  • Put up sign boards mentioning that the campus of building is equipped with rainwater harvesting system which is being recharged to the ground water system.Mention the ill effects and health impacts if the storm water drains are not properly maintained. Educate the 'Staff’ maintaining the storm water drains to keep the drains neat and clean.
  • Provide wire mesh filter just before the inlet. Provide silt check wall with in the drain bed at a convenient place. If more silt is expected provide check wall at regular intervals in the storm water drains.
  • The periodic removal of the material deposited on the surface be done by scraping the silt accumulated on top of the filter bed regularly.
  • Precaution should be taken to avoid domestic waste water entering into the recharge structures.
  • Recharge tube wells should be developed periodically by hand bailers to avoid clogging of the slots.
  • Before the arrival of monsoon, the roof top as well as drains should be properly cleaned.
  • Length and placement of the slotted pipe should be finalized after drilling of pilot hole for tube well.
  • Recharge water should be introduced into the structure at its lowest point to prevent erosion and disturbance of filter material.
  • A wire mesh should be placed at the entrance of recharge structures.
  • Periodic cleaning of collection chambers should be carried out to remove the plastic bags, leaves, etc. which may choke the entry of water recharge structures.

Source - https://twadboard.tn.gov.in/roof-top-rain-water-harvesting-rrwh
 

ajay7322

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A study on RWH.
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Household “rain water harvesting” – Who are practicing? Why are they practicing? A mixed methods study from rural area of Kolar district, South India


Background:

“Rain Water Harvesting” is one of the identified strategies to replenish the ground water system in India. Household level of rain water harvesting could serve as an indicator for assessment of participation of local community.

Objectives:
To assess the proportion of household rainwater harvesting and factors associated with it and to find the reasons behind adoption of this practice in a rural area of Kolar district, Karnataka.

Methods:
An exploratory sequential mixed methods study design with an initial cross-sectional quantitative study followed by qualitative in-depth interviews was done to assess the factors affecting household rain water harvesting and reasons behind the practice. Household survey with interview of one person from each household was done. Quantitative data were reported using proportions and qualitative data were reported using categories and verbatim quotes.

Results:
Of the 82 households surveyed, 31 (37.8%, 95% CI: 27.8–48.6) had adopted at least crude method of rain water harvesting. Household belonging to either joint or three-generation family type was practicing rain water harvesting higher compared with nuclear family type. Reasons for adoption were included under the categories - purity, fresh, tradition, less work, passion, and why waste?

Conclusion:
About one in three households practiced rain water harvesting in the rural area under study with households belonging to joint or three-generation family practicing more compared with nuclear families. The reason for adoption was mostly based on beliefs and also felt needs by families.

Full Study in Quote.

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Introduction
Water is an essential commodity for both human well-being and sustainability of the environment. Water resources play an important role for sustainable development of state. The Goal 6 of Sustainable Developmental Goals (SDG) to be achieved by all nations by 2030 is focused to “ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all.” Of all the targets for Goal 6, the target 6.6 is to “protect and restore water-related ecosystems” and is said to be achieved by the year 2020.[1,2]
The achievement of Goal 6 of SDG is also dependent on the participation of the local community and this is said to be ensured and is mentioned under target 6b.[1,2] The inadequacy in management of available water resources has resulted in disparities in inter- and intrasectoral allocations leading to water conflicts. In this scenario, diagnosing these problems and providing sustainable solutions and thus helping in formulating policy for efficient water management forms the need of the hour.
There is a trend in decreasing domestic per capita water availability in state of Karnataka, South India. The state is divided into 10 agroclimatic zones on the basis of climate, soil, topography, cropping pattern, and availability of water resources.[3] Central Ground Water Board of India identified “Rain Water Harvesting and other Artificial Recharges” as a strategy to replenish the ground water system in India and also pilot tested various methods including two in taluks of Kolar district of Karnataka state.[4]
These projects were tested in university campus or focused on built of point recharge structures.[4] Household level rain water harvesting although was emphasized, actions taken to implement and educate community were far and few. There is no documented baseline data regarding household level rain water harvesting in India. Generating data on this could serve as an indicator for assessment of participation of local community.
In the state of Karnataka, the rules were amended by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board, which provides for mandatory provision of rain water harvesting structure by every owner with site dimension of ≥2,400 ft2, or every owner who proposes to construct new buildings with site area >1,200 ft2.[4] Considering the fresh water scarcity in the district, the central ground water board of Kolar district called for formulating a comprehensive program to harvest the rain water through roof top, check dams, surface tanks, bunds, and subsurface dykes to use the resources directly from the structures, which, in turn, arrests the subsurface flows and augment the groundwater resources.[5] The SDG India index baseline report, 2018 showed that Karnataka state stands in 13th position in India with a score of 62 out of 100 with just falling short of the national average of 63 points with respect to achievement in SDG6.[6]
Further, a recent study analyzing the progress of SDG6 in India laid stress on creating local data to assess the indicators and also called for public along with the government, together to take more proactive steps toward promotion and utilization of water resources to achieve sustainable development goals in water and sanitation (i.e. SDG 6) in India.[7] Based on this background, this study was planned to assess the proportion of household rainwater harvesting and factors associated with it. The study also tried to find the reasons behind adoption of rain water harvesting practice in a rural area of Kolar district of Karnataka, which belongs to the “Eastern Dry” agroclimatic zone.
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Methods
We used an exploratory sequential mixed method study design with an initial cross sectional study (quantitative) followed by in-depth interviews (qualitative) to know the household characteristics influencing rain water harvesting and the reasons for practicing it.[8]
Quantitative
A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of Kolar, Karnataka, South India. The main occupation of people is agriculture. In the absence of surface water irrigation system ground water is the main source of irrigation. The district has highest number of bore wells in the state. Being a semi-arid area, the district is drought prone. Normal annual rainfall ranges from around 650 mm at Gudibanda in the north to around 800 mm at Mulbagal in the east averaging 740 mm in the district. There is a general South to North decreasing trend in annual rainfall. The South-West monsoon contributes around 55% of the annual rainfall. The other monsoon (North-East) yields around 30%. The balance of around 15% results from the pre-monsoon. September and October are the wettest months with over 100 mm monthly rainfall.[5] It has been observed that the frequency of occurrence of drought is once in 5 years at Kolar taluk.[9] This study was conducted in a single village of Kolar district, Karnataka. This was a village with naturally formed two clusters based on caste [Scheduled Caste (SC)/Scheduled Tribe (ST) and Other Backward Caste (OBC's)].
Sample size was calculated keeping that at least 50% of the population will have access to good quality water, which was the primary objective; with absolute precision of 10%, the minimum required sample size was calculated to be 97 households (calculated using OpenEpi Version 3.01). A house-to-house survey was conducted during the period of July to October 2018 to collect the sociodemographic details and details regarding the domestic and drinking water use and other water-related practices at the household. All the households in the village were included in the study. The details regarding the family sociodemography and water related characteristics were collected from an adult female of the household using a pretested semistructured interview schedule after obtaining written informed consent. The household which is locked was again accessed the next two consecutive days and if still found locked on the third day, the household was considered to be “locked” and taken as nonresponse.
We included the practice of rain water harvesting to be present at the household level irrespective of the nature of the practice. This study was part of larger study which also assessed the water, sanitation, hygiene practice, and also the community perceptions and its concurrency with the biochemical findings done in laboratory.
Qualitative
In-depth interview was done among women and men who were the head of the households to find the reasons for practicing rain water harvesting (broad theme). The interview was conducted at their home, and each interview lasted for about 10 min. Convenient sampling technique was used to obtain the sample and the interviews were carried out till data saturation was achieved. The interview was conducted by the trained principal investigator who is a female aged 25 years. The coinvestigator who was also trained in the qualitative research acted as the note taker. All interviews were conducted in local language (Kannada) after obtaining written informed consent. The interviews were noted in English language directly and were later transcribed into word document on the same day of the interview for analysis purpose. At the end of each interview, the investigator read out the notes and confirmed the validity of the same.
This study protocol was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee for Human Studies (SDUMC/KLR/IEC/20/2018-19).
Data entry and analysis

Quantitative

Data were single entered using Microsoft Excel and analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The outcome variable was expressed as proportion of households practicing rain water harvesting along with 95% confidence interval (CI). Continuous variable such as age were converted to categorical variables and expressed as frequency and percentage. All categorical variables such as gender, occupation, marital status, education, above/below poverty line status (APL/BPL), caste, and religion were expressed using frequency and proportions. Pearson Chi-square or Fischer's exact test were used to test the association. All variables which were significant in bivariate analysis (P < 0.05) were included in the model and multivariable logistic regression was done. The model significance was expressed using Nagelkerke R2 and P value and the association was expressed using adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% CI.

Qualitative
Content analysis was done using inductive process of grounded theory from the data collected. The results were analyzed under the broad theme – “reasons for practising rain water harvesting.”
We used open coding, wherein the data were divided into meaningful phrases. Categories were then identified to suit the central theme. All transcripts were entered in Microsoft word document. These transcripts were then manually coded into different categories by two different investigators. The results were reported using verbatim quotes under categories after reaching consensus between investigators. The differences if any were cleared with the help of third investigator. Investigator triangulation ensured the trustworthiness of qualitative analysis.[10,11]


Results
Out of total 108 households, enlisted a total of 82 households (76%) comprising of 464 individuals were surveyed. Of the 82 households surveyed, 31 (37.8%, 95% CI: 27.8–48.6) had adopted at least crude method of rain water harvesting for either agricultural purpose (18.3%), or household purpose (13.4%) or both (6.1%) [see Table 1].


Table 1
Proportion and purpose of rain water harvesting in a rural area of Kolar (n=82 households)
Purpose of rain water harvesting​
Number (%)​
Household purpose​
11 (13.4)​
Agricultural purpose​
15 (18.3)​
Both​
05 (06.1)​
Total​
31 (37.8)​
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Bivariate analysis showed that family type (joint/three-generation family compared with nuclear family), age of the head of the household (<60 years compared with ≥60 years), education of the head of the household (no formal education compared with having formal education), and caste (SC/ST compared with OBC) showed having significant association with having adopted the practice of rain water harvesting [see Table 2].
Table 2
Household characteristics associated with practicing rain water harvesting in a rural area of Kolar (n=82 households)
Household characteristic​
Total, n
Practicing rainwater harvesting, n (%)​
Pearson Chi-square value​
P
Family type​
 Nuclear​
39​
06 (15.4)​
 Joint​
11​
07 (63.6)​
16.507​
<0.001
 Three generation​
32​
18 (56.3)​
Head of the household​
 Male​
71​
26 (36.6)​
0.316​
0.740​
 Female​
11​
05 (45.5)​
Marital status of head of the household​
 Married​
71​
24 (33.8)​
3.605​
0.092​
 Widow/separated​
11​
07 (63.6)​
Age of the head of the household​
 <60 years​
47​
13 (27.7)​
4.820​
0.039
 ≥60 years​
35​
18 (51.4)​
Education of the head of the household​
 No formal education​
54​
27 (50.0)​
10.003​
0.002
 Has formal education​
28​
04 (14.3)​
Occupation status of Head of the household​
 Unemployed​
07​
04 (57.1)​
1.217​
0.417​
 Employed​
75​
27 (36.0)​
Health status of head of the household​
 No chronic disease​
57​
19 (33.3)​
1.590​
0.226​
 Chronic disease present​
25​
12 (48.0)​
Caste​
 Scheduled caste/Scheduled tribe​
65​
21 (32.3)​
4.030​
0.045
 Other backward caste​
17​
10 (58.8)​
Socioeconomic status​
 Above poverty line​
12​
05 (41.7)​
0.089​
0.758​
 Below poverty line​
70​
26 (37.1)​
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Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that household belonging to either joint or three generation family type were practicing rain water harvesting higher compared with nuclear family type after adjusting for age, education of the head of the household, and also the caste [see Table 3].
Table 3
Multivariable analysis showing household characteristics associated with practicing rain water harvesting in a rural area of Kolar (n=82 households)
Household characteristic​
Adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval)​
Family type​
 Nuclear​
Ref.​
 Joint​
6.33 (1.32-30.46)
 Three generation​
4.72 (1.29-17.33)
Age of the head of the household​
 <60 years​
Ref.​
 ≥60 years​
0.96 (0.29-3.17)​
Education of the head of the household​
 No formal education​
Ref.​
 Has formal education​
0.32 (0.08-1.22)​
Caste​
 Scheduled caste/scheduled tribe​
Ref.​
 Other backward caste​
2.12 (0.63-7.16)​


Model significance: Nagelkerke R2=0.318, P=0.001
Qualitative analysis of transcripts identified reasons for these households to practice rain water harvesting which were represented under the categories - purity, fresh, tradition, less work, passion, and why waste?[see Table 4].
Table 4
Categories and corresponding verbatim quotes denoting the major theme of “why do you harvest rain water?”
Category​
Verbatim quotes​
“Purity”​
“.rain water is pure and it’s always good to use it for all…. bathing washing etc.” (30 year female)​
“Fresh”​
“rain water is best and also very fresh… it feels different to have a bath with rain water….(smiles)” (42 year male)​
“Tradition”​
“…my father always used to do it for his farming…. I just followed him and now my son too does the same… It is good practice know?” (80 year male)​
“Less work”​
“…oh if it rains then it reduces our burden…. the water can be used for all…washing, bathing… and we need to fetch water only for drinking…” (50 year female)​
“Passion”​
“….I like this … I mean what I do… from my young like we used to collect in cans….now we have done this…makes me happy (smiles)” (45 year male)​
“Why waste?”​
“why should we waste water….you know it’s not easy to get water over here….if all do this…at least we will have other water use for some more time… what say?” (40 year male)​


Discussion
In our study, it was found that about 37% of the households practiced rain water harvesting. Household belonging to joint or three-generation family were practicing rain water harvesting more compared with nuclear family. Reasons for adopting the practice was found to be because of beliefs of rain water being pure or fresh and also related to passion and tradition.
This is the first study which is reporting the status of household level rainwater harvesting. This study was conducted in a rural setting and in a single village and thus has limited external validity. About 37% of the households practiced some form of rain water harvesting in our study village. The village chosen was from the neighboring taluk of Mulbagal taluk in Kolar district.[4] Mulbagal taluk was one of the two taluks from Karnataka state, which was chosen for pilot project of rain water harvesting and artificial recharge project by Ministry of Water Resources, India. Thus, effect of this project on the study village cannot be ruled out and may have influenced the study result. This indicator of household level rain water harvesting could further be used as an indicator to measure the target 6b of SDG 6.
Households belonging to either joint or three-generation family type were showed to practice rain water harvesting more compared with nuclear families. This can be attributed to the nature of family functionality and also requirement of water. The higher requirement of water may influence the behavior or attitudinal changes in joint or three-generation families to adopt for other ways of storing water, which could have led to adoption of rain water harvesting.
The qualitative component of the study brought out the reasons for the adoption of rain water harvesting at household level. These were mostly related to beliefs among the household members especially the heads of the household. Belief related to the quality of rain water been “pure” and “fresh” have influenced in adopting in some households. As seen with any practice to be adopted at household levels, “beliefs” play a major role. In rural settings of India, “tradition” also play a major role in carrying forward few practices and this was also found to play a major role as reported by our study participants. Apart from this individual attributes such as “passion” to rain water harvesting was also seen to play a role in adoption of household rain water harvesting especially if it is of the head of the household.
As shown in quantitative analysis, joint or three-generation family had adopted rain water harvesting more compared with nuclear family and this was supported by the qualitative findings too. Work related to collection of water and storage was felt by the households to be reduced during rainy days if rain water is collected and stored for usage. Few households also felt when water is scarce then there is a need to collect rain water and use rather than waste the water. Thus, it was seen that as with any behavioral adoptions, individual beliefs and also felt needs played a major role in adoption of rain water harvesting in rural areas.
The study has few strengths. We have used a mixed method study design to explore the factors that are associated with household level adoption of rain water harvesting and thus give more credible information. We have used robust statistical methods to find the associated factors in quantitative analysis and also used manual content analysis for qualitative analysis, which is considered gold standard. This is also the first of its kind study from the region to report practices related to rain water harvesting. The study also proposes use of household rain water harvesting as an indicator to assess target 6b of SDG 6. This study is not without limitations. The study was conducted in one village and thus has limited generalizability. We fell short the coverage by about 15% of the sample size in spite of repeated visits. We also have taken any type of rain water harvesting as a good practice and did not assess the quality of the rain water harvest method, which was outside the purview of the study.
The recent World Health Organization report on vision for primary health care in the 21st century identified water and sanitation as one of the 29 disease control priority projects or interventions and emphasize on community participation in achieving the dream sustainable primary care.[12] In lines with these priority areas, this study emphasize on the need for health advocacy to the community using local examples as models to change in their practice or behaviors related to safe water and sanitation.


Conclusion
About one in three households practiced rain water harvesting in the rural area under study with households belonging to joint or three-generation family practicing more compared with nuclear families. The reason for adoption was mostly based on beliefs and also felt needs by families. There is a need to adopt focussed educational interventions and also education regarding different ways of rain water harvesting, which can be adopted locally and made sustainable in long run.
 

ajay7322

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A case study of RWH in Indian household.

===================================
===================================
Harvesting and using roof-top rainwater

Harvesting rainwater from roof-tops is an easy and eco-friendly method of augmenting household-level water availability. Roof-top rainwater harvesting (RRH) involves diverting and recharging (or) storing part of the rainwater that falls on the roof of a house. RRH for recharging groundwater is a common practice implemented in individual houses as well as apartment complexes.

In such cases, harvested water is directed into a recharge pit which collects and slowly recharges into the groundwater storage / aquifer in that area. But, storing the rainwater and directly using it is also a feasible option for those who want to directly benefit from augmented water availability.


My RRH system

I installed a RRH system at my small house located at Boduppal (17.414363 N, 78.576998 E) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh (close to Hyderabad city) in June 2012, just before the onset of the south-west monsoon.

Four major components of the system are –

1. Roof of about 100 sq m area

2. Down pipe connecting the roof and filter

3. Rainy filter that screens all dust particles more than 200 micron size

4. Underground storage tank of 1000 L capacity

The rainwater that is collected in the underground storage tank is pumped back to a separate over-head tank placed on the roof. Toilet flush tanks in both toilets have exclusive connection to this storage tank, apart from the taps located in the kitchen and a wash-basin in the dining space.

Though my house has municipal water supply connection with sufficient supply, my intention is to avoid using such high-quality treated water meant for drinking purpose (treated at a cost of INR 25-30 per kilo litre) for non-consumptive applications requiring lower quality of water such as flushing toilets, cleaning utensils, watering the plants etc.

System performance

This system was installed in June 2012 and I observed its functioning and performance during June-Oct period, which is the predominant monsoon rainy season at my place. Average annual rainfall at my place is 804 mm, with 50 average rainy days.

Here are my observations on major aspects of the performance.

Filter performance

For a RRH system designed for direct use of water, a filter is the most important component, like the heart in a human body. My filter (brand named ‘Rainy FL-100’ was purchased from a rainwater harvesting company in Bangalore, see www.rainyfilters.com) works on the principle of centrifugal force. Once the water enters this filter, it rotates in a spiral motion on the inner surface of the cylindrical shaped filter mesh.

Water that passes through the mesh (along with dust particles of less than 200 micron) enters the storage tank. About 10-20% of water, depending on the intensity of rainfall, gets rejected by the filter. Passing of 80-90% of roof water through the filter indicates very good and satisfactory performance.

But, the water that reaches the storage tank has still some finer dust particles, which could not be removed by the filter. There are also practices of using simple bucket filters filled with sand, charcoal like material or sponge. Most such systems require a provision for 'first-flush' to prevent entry of dirt and dust into the filter. Also, such filters require frequent cleanup or replacement of filter material.

I found the new filter to be really 'maintenance-free' and there is also no need for manual operation to divert the first-flush. But, the downside is during first 5-10 minutes of rain, amount of water rejected is more due to high dirt-load in the first-flush water. Over a period of 20-30 min, the rate of rejected water comes to approx. 5- 10% of total water harvested.

Quality of water harvested

Rainwater that is harvested through the filter reaches the storage tank. During the four-months observation period, my 1000 L capacity storage tank got filled up around 15 times and when it is filled up completely, excess water was sent out through the over-flow pipe provided at the top (few inches below the ground level) of the storage tank.

A pipe (suction pipe for the pump-set) is inserted to the bottom of the storage tank (few inches above the bottom of the tank) for pumping the water to the over-head tank located on the roof. Since most of the dust particles are minute in size and initially float on the surface of the water due to turbulence, clear water free from any dust or dirt could be pumped out from the bottom of the tank and the quality was found to be highly satisfactory.

Moreover, repeated filling of the storage tank to the brim helped in sending out the water loaded with floating dust particles through the over-flow pipe. Thus the system is functioning like a ‘self-cleaning and maintaining’ system. Dust particles got clustered and floating on the water surface in storage tank (immediately after a rainfall event). For any such RRH to function as a self-cleaning and self-flushing with minimum human intervention for maintenance, it is useful to size the storage tank in such a way that it over-flows several times during the rainy season.

Moreover, due to availability of limited space for constructing a tank, it is better to construct a tank of 2000-3000 litre capacity or less for a roof area of 100 sq.m in a place like Hyderabad. In places with more intense rains, one can go for higher capacity storage tanks. But, to avoid wastage of more water through over-flow, one need frequently pump out water and keep the storage tank empty.

Few days after the rainfall, I observed relatively bigger dust particles settling at the bottom of the storage tank. Since pumping is done from a level few inches above the bottom of tank, most of these particles flock together and do not move with water pumped to the over-head tank. Flushing the storage tank once in a season will help to remove them and keep the tank clean.

Conclusion

The over-all performance of the RRH system is found to be good and satisfactory. Filter’s performance, which influences the quality of water and functioning of whole system, is found to be very good. Careful sizing of the storage tank and proper over-flow provision to storage tank helps to make the system ‘self-cleaning’ and ‘self-maintaining’.

My RRH system helped to harvest around 15,000 liters of water over a period of 5 months (150 days), at an average rate of 100 liters per day. In other words, 15,000 litres of drinking water supplied by the muncipality was prevented from going down the drain as toilet flush and saved so as to meet drinking water needs of people in other areas.

By adopting roof top water harvesting and implementing dual water use by modifying the household level plumbing works, one can save lot of high-value treated drinking water and help people in accessing potable water in areas facing serious water shortage and also in areas (such as Nalagonda) affected by fluoride in water.

Source - https://www.indiawaterportal.org/articles/harvesting-and-using-roof-top-rainwater-part-1
 

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An extensive study on Rainwater Harvesting in India.
==============================================================================================================================================

Rainwater harvesting in India: Some critical issues for basin planning and research

PDF ATTACHED BELOW

Source -

Rainwater harvesting has extremely limited potential to reduce the demand-supply imbalances and provide reliable supplies in water-scarce regions. The reason is that a significant part of these regions is characterized by low mean annual rainfalls, high inter-annual variability in rainfall and high PE, a larger share of which occurs during the rainy season, reducing the runoff potential and increasing the occurrence of hydrological stresses.

A large part of the water-scarce regions of India which fall under the medium rainfall medium to high evaporation regime is underlain by hard rock formations such as basalt, crystalline rocks, and other consolidated formations such as sandstones. Percolation tanks are likely to have low efficiency in these hard rockareas and this is also the case in areas having silty clayand clayey soils. In regions with high rainfall andmedium evaporation such as parts of Orissa and western Ghat, the overall potential of RWHS would be high.
 

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RWH: A tale of two successful states

As the race to bridge the gap between limited water availability and increasing demand for water narrows in India, rain water harvesting has been increasingly recommended in urban areas to harness the available water, rather than relying on expensive and unsustainable means of procuring water.

The report titled 'Urban Rainwater Harvesting - Case studies from different agroclimatic regions' published by the Centre for Science and Environment, argues that although RWH has been made mandatory in all cities, there continues to be a considerable lack of information and understanding on the extent and potential role it plays to save and increase water reserves. There is also not enough information on its social and financial benefits.

The need for information about the challenges to implement RWH

The report states that more information is needed on the issues, challenges and potential of RWH across different regions of India to be able to truly use it as a means of water augmentation. This is because India's rainfall is unevenly distributed with respect to time and space acoss different agroclimatic regions. This calls for different strategies to be devised to harvest rainwater in different parts of the country.

The report presents an analysis of case studies on RWH initiatives in 12 different sites in India, and a detailed analysis on two of the successfully implemented RWH projects from different agroclimatic settings -- one from a scanty rainfall area (Rajasthan) and the other from very high rainfall area (Goa).

The case of Birkha Bawari in Jodhpur, Rajasthan

The report describes the case of the Birkha Bawari in Jodhpur, Rajasthan located in the Umaid heritage site in a residential complex area. The Bawari structure not only stores rainwater but also acts as a recreational space for inhabitants. It also provides a good example of sustainable urban development practice in a low rainfall region, demonstrating the value of water by conserving rainwater.

The RWH storage structure is inspired by traditional RWH structures in the region but while the traditional baolis and kunds were used to extract groundwater, the Birkha Bawari is used to catch rainwater. Apart from storage and conservation of rainwater, the project also highlights the sustainable storm water management in the housing complex, as it collects all the runoff from the site minimising water-logging in the residential complex.

The residential complex has around 15 acres of green area. The landscape is a rich mix of trees, plants and gardens as an integrated part of the complex. The stored water from the Birkha Bawari is used for maintaining green area of the housing complex. The rainwater stored can meet around 8-9 months of landscaping and horticultural water requirements.

The report informs that the RWH project is a high visibility and high impact intervention with considerable social and economic benefits to direct users as well as the surrounding environment. The system captures around 21.1 million litres of rainwater, which has helped in reducing the dependence on municipal water supply and groundwater. During the past three years, almost 50 percent less groundwater is being extracted from borewells on the site.

The RWH project in Goa University

The key objective of the RWH project in Goa University is to reduce the declining groundwater levels in the area and recharge the aquifers to reduce dependence on municipal water supply.

The University has around 1500 staff and students. The existing water demand is around 0.45 million litres per day. Around 50 percent of the water supply depends on public water and the remainder is accessed from twelve borewells on the campus. During summer, public supply is reduced and most of the water obtained is from the borewells, which has resulted in the drying up of a few.

The existing rainwater system has two main structures, one for harvesting surface runoff with a catchment of 1.5 hectares that is mainly unpaved area, and a rooftop harvesting system for harvesting the runoff mainly from built up areas on campus.

RWH at the campus has resulted in a substantial increase in the aquifer yields, which has been confirmed from the well yield tests carried out on two borewells located in close proximity of the recharge structure. Within one year of operation, well yields have increased by 13 to 15 percent showing recovery in the groundwater levels. Improved yields have also led to less electricity usage for pumping groundwater and savings in costs.

The report ends by stating that these case studies scientifically establish that it is possible to practice RWH in varied types of agroclimatic zones and the needs and strategies may vary from site to site. However, the returns are very high as compared to the simplicity of establishing and using RWH. For example, for as low as 10 cm of rainwater harvested on 1 ha. area, 1 million litres of water can be collected for recharge or storage.

These case studies provide positive examples of successful RWH efforts made in the country and should encourage further discussions within ULBs or water management organisations on the potential of mainstreaming RWH into their current and future plans for urban areas.


Source -

 

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How is RWH done for Agricultural Lands?

PDF Attached

============================================================================================================================================


In Agri land, an artificial pond can be constructed and water can be stored for long period. This method is also used by Gold Miners which was also shown in show Gold rush.

Many state governments have got specific policies to make farmers go for this type of water harvesting, like how Madhya Pradesh government give subsidy to construct a big Jalkund (This name is called by Goa) in MP it is called by "Dabri" and you get the subsidy to construct one of this (Half of the payment is given by MP govt. as far as I know).

Which can be filled in Rainey Season and the water can be used whenever required.

1655644253085.png
 

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ajay7322

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So how do we do this in our home? Roof Topwater here is one of the ways which is really good and low cost.




A simple solution which city municipalities also suggest ----

 
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ajay7322

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There is this youtube channel which I found somewhere, this guy got really good videos with demonstrations also go thorugh his videos for better understanding.
===================================
If directing Roof Top water to Borwell either do this setup or control the flow of water manually, so the walls of the borewell do not collapse.

 

ajay7322

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This is what you should do for Rooftop water harvesting.



 

Bhumihar

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Construction of tank is a costly affair a 500 lt tank cost anywhere between 30,000 to 50,000.
Any method to reduce cost will be helpful.
 

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I have a 10,000 litre rainwater harvesting system in my home which costs 67500, BUT I only had to pay 6750 as the government financed 90% of it. Don't remember whether it was central or state project but only 3 panchayats out of nearly a thousand panchayats in Kerala were selected and mine was one of them. We really didn't need such a thing as water was plenty here anyway, but since it was pretty cheap we applied for it and had it made. It's a very simple system, water from the terrace flows through a pipe along with leaves, dirt and mud into a long pipe. The impurities settle at the bottom of this pipe and water overflows fron the pipe into the tank. This pipe has to be drained regularly or else the impurities will flow into the tank.



The biggest downside of the tank is that all the pipes are at the bottom, meaning that we can't wash anything with it. The flow of water is pretty slow too so watering plants with it is not an option. The only thing to do is to open the pipes and let the water flow into the ground so that our well can get replenished during the summer.
 

Bhumihar

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I have a 10,000 litre rainwater harvesting system in my home which costs 67500, BUT I only had to pay 6750 as the government financed 90% of it. Don't remember whether it was central or state project but only 3 panchayats out of nearly a thousand panchayats in Kerala were selected and mine was one of them. We really didn't need such a thing as water was plenty here anyway, but since it was pretty cheap we applied for it and had it made. It's a very simple system, water from the terrace flows through a pipe along with leaves, dirt and mud into a long pipe. The impurities settle at the bottom of this pipe and water overflows fron the pipe into the tank. This pipe has to be drained regularly or else the impurities will flow into the tank.



The biggest downside of the tank is that all the pipes are at the bottom, meaning that we can't wash anything with it. The flow of water is pretty slow too so watering plants with it is not an option. The only thing to do is to open the pipes and let the water flow into the ground so that our well can get replenished during the summer.
That's the point.
Our village has a population of 1000.
Through jal jewaan scheme 4 large 10,000 Lt tanks were setup to supply water at homes.
On one hand this is good but the water level fell.
No one will pay 30,000 to 50,000 for RWH in a state like Bihar so we are looking at cheaper solution.
 

ajay7322

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I have a 10,000 litre rainwater harvesting system in my home which costs 67500, BUT I only had to pay 6750 as the government financed 90% of it. Don't remember whether it was central or state project but only 3 panchayats out of nearly a thousand panchayats in Kerala were selected and mine was one of them. We really didn't need such a thing as water was plenty here anyway, but since it was pretty cheap we applied for it and had it made. It's a very simple system, water from the terrace flows through a pipe along with leaves, dirt and mud into a long pipe. The impurities settle at the bottom of this pipe and water overflows fron the pipe into the tank. This pipe has to be drained regularly or else the impurities will flow into the tank.



The biggest downside of the tank is that all the pipes are at the bottom, meaning that we can't wash anything with it. The flow of water is pretty slow too so watering plants with it is not an option. The only thing to do is to open the pipes and let the water flow into the ground so that our well can get replenished during the summer.
Is there any filter inbetween being used? As in Indore a filter is also being installed before the water being let into the tank.
 

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