Bharat's response to turk invasions.

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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As we know.

Rome came and fell Greece came and fell Sassanids came and fell Scythians, Kushans vanished Germanics, Celtics, Baltics, all gone Sumerians Mesopotamians all civilisations have been eliminated only Bharatvarsh remains. This is pinnacle of the power to stay to endure to survive.

But the fate of Persia or old Iran, which lost not only its freedom but almost the whole of its ancient glorious culture was a grave warning to India.

Nevertheless we had our share of cost and we dearly paid for it. The Sanatani resistance to turks went on for more than 8 centuries thus ensuring that the larp of complete islameisation of India remained a total failure.

Nevertheless.

The first line of defense the Dharmic King Dahir offered all the resistance till the very end quite successful to hold for multiple decades. But as we notice at the same time the central Bharat's kingdoms were still unaware to this grave danger.

1653192330205.png


This thread is to discuss the responses of BHARATVARSH against turk invasions. I am quoting from Al Hind.

Must note medieval turkic empires were built on horse warrior economies in a very militarized society.

1653192424726.png



Basically nomads like turks used horses for everything (meat, fat, milk, hide, carriage, transport etc). Every male on was trained as a horse archer from age of 3-4 yrs old. This meant they always had an elite cavalry ready by mere virtue of existing.

1653192492566.png


Al-jahiz notes average turk would spend more time on horseback in his life than on foot.

1653192532338.png


The mastery of turks as horse archers was admitted by the Arabs and Persians too. They could shoot 6 arrows in 60 seconds on horseback.

1653192571156.png


We see a general pattern is being established now. What was the status of horses & cavalry in BHARATVARSH?

BHARTIYA had been using horses for a long time. They made a "science of horses" to classify them based on anatomy, breed, age etc. aśvaśāstra-s


1653192624837.png

1653193526465.png


In BHARAT heavy cavalry mounted shock combat never took that much hold due to the role of elephants as formation breakers.
We had light 1-handed lances. The other flaw was horse-mounted archery was never developed to that extent. Archery was left to the infantry.
1653193577669.png

1653193585082.png


China also lacked in this regards.

Finally much of turks had developed an army core of heavy cavalry + light cavalry archer flanks. These armies were more mobile than any infantry and could carry out decisive quick charges on the battlefield that rendered the elephants a bit of immobile.

1653193905615.png


So as you noted this and the complete lack of Shatrubodh wrt islam is the reason such calamity overwhelmed BHARATVARSH and despite all of our losses we have survived. Thats precisely due to tremendous unbeatable cultural complexity.

One last point I had like to make.

We have no record of the moslems raids in Hindu literature.

Thus, we can hardly expect it to be a true and impartial account of the prolonged conflict.


Thread is now open for discussion in this regards.

@Lonewolf @Vamsi @Tactical Doge @Love Charger @Knowitall @Bhumihar @SavageKing456 @Indrajit @ezsasa @Ayushraj @indus @Cheran @SKC @here2where @another_armchair
 

Love Charger

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As we know.

Rome came and fell Greece came and fell Sassanids came and fell Scythians, Kushans vanished Germanics, Celtics, Baltics, all gone Sumerians Mesopotamians all civilisations have been eliminated only Bharatvarsh remains. This is pinnacle of the power to stay to endure to survive.

But the fate of Persia or old Iran, which lost not only its freedom but almost the whole of its ancient glorious culture was a grave warning to India.

Nevertheless we had our share of cost and we dearly paid for it. The Sanatani resistance to turks went on for more than 8 centuries thus ensuring that the larp of complete islameisation of India remained a total failure.

Nevertheless.

The first line of defense the Dharmic King Dahir offered all the resistance till the very end quite successful to hold for multiple decades. But as we notice at the same time the central Bharat's kingdoms were still unaware to this grave danger.

View attachment 156999

This thread is to discuss the responses of BHARATVARSH against turk invasions. I am quoting from Al Hind.

Must note medieval turkic empires were built on horse warrior economies in a very militarized society.

View attachment 157000


Basically nomads like turks used horses for everything (meat, fat, milk, hide, carriage, transport etc). Every male on was trained as a horse archer from age of 3-4 yrs old. This meant they always had an elite cavalry ready by mere virtue of existing.

View attachment 157003

Al-jahiz notes average turk would spend more time on horseback in his life than on foot.

View attachment 157005

The mastery of turks as horse archers was admitted by the Arabs and Persians too. They could shoot 6 arrows in 60 seconds on horseback.

View attachment 157006

We see a general pattern is being established now. What was the status of horses & cavalry in BHARATVARSH?

BHARTIYA had been using horses for a long time. They made a "science of horses" to classify them based on anatomy, breed, age etc. aśvaśāstra-s


View attachment 157007
View attachment 157020

In BHARAT heavy cavalry mounted shock combat never took that much hold due to the role of elephants as formation breakers.
We had light 1-handed lances. The other flaw was horse-mounted archery was never developed to that extent. Archery was left to the infantry.
View attachment 157021
View attachment 157022

China also lacked in this regards.

Finally much of turks had developed an army core of heavy cavalry + light cavalry archer flanks. These armies were more mobile than any infantry and could carry out decisive quick charges on the battlefield that rendered the elephants a bit of immobile.

View attachment 157025

So as you noted this and the complete lack of Shatrubodh wrt islam is the reason such calamity overwhelmed BHARATVARSH and despite all of our losses we have survived. Thats precisely due to tremendous unbeatable cultural complexity.

One last point I had like to make.

We have no record of the moslems raids in Hindu literature.

Thus, we can hardly expect it to be a true and impartial account of the prolonged conflict.


Thread is now open for discussion in this regards.

@Lonewolf @Vamsi @Tactical Doge @Love Charger @Knowitall @Bhumihar @SavageKing456 @Indrajit @ezsasa @Ayushraj @indus @Cheran @SKC @here2where @another_armchair
Ati uttam bhai ji
 

Tactical Doge

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@asaffronladoftherisingsun
If Science of horses is written and practiced in India from ancient era itself

Why the Indian Cavalry fell short during Medieval times
Developing and improving upon pre existing traditions would be a logical conclusion no?


Also, as literally no deterrent existed for horse mounted archers until gunpowder combat became mainstream, why the Indian martial communities, across the length and breadth, (I'm not generalising here) considered the gun as not a honorable weapon
 

Love Charger

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@asaffronladoftherisingsun
If Science of horses is written and practiced in India from ancient era itself

Why the Indian Cavalry fell short during Medieval times
Developing and improving upon pre existing traditions would be a logical conclusion no?


Also, as literally no deterrent existed for horse mounted archers until gunpowder combat became mainstream, why the Indian martial communities, across the length and breadth, (I'm not generalising here) considered the gun as not a honorable weapon
Chutiyapa aur kya , only marathas stood apart .
Unko bas jeetne se matlab tha , no matter how also in ancient times magadh armies were known to throw dead bodies inside enemy forts and poison water sources of enemies.
 

tommy

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@asaffronladoftherisingsun
If Science of horses is written and practiced in India from ancient era itself

Why the Indian Cavalry fell short during Medieval times
Developing and improving upon pre existing traditions would be a logical conclusion no?


Also, as literally no deterrent existed for horse mounted archers until gunpowder combat became mainstream, why the Indian martial communities, across the length and breadth, (I'm not generalising here) considered the gun as not a honorable weapon
Indian Cavalry in the sense horse archers were lacking in Indian kingdoms. I don't think entire horse cavalry was bad.
There were multiple reasons"
1. We did not have horse archers as we did not have composite bows. We did not have composite bows as they need animal materials. No explanation further needed why we did not experiment in this direction.
2. Over that Mongols/turkics did not consider feigned retreat as some kind of disrespect and it was common for them to do a tactical retreat. On the other hand we know the attitudes of Indians.

Now coming to the assertion to developing and improving upon pre existing traditions is considered, I am skeptical about this. I feel Indians are very reluctant to change. We are mostly status quoist.
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Why the Indian Cavalry fell short during Medieval times
Developing and improving upon pre existing traditions would be a logical conclusion no?
Ask Chinese they have answered in this regards.

China was also overrun by the sakas hunas. Note the same hunas invaded Northwest BHARAT they were repulsed by the Guptas. Should note that Huns were fierce horsemen and skilled archers they also rekt China.
Hunas also played good role in fall of roman empire.

But unlike the romans and sassanians the great Guptas never submitted nor lost. Chandragupta 2 Kumaragupta and Skandagupta won major wars against many unnamed huna barbarians and because of which eventually led to BHARTIYA-isation of Hunas. Because BHARAT's kingdom were exceptionally strong and militarily unified.

One reason why good quality pasture land wasn't available was bc sedentary agriculture occupied most good land.

1653197219909.png

1653197225241.png


Your answer lies in the fate of song dynasty of china that was a huge bureaucratic empire that collapsed to horse warriors. The choice between using land for horses grazing or feeding the big population.

1653197581232.png
 

Love Charger

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Indian Cavalry in the sense horse archers were lacking in Indian kingdoms. I don't think entire horse cavalry was bad.
There were multiple reasons"
1. We did not have horse archers as we did not have composite bows. We did not have composite bows as they need animal materials. No explanation further needed why we did not experiment in this direction.
2. Over that Mongols/turkics did not consider feigned retreat as some kind of disrespect and it was common for them to do a tactical retreat. On the other hand we know the attitudes of Indians.

Now coming to the assertion to developing and improving upon pre existing traditions is considered, I am skeptical about this. I feel Indians are very reluctant to change. We are mostly status quoist.
Kekekeke Aurangzeb is said to have commented on this aspect of Indians.
He said that Indians or Hindustanis were fools, who fought till death even as a part of mughal army .
While turkoman uzbeg etc generally retreated
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Indian Cavalry in the sense horse archers were lacking in Indian kingdoms. I don't think entire horse cavalry was bad.
There were multiple reasons"
1. We did not have horse archers as we did not have composite bows. We did not have composite bows as they need animal materials. No explanation further needed why we did not experiment in this direction.
2. Over that Mongols/turkics did not consider feigned retreat as some kind of disrespect and it was common for them to do a tactical retreat. On the other hand we know the attitudes of Indians.

Now coming to the assertion to developing and improving upon pre existing traditions is considered, I am skeptical about this. I feel Indians are very reluctant to change. We are mostly status quoist.
Do note how byzantine provinces of Palestine and Syria fell to them after a six month’s campaign in ad 636-637. Next came the turn of the Sassanid empire of Persia which included Iraq, Iran, and Khorasan. The Persians were defeated decisively in ad 637, and their entire empire was overrun in the next few years.

Then you have turk speaking territories of Inner Mongolia, Bukhara, Tashkand, and Samarkand, etc. were annexed by ad 650. Meanwhile, in the west, the province of Egypt had fallen in ad 640-641. Then you got arabfags armies marched over North Africa till they reached the Atlantic and crossed over into Spain in ad 709.

At the same time BHARAT's Sanatanis gave those invaders buttseks of the lifetime for full 7 decades.
 
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asaffronladoftherisingsun

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Kekekeke Aurangzeb is said to have commented on this aspect of Indians.
He said that Indians or Hindustanis were fools, who fought till death even as a part of mughal army .
While turkoman uzbeg etc generally retreated
The fact that akbar could never capture 300sqkm of landlocked region of Mewar ;)
The fact that aurangzeb bankrupted entire of mooghal empire chasing Shivaji ;)
Even Rana Raj Singh Mewar shiets on aurangzeb.
1653198811105.png

The resistance never ended at any point in history of Bharatvarsh.
 

Love Charger

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The fact that akbar could never capture 300sqkm of landlocked region of Mewar ;)
The fact that aurangzeb bankrupted entire of mooghal empire chasing Shivaji ;)
Even Rana Raj Singh Mewar shiets on aurangzeb.
View attachment 157040
The resistance never ended at any point in history of Bharatvarsh.
Book konsi hai bhai , ye to batao
 

Flying Dagger

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@asaffronladoftherisingsun
If Science of horses is written and practiced in India from ancient era itself

Why the Indian Cavalry fell short during Medieval times
Developing and improving upon pre existing traditions would be a logical conclusion no?


Also, as literally no deterrent existed for horse mounted archers until gunpowder combat became mainstream, why the Indian martial communities, across the length and breadth, (I'm not generalising here) considered the gun as not a honorable weapon
1. Limited number of horses.

The high availability of Oxes meant they were the dominant means of transport.

It's always about what is available cheap and is easier to use.

2. Also Life in general was easier due to availability of food resources in comparison to the region Turks were living.

The availability of high amount of grains storage etc and easy money due to trade was enough for easy life.

3. We lacked a scientific research and approach towards modern weapons a legacy we still carry.

While Jai Samhita ( Maha Bharat) and other literature mention about different weapon most of them were only considered Divine weapons and not something which a human can possess .

4. Also indulgence towards Karmakanda and not Yoga ( worshipping own body and uniting it with mind) which is the first step of Dharma among high class meant lack of mental well-being and intelligence . The era of Kautilya and his intelligence was one thing and then we saw later how we couldnt see the common enemy and destroy it for centuries and it's still going on...

5. Majority of population was indulged in agriculture and other hand held jobs in textiles metal etc. The caste system kept a huge population unarmed or infighting among each other and unable to defend themselves or join army when needed.


This is my understanding.
 

Freakk

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As we know.

Rome came and fell Greece came and fell Sassanids came and fell Scythians, Kushans vanished Germanics, Celtics, Baltics, all gone Sumerians Mesopotamians all civilisations have been eliminated only Bharatvarsh remains. This is pinnacle of the power to stay to endure to survive.

But the fate of Persia or old Iran, which lost not only its freedom but almost the whole of its ancient glorious culture was a grave warning to India.

Nevertheless we had our share of cost and we dearly paid for it. The Sanatani resistance to turks went on for more than 8 centuries thus ensuring that the larp of complete islameisation of India remained a total failure.

Nevertheless.

The first line of defense the Dharmic King Dahir offered all the resistance till the very end quite successful to hold for multiple decades. But as we notice at the same time the central Bharat's kingdoms were still unaware to this grave danger.

View attachment 156999

This thread is to discuss the responses of BHARATVARSH against turk invasions. I am quoting from Al Hind.

Must note medieval turkic empires were built on horse warrior economies in a very militarized society.

View attachment 157000


Basically nomads like turks used horses for everything (meat, fat, milk, hide, carriage, transport etc). Every male on was trained as a horse archer from age of 3-4 yrs old. This meant they always had an elite cavalry ready by mere virtue of existing.

View attachment 157003

Al-jahiz notes average turk would spend more time on horseback in his life than on foot.

View attachment 157005

The mastery of turks as horse archers was admitted by the Arabs and Persians too. They could shoot 6 arrows in 60 seconds on horseback.

View attachment 157006

We see a general pattern is being established now. What was the status of horses & cavalry in BHARATVARSH?

BHARTIYA had been using horses for a long time. They made a "science of horses" to classify them based on anatomy, breed, age etc. aśvaśāstra-s


View attachment 157007
View attachment 157020

In BHARAT heavy cavalry mounted shock combat never took that much hold due to the role of elephants as formation breakers.
We had light 1-handed lances. The other flaw was horse-mounted archery was never developed to that extent. Archery was left to the infantry.
View attachment 157021
View attachment 157022

China also lacked in this regards.

Finally much of turks had developed an army core of heavy cavalry + light cavalry archer flanks. These armies were more mobile than any infantry and could carry out decisive quick charges on the battlefield that rendered the elephants a bit of immobile.

View attachment 157025

So as you noted this and the complete lack of Shatrubodh wrt islam is the reason such calamity overwhelmed BHARATVARSH and despite all of our losses we have survived. Thats precisely due to tremendous unbeatable cultural complexity.

One last point I had like to make.

We have no record of the moslems raids in Hindu literature.

Thus, we can hardly expect it to be a true and impartial account of the prolonged conflict.


Thread is now open for discussion in this regards.

@Lonewolf @Vamsi @Tactical Doge @Love Charger @Knowitall @Bhumihar @SavageKing456 @Indrajit @ezsasa @Ayushraj @indus @Cheran @SKC @here2where @another_armchair
Most of these invasions weren't done by Turks,stop giving them credit.

The real enemy of bharata has always been these Iranic tribes (not Iranians,
iranians≠iranics,Afghans are Iranic,tajiks are,for example))

India was invaded by iranics like saka tribes,the yuezhi-kushans, although most of these were restricted to the north west of India only(modern pakistan))
This could also explain why modern Pakistanis hate india so much and identify with iranics,millenia of living under non indians Has made them completely different and de-indianised them in culture and identity

Then the hunas came,these hunas/Huns were also known as alchonites or xionites,these weren't turkic but actually an Iranic group,similar to tajiks,Afghans,yaghnobis.
Actually the huns who imvaded europe were themselves iranics, whose langauge had changed,we have their Genetics,and the European Huns seem to be a mix of Iranic males and east asian females which changed their appearance.

Carrying on,the Huns who invaded India were different and were similar to pashtuns,tajiks,scythians.
These hunas destroyed the taxila library,and these Huns were ironically Hindus.
That's why i don't accept when Hindus blame muslims for destroying nalanda,it was destroyed by bakhtiyar khilji,an Afghan iranic pashtun similar to his Huna ancestors like mihirakul.
When muslims like Arabs invaded,they were interested in science and academics and hired local academics and teachers to work for them and translate their books

But this time ,these iranics came as muslims.

(Btw,long read ahead)

Chronologically,to tell the full story,after hunas were kicked out and defated by Indians,another invasion happened of hepthalites,they were reported to be tall and strong Horseriders,similar to many pashtuns and iranics.

Keep in mind all these invaders,none were turkic,all iranics,turkic nationalists lay false claim to these tribes.
Anyways,after hepthalites were kicked out,the arab invasions happened which was defeated too by pratiharas.

Then india was at peace for a few centuries,until iranics named sammanids rose(these were from Tajikistan) they had converted to Sunni Islam and were vassals to abbasid Caliphate and started building large armies for themselves using afghans,Daylamis(from iran),and turkic slaves

Then these iranics started raiding into parts of Pakistan and eventually their turkic slave mahmad ghaznavi gained power, although he was half Iranic himself genetically,And started raiding into pakistan further.

Then these ghaznavids lost and ended.

Then after this,came the ultimate attack which shook india, was by ghorids,they managed to do what ghaznavids and Arabs hadn't done.
They broke into central Punjab and north india,and managed to capture Delhi.
These ghorids weren't Turks but we're Afghans and tajiks and their army was a mix of tajiks,Afghans, Daylami,Turks, locals.
And it was the pashtun and tajik generals and officers of these ghorids who managed to capture begal,Bihar,orrissa,south india .
For example, bakhtiyar khilji,who was a pashtun managed to conquer Bihar

And after that,the khiljis(who were Afghans,they were never Turks, although their named sounds like that,they coud have been Afghan mercenaries and officers and soldiers for gokturks in 500 ad from where they got their name).
The khiljis were supported by indo muslim faction which overthrew the turkic slave mamluk dynasty of aibak and balban

Then these khiljiks exterminated Mongols and reached even to the south of India.
Khiljis used a lot of Indian muslim generals and soldiers,like Ayn Al mulk,Zafar Khan who crused the Mongols,they were all converted indians
Then after the khiljis fell,the tughlaqs came who weren't Turks but some kind of pashtun-punjabi mix ,they used Punjabi as their native language and could have been converted khokhars/punjabis
Their name sounds turkic but they weren't really Turks.

Real turkic ruke over India was a short 60 years during mamluk dynasty which was removed by Indians and Afghans during the khilji dynasty and in the
early 60 years of Mughal period,the later Mughals were run by pashtuns and Indians and Iranians for the next 70 years
And later Mughals were removed by Marathas.
Mughals ruled India for like 150 years Max,rest of time they were vassals of Marathas.

So turkic rule over India was barely 100 years,it was mostly Afghans and Iranics.

People should stop believing in turkic nationalist myths,who present all indian invaders as turks to larp.


People don't like to accept the fact,that iranics are responsible for the destruction of India ultimately,even Mughals had Iranic soldiers and were persianised and Mughals used Afghans and tajiks in their army heavily and it was Afghans who overthrew the Mughals ultimately.
People for some reason, consider iranics brothers spoiled by islam,but they don't Know that even before Islam,when they were zoroastiàn or Hindi,they still invaded and were destroying india.
They had been following hinduism when they destroyed taxila University

They blame Turks who were irrelevant to india..
Iranics have been invading india since 200 AD and also destroyed taxila in 500 ad(alchon Huns) and then in 1250 ad(pashtun bakhtiyar khilji)

Recent genetic studies have shown that Turks themselves are a mix of iranics like scythians paternally and east asian mongoloid women ,which explains why Turks look different from both Afghans and Chinese,cause they are a mix.
Turkic Y-dna is derived from Iranic men like ydna r1a,J,G,R1b,Q(was present in scythians)
While their mtdna is East Asian.
East asian ydna like N,C,O are a minority in turks

Seljuks themselves were r1a while Timur and Ottomans themselves were ynda J2 (also found in india).
Mughals themselves were J2,J2 first found in iran in 7000 bc sample

A European hun elite warrior has been found with haplogroup L,which is also found in Indians and in indus valley
 

skywatcher

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Ask Chinese they have answered in this regards.

China was also overrun by the sakas hunas. Note the same hunas invaded Northwest BHARAT they were repulsed by the Guptas. Should note that Huns were fierce horsemen and skilled archers they also rekt China.
Hunas also played good role in fall of roman empire.

But unlike the romans and sassanians the great Guptas never submitted nor lost. Chandragupta 2 Kumaragupta and Skandagupta won major wars against many unnamed huna barbarians and because of which eventually led to BHARTIYA-isation of Hunas. Because BHARAT's kingdom were exceptionally strong and militarily unified.

One reason why good quality pasture land wasn't available was bc sedentary agriculture occupied most good land.

View attachment 157030
View attachment 157031

Your answer lies in the fate of song dynasty of china that was a huge bureaucratic empire that collapsed to horse warriors. The choice between using land for horses grazing or feeding the big population.

View attachment 157038
i_f25.png

 
Last edited:

skywatcher

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Lost stories on the Xiongnu Empire

1280px-The_cliff_with_ancient_inscription_on_Baruun_ilgen_(West_visible)_hills._.jpg


Mongolian travel journalist/writer Badamsambuu.G found a cliff with inscriptions in 27 June 2001 and showed on national TV, but researchers were unable to decode the text.

It was finally identified in June 2016 by a team that was led by professor Mr. Battulga.Ts from National University of Mongolia. Thus the article "Ancient inscription at Baruun ilgen hills"(Inscription on the Yanran) by Battulga.Ts, Badamsambuu.G, Batjargal.B was published.

Then in August 2017, a joint team from Chinggis Khan University, Mongolia, and Inner Mongolia University, China have also expedited the area. The lead archaeologist was Professor Chimeddorji of Inner Mongolia University.

Written in typical Han clerical script, the inscription comprises 260 Chinese characters, of which 220 are legible.


1280px-Inscription_of_Baruun_ilgen_hills_(2016).jpg

The text is identical to the recorded text in the Book of the Later Han.


Inscription on the Ceremonial Mounding of Mount Yanran

by Ban Gu, AD 89

(Machine translate)
In the autumn and July of the first year of Yongyuan in the Great Han(AD 89),
Dou Xian, the royal uncle of the country and the Chariot General, respected the Emperor, assisted the royal family, managed state affairs, and was noble and bright.

Chief of the Capital Guard Geng Bing, debriefing and inspection, sent troops to Shuofang(modern-day Inner Mongolia). The generals and officers are as mighty as eagles, and the soldiers are as brave as dragons and tigers. This is the righteous army of the Son of the Heaven.

The six armies are ready, and our allies Changyu of Sourthern Xiongnu , Kings of Wuhuan, Di,Qiang and others have a total of 30,000 cavalry. The chariots galloped in all directions, and the road was full of supplies, more than 13,000 vehicles. Unified with eight formations, blessed by majestic gods, iron armor shining towards the sun, and red flags covering the sky.

So he climbed the high tower, went down the Jilu Fort, passed through the wilderness, crossed the Gobi desert, and killed "King Wenyu"(Xiongnu noble), and used his blood to smear drums for sacrifices; and used the blood of "King Shizhugudu"(Xiongnu noble) to smear the blades of swords. Then the generals and officers from all directions ran rampant, meteors flashed, thousands of miles were silent, and there were no enemies left in the wild. So the region(Court of Xiongnu) was completely pacified, the flag was raised in triumph, the ruins were searched, and the local mountains and rivers were visited. Finally crossed "Zhuoxie Mountain"(Northern Mongolia), crossed "Anhou River"(Orkhon River, Mongolia), and climbed Yanran Mountain(West of present-day Kharkhorin, Mongolia). Trampling on the tribes of Maodun( Modu Chanyu, 234 – 174 BC, founder of the Xiongnu Empire), burning the Dragon Court of the Northern Xiongnu. At the top, it is to vent the old anger of Emperor Gao and Emperor Wen(Han Chinese marriage alliance with Xiongnu in 198 BC), and to glorify the gods of the ancestors; At the bottom, it is to stabilize the descendants, expand the territory, and promote the prestige of the Great Han.

It is a long-term comfort after one-time labor and permanent peace after temporary trouble. So he sealed the mountain and carved stones to remember the virtues. The inscription says:
The mighty armies of the Emperor conquers all directions;
Suppresses cruelty and unifies overseas;
Thousands of miles away, to the ends of the earth;
Confers sacrifices to sacred mountains and builds monuments;
Spreads the Emperor's deeds and inspires all generations!

(Machine translate)
i_f25.png

Original script in Classical Chinese:
惟永元元年秋七月,有漢元舅曰車騎將軍竇憲,寅亮聖明,登翼王室,納於大麓,維清緝熙。

乃與執金吾耿秉,述職巡禦。理兵於朔方。鷹揚之校,螭虎之士,爰該六師,暨南單于、東胡烏桓、西戎氐羌,侯王君長之群,驍騎三萬。元戎輕武,長轂四分,雲輜蔽路,萬有三千餘乘。勒以八陣,蒞以威神,玄甲耀目,朱旗絳天。

遂陵高闕,下雞鹿,經磧鹵,絕大漠,斬溫禺以釁鼓,血屍逐以染鍔。然後四校橫徂,星流彗掃,蕭條萬里,野無遺寇。於是域滅區殫,反旆而旋,考傳驗圖,窮覽其山川。遂逾涿邪,跨安侯,乘燕然,躡冒頓之區落,焚老上之龍庭。上以攄高、文之宿憤,光祖宗之玄靈;下以安固後嗣,恢拓境宇,振大漢之天聲。

茲所謂一勞而久逸,暫費而永寧者也,乃遂封山刊石,昭銘盛德。其辭曰:
鑠王師兮徵荒裔,
剿兇虐兮截海外。
夐其邈兮亙地界,
封神丘兮建隆嵑,
熙帝載兮振萬世!

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Freakk

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Indians defeated the hunas,sakas, hepthalites,arabs too.

They only got truly invaded after 1000 ad which is the same time as the chinese fot finally invaded by mongols in 1260 ad and had problemes with the khitans.
Their story is similar to indians.
And indians git less invaded by Turks but more by Afghans and tajiks.

Almost all conquerors and invaders (other than Timur,babur who had just a 150 year reign were Turks or Mongols)
Rest were afghans and tajiks.

And tajik ghorids were the ones who permeated interior of India for the first rime in millenia ,the ghaznavids who were a bit more Turks couldn't do that
 

skywatcher

Senior Member
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Indians defeated the hunas,sakas, hepthalites,arabs too.

They only got truly invaded after 1000 ad which is the same time as the chinese fot finally invaded by mongols in 1260 ad and had problemes with the khitans.
Their story is similar to indians.
And indians git less invaded by Turks but more by Afghans and tajiks.

Almost all conquerors and invaders (other than Timur,babur who had just a 150 year reign were Turks or Mongols)
Rest were afghans and tajiks.

And tajik ghorids were the ones who permeated interior of India for the first rime in millenia ,the ghaznavids who were a bit more Turks couldn't do that
I learn all the historic facts by Google Scholar & wiki
i_f25.png

 
Last edited:

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