Chinese history and culture

masterofsea

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Eastern Zhou (722 to 481 BC),Philosophers's time

You can see Details in there Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770BC-221BC), History, Politics


In this period,the central government declined.The federal states were always going to war.But this is a time of philosophy,many philosophers influenced china's history and culture emerged in large numbers.

This period is accordance with ancient Greece's time of philosophy.

there the most influential ones.


Laozi, who lived in the 6th century BC.He was the founder of Taoism.




Confucius (Traditional calendar,September 28, 551 BC – 479 BC)




Sun Tzu, author of The Art of War.Sun's The Art of War grew in popularity and saw practical use in Western society, and his work has continued to influence both Asian and Western culture and politics.



Zhuangzi,who lived around the 4th century BCE during the Warring States Period.In general, Zhuangzi's philosophy is mildly skeptical, arguing that life is limited and the amount of things to know is unlimited. To use the limited to pursue the unlimited, he said, was foolish. Our language and cognition in general presuppose a dao to which each of us is committed by our separate past—our paths. Consequently, we should be aware that our most carefully considered conclusions might seem misguided had we experienced a different past. "Our heart-minds are completed along with our bodies.

Personally,I like his literature mostly.

 

masterofsea

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Zeng Houyi bells of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty unearthed in Hubei Province




Coins of the Eastern Zhou Dynasty



Scepter of military official
 

masterofsea

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The power of the Zhou declined somewhat. The so-called Spring & Autumn period, named after a book (The Spring and Autumn Annals).13 main regional states with dozens small one fighted wars eachother.

Spring & Autumn Period (722 - 481 BC)



After wars lasting 300 years,states merged to seven big ones,this period is called:

Warring States Period (403 - 221 BC)
 

masterofsea

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Spear of the king Fucha (495 BCE-473 BCE)of Wu state,Spring & Autumn Period (722 - 481 BC)


Sword of the king Goujian(520 BCE-465 BCE) of Yue state,Spring & Autumn Period (722 - 481 BC).The sword keep unrusted after 2500 years,and the craft of the chromium plating patterns on the sword still unknow.
 

masterofsea

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The Born of the Fist Emperor

The year of 259 BCE,a boy was borned in the Qin state which ruled the present Shaanxi province.246 BCE,he ascended the throne of Qin state.With his military and governing talent,he ended the federal system which lasted two millennium and unified the seven states to a great empire,the Chin empire which modern china's name was followed.
He was the eastern world's Kyng Alisaunder.




This his empire





Terra-Cotta Army in his tomb.
 

masterofsea

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His achievement

The first highway system cross china



earliest water-utilization project of the world,still benefit 50 mln people in sichuan province




earliest dam type canal of the world,linked the Yangtzi river and Pearl river,still in use.




the Great Wall,national symbol
 

Ray

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In pre-modern times, the theory of foreign relations of China held that China was the Middle Kingdom, the center of world civilization, with the Chinese emperor being the leader of the civilized world. This view saw China as equivalent to all under heaven. All other states were considered to be tributaries, under the suzerain rule of China.

This political theory was largely accepted in East Asia, often even in periods of Chinese weakness, as in the Song Dynasty, when it did not accord with actual power relationships.

Unsurprisingly, there were periods when Chinese foreign relations could sometimes take on isolationist tones, because of the view that the rest of the world was poor and backwards and had little to offer.
Nevertheless, China was, from very early history, a center of trade. Many of China's interactions with the outside world came via the Silk Road. This included, during the first or second century CE, contact with representatives of the Roman Empire, and during the thirteenth century, contact with Marco Polo.

Chinese foreign policy was often aimed at containing the threat of so-called "barbarian" invaders (such as the Xiongnu, Mongols, and Jurchen) from the north. This could be done by military means, such as an active offense (campaigns into the north) or a more passive defense (as exemplified by the Great Wall). China also practiced heqin, "peace marriage".
Chinese officers distinguished between "cooked barbarians" (foreigners influenced by Chinese culture, such as Koreans) and "raw barbarians".

In some periods, Chinese foreign policy was especially assertive.

One such case was during the voyages of Zheng He during the Ming dynasty.

Exploring Chinese History :: Politics :: International Relations :: Relations During Imperial China
 

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The Chinese Barbarians and the Hans

Han culturism differentiates between the culture of the Han, the inner people (nei ren) and the barbarians, the outer people (wai ren). This concept is a hand me down from the time of the Shang Dynasty, who political centre was located North of the Yellow River.

The Chinese differentiate between raw barbarians (shengfan) or the unassimilated people and the “cooked barbarians” (shufan) or those who were assimilated and yet were not the Han people e.g. the Han Chinese separated the ‘cooked’ Li of the coast of Hainan from the ‘uncooked’ Li of the central forest.

Barbarians were given generic names in the Chinese classics and histories: the Yi barbarians to the East, the Man to the South, Rong to the West and Di to the North.

Until the 1930s, the names of the outgroups (wai ren) were commonly written in characters with the animal radical: the Di, a northern tribe were linked to the dog; the Man and Min of the South were characterised with reptiles; the Qiangs were written with a sheep radical. This reflected the Han Chinese conviction that civilisation and culture were linked with humanity; alien groups living outside the pale of Han society were regarded as inhuman savages.

The custom of sharply distinguishing between the inner and outer people went along with the calling China the Middle Kingdom (zhong guo) , which began by ruling the Central plain (zhongyang) in North China. Rather than using outright military conquest, the theory of ‘using the Chinese ways to transform the barbarians (yongxiabianyi)’ was promulgated. By cultural absorption or racial integration through intermarriage, a barbarian could become a Han Chinese (Hanhua).

Excerpted from:

An Ethnohistorical Dictionary of China
http://books.google.com/books?id=IOM8qF ... t#PPA95,M1

Sun Yat Sen, the founder of Chinese Republic overthrew the Qing Dynasty which ruled over all of China from 1644 to 1911 and proclaim when he launch his rebellion against the Qing Dynasty which was ruled by Manchus:

“ In order to restore our national independence, we must first restore the Chinese nation. In order to restore the Chinese nation, we must drive the barbarian Manchus back to the Changbai Mountains. In order to get rid of the barbarians, we must first overthrow the present tyrannical, dictatorial, ugly, and corrupt Qing government. Fellow countrymen, a revolution is the only means to overthrow the Qing government!
 

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The Danwei system of China

The influence of a work unit on the life of an individual was substantial and permission had to be obtained from the work units before undertaking everyday events such as travel, marriage, or having children. Amongst other things, the work unit assigned individuals living quarters and provided them with food, which was eaten in centralized canteens. The danwei system was crucial to the implementation of the mis-named 'one child policy' as the reproductive behavior of workers could be monitored through the danwei system. Workers not complying with policy could have their pay docked, incentives withheld or living conditions downgraded.
 

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The Hukuo System of China

A Hukou (simplified Chinese: 户口; traditional Chinese: 戶口; pinyin: hùkǒu) or huji (simplified Chinese: 户籍; traditional Chinese: 戶籍; pinyin: hùjí) refers to the system of residency permits which dates back to ancient China, where household registration is required by law in People's Republic of China and Republic of China (Taiwan).

A household registration record officially identifies a person as a resident of an area and includes identifying information such the name of the person, date of birth, the names of parents, and name of spouse, if married.

A hukou can also refer to a family register in many contexts since the household registration record (simplified Chinese: 户籍誊本; traditional Chinese: 戶籍謄本; pinyin: hùjí téngběn) is issued per family, and usually includes the births, deaths, marriages, divorces, and moves, of all members in the family. A similar household registration system exists within the public administration structures of Japan (koseki), Vietnam (Hộ khẩu), and North Korea (Hoju). In South Korea the Hoju system was abolished on 1 January 2008.

The Communist Party instigated a command economy when it came to power in the late 1940s. In 1958, the Chinese government began using the family register system to control the movement of people between urban and rural areas. Individuals were broadly categorised as a "rural" or "urban" worker. A worker seeking to move from the country to urban areas to take up non-agricultural work would have to apply through the relevant bureaucracies. The number of workers allowed to make such moves was tightly controlled. Migrant workers would require six passes to work in provinces other than their own. People who worked outside their authorized domain or geographical area would not qualify for grain rations, employer-provided housing, or health care.There were controls over education, employment, marriage and so on.
 

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Legalism (Chinese philosophy)

In Chinese history, Legalism (Chinese: 法 家; pinyin: Fǎjiā; Wade-Giles: Fa-chia; literally "School of law") was one of the four main philosophic schools during the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period (the other three being Confucianism, Daoism and Mohism). This period (from 770 to 221 BC) was an era of great cultural and intellectual ferment in China, and gave rise to the important Hundred Schools of Thought. In China under the political leadership of Li Si, his form of Legalism became the predominant ideology in China. Some scholars consider Li Si's form of Legalism to have been one of the earliest known totalitarian ideologies[1]. Legalism was a pragmatic political philosophy that does not address higher questions like the nature and purpose of life.[2] It has maxims like "when the epoch changed, legalism is the act of following all laws", and its essential principle is one of jurisprudence. "Legalism" here has the meaning of "political philosophy that upholds the rule of law", and is thus distinguished from the Western meaning of the word. The school's most famous proponent and contributor Han Fei (韓非) believed that a ruler should govern his subjects by the following trinity:

1. Fa (Chinese: 法; pinyin: fǎ; literally "law or principle"): The law code must be clearly written and made public. All people under the ruler were equal before the law. Laws should reward those who obey them and punish accordingly those who dare to break them. Thus it is guaranteed that actions taken are systematically predictable. In addition, the system of law ran the state, not the ruler. If the law is successfully enforced, even a weak ruler will be strong.
2. Shu (Chinese: 術; pinyin: shù; literally "method, tactic or art"): Special tactics and "secrets" are to be employed by the ruler to make sure others don't take over control of the state. Especially important is that no one can fathom the ruler's motivations, and thus no one can know which behaviour might help them getting ahead; except for following the 法 or laws.
3. Shi (Chinese: 勢; pinyin: shì; literally "legitimacy, power or charisma"): It is the position of the ruler, not the ruler himself or herself, that holds the power. Therefore, analysis of the trends, the context, and the facts are essential for a real ruler.
 

Ray

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Add all this and shake it up in a cocktail shaker and see how one gets confused! :)
 

masterofsea

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What a bloody interpreting it is.Where the source comes from?What is a "cooked barbarian",It's may means 生番 in chinese.But I think the proper mean is unfamiliar/strange/uncivilized barbarian.


The Danwei system of China disappeared after the market-oriented economy was introduced in china.Your source is outdated.

The Hukuo System of China is loosing,but It still play a role when children register to school,social insurant.
 

masterofsea

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Han dynasty(202 B.C.-220 A.D.),A Empire Only the Rome Can Match

Just like the short lived Alexander Reich,Chin dynasty only lasted less than half century.After Chin was overthrow by peasants rebellion,Han dynasty united China again.This empire also give us the national name,Han Ren 汉人,people of Han empire.He also give us the vast territory of China.His culture influence reached Korean,Japan and Vietnam,give these country from literature to architect.



But the most important thing is not material,but cultural.The imperial examination(科举制度 in chinese). With this examination,even a ordinary farmer's son could get high rank in imperial court.This is why the thought "everyone is born of equal" are so deeply rooted in Chinese people's mind.That a reason why communism sweep across China but not India.




architect of Chin and Han dynasty




clothes of Han


decorating jade articles



 

Ray

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What a bloody interpreting it is.Where the source comes from?What is a "cooked barbarian",It's may means 生番 in chinese.But I think the proper mean is unfamiliar/strange/uncivilized barbarian.
Master of the Sea,

If you don't know what is 'cooked barbarian' (shufan) and 'raw barbarian' (shengfan), then you are not a Chinese and if you are, you have apparently no idea of your culture and history or so it seems!

Or maybe it is so embarrassing that you wish to deflect to deny and bury it under the carpet.

My source?

They are many. You chose.

or


Han Chinese Culturalrism

China’s topography has historically encouraged regional separatism, but Han culturalism provided unity for the Chinese. Han Chinese culturalism arose to distinguish between the culture of the Han, or inner people (nei ren) and the ‘barbarians’, the outer people (wei ren), Chinese social institution and feelings of cultural and aesthetic superiority have provided reassurance for the Han Chinese in the face of barbarian penetration and conquest.

The concept of Han culture began with the Shang dynasty, 1750 -1040 BC, whose political centre was located north of the Yellow River. The Shang provided China’s first written history as well as the assertion of central cultural superiority over the surrounding people by designating as barbarians everyone who did not yet acknowledge the central government supremacy. The Chinese distinguished between ‘raw barbarians’ (shengfan) or the unassimilated people and the ‘cooked barbarians’ (shufan) or assimilated taxpayers who enjoyed the fruits of Chinese culture. For example, Han Chinese officials separated the ‘cooked’ Li of the coast of Hainan, who enjoyed the benefits of Chinese civilisation, from the wild ‘uncooked’ Li of the central forests, far from the influences of Han culture.

Barbarians were given generic names in the Chinese classics and histories: the Yi barbarians to the east, the Man to the South, the Rong to the west and Di to the north (when westerners arrived by sea, they were officially designated until the late 19th century as Yi). Until the 1930s, the names of outgroups (wai ren) were commonly written with an animal radical: the Di, the northern tribe, were linked to the Dog; the Man and the Min of the south were characterised with reptiles; the Qiang was written with a sheep radical. This reflected the Han Chinese conviction that civilisation and culture were linked with humanity; alien groups living outside the pale of Chinese society were regarded as inhuman savages. To be labelled a barbarian was a cultural rather than racial distinction.

That the custom of sharply distinguishing went along with calling China the Middle Kingdom (zhong guo), , which began by ruling the Central Plain (zhongyang) in North China. Rather than using outright military conquest of outsiders, the theory of ‘using the Chinese ways to transform the barbarians’ (yongxiabianyi) was promulgated. By Chinese cultural absorption or racial integration through intermarriage, a barbarian could become Han Chinese (hanhua). To be counted within China, groups accepted the rituals and cosmology that gave the Han dynastic state the Mandate of Heaven to rule over mankind. Non acceptance of this politicised culture left one outside of Zhongguo or China

Chinese Barbarians
Read more from this and you will realise your own history and culture of which you indicate you are ignorant of!
 

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Master of the Sea,

If you don't know what is 'cooked barbarian' (shufan) and 'raw barbarian' (shengfan), then you are not a Chinese and if you are, you have apparently no idea of your culture and history or so it seems!
Sir,

Misinterruptation. While shu does mean cooked, it also mean known/familiar and what sheng can mean raw, it also mean new/fresh.

Nevertheless, while the words may have been translated wrong, your reference is spot on.
 

masterofsea

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Master of the Sea,

If you don't know what is 'cooked barbarian' (shufan) and 'raw barbarian' (shengfan), then you are not a Chinese and if you are, you have apparently no idea of your culture and history or so it seems!

Or maybe it is so embarrassing that you wish to deflect to deny and bury it under the carpet.

sorry,i have made a careless mistake .

it is so funny that the author of your source interpreted "shufan" to "cooked barbarian".I was laughing which made me unconcentrated.

I apologize to you.

Shufan should be interpreted to "familiar/civilized barbarian" in that context.
the character 生 does has the meaning of uncooked,but it also has meaning of immature/strange/living.As verb,it means give a birth.As noun,it means birth/life.
 

Ray

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Sir,

Misinterruptation. While shu does mean cooked, it also mean known/familiar and what sheng can mean raw, it also mean new/fresh.

Nevertheless, while the words may have been translated wrong, your reference is spot on.
Colonel,

I go be more educated people than me!

It is written in many links but then it could be western propaganda, who knows?
 

Ray

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sorry,i have made a careless mistake .

it is so funny that the author of your source interpreted "shufan" to "cooked barbarian".I was laughing which made me unconcentrated.

I apologize to you.

Shufan should be interpreted to "familiar/civilized barbarian" in that context.
the character 生 does has the meaning of uncooked,but it also has meaning of immature/strange/living.As verb,it means give a birth.As noun,it means birth/life.
What is happening in Tibet and Xinjiang?

Attempts to make the uncooked into cooked! ;)

Of course Chinese is ambiguous language and many an escape route is incorporated in it. I believe the tone makes the difference.

The Colonel does not agree, but I always tell him don't underestimate the cleverness of the Chinese!!
 

masterofsea

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What is happening in Tibet and Xinjiang?

Attempts to make the uncooked into cooked! ;)
It is inevitable when people want to do business in this globalizing world.

We all are cooked by western culture,don't we?:)
 

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