Ancient Indian Empires and Weapons

timmy

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Indian female warriors are common in Indian art. One of the is wearing C. Asian clothing, boots, and has a Indian broad sword. Udayagiri caves, 2nd Century BC.
this statue is not a female, but a male, and its not in a 'central asian'' attire but typical indian attire also seen as dwarapala in satavahana art also declared ''saka warrior''

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Shaitan

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this statue is not a female, but a male, and its not in a 'central asian'' attire but typical indian attire also seen as dwarapala in satavahana art also declared ''saka warrior''

regards
I believe it is a female. Wide hips, thin waist, and curvature for the breast - so yeah.



I am well aware stitched clothing is used especially in military application, I've posted many from Sanchi, etc. in this very thread - go and look. Many more examples older than that Saka warrior too. But it's not the standard outside it. Especially something like boots, which is even more uncommon even all the way in Ganahara even in the Kushan era.

Especially with the Khalingas - you can look at the other two guards and the reliefs at the same site.


 
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Belagutti

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A very attractive small axe or chopper from the Malabar coast of South India, beautifully made very sharp heavy steel blade designed for lopping! the edges deeply chiselled with a repeating design, the tip with a shaped steel finial, the back egde of the blade with a wonderful crisp deeply-chiselled relief design. The lower grip of facetted steel, and the long handle of turned ebony. These axes were presumably used for sacrifice not unlike the ram-dao sword, the shape is similar to the popular sword/chopper of this region used for war known as the Moplah knife, and the Ayda Katti.
 

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The bichuwa or bichawa is a dagger, originating from the Indian subcontinent, with a loop hilt and a narrow undulating sharp blade. It is named for its resemblance to the sting of a scorpion, for which the Hindi name is bichuwa. The weapon was based on the maduvu, or horn dagger created in South India, and many bichuwa have blades which retain the shape of buffalo horns. Early examples of the bichuwa come from the medieval southern empire of Vijayanagara. Being relatively easy to make, the bichuwa has persisted into the 20th century as a decorative dagger.

The bichuwa usually has a narrow recurved blade and a simple looped handle which may be cut with chevrons. It generally measures just over 30 centimetres. The handle sometimes loops into a knuckleguard. The all-metal hilt is often cast in one piece. Medieval bichuwa from south India are typically decorated with the face of a protective yali (demon) on the hilt. Some have finials to the pommel or even protruding laterally as quillons or guards. A few bichuwa are forked or even double-bladed.

The weapon's small size meant it was easily concealed in a sleeve or waist band. A bichuwa was often combined with a bagh naka, either with the claws being added to the hilt of the bichuwa, or the blade being added to one of the finger loops of the bagh nakha. The former type tended to be larger than the latter. This combination weapon, known as a bichuwa bagh naka, was used by the Maratha King Shivaji Maharaja to assassinate Afzal Khan in the 17th century. Shivaji's weapon was named Bhawani or "life-giver", though some accounts suggest that this was the name of his sword.
 

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The urumi (Malayalam: ഉറുമി, urumi; Tamil: உறுமி, urumi, ) is a sword with a flexible, whip-like blade, originating from the Indian subcontinent in modern-day Kerala and Sri Lanka. It is thought to have existed from as early as the Sangam period. It is treated as a steel whip and therefore requires prior knowledge of that weapon as well as the sword. For this reason, the urumi is always taught last in Indian martial arts such as Kalaripayattu.

The word urumi is of Indian origin. In Kerala, it is more commonly called a chuttuval, from the Malayalam words for "coiling," or "spinning,"(chuttu) and, "sword" (val). Alternative Tamil names for the weapon are surul katti (curling sword) surul val (curling blade) and surul pattakatti (சுருள் பட்டாக்கத்தி).
 

Belagutti

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The chakram (Tamil: chakkaram; Sanskrit: chakram; Punjabi: chakkar; Malay: cakeram) is a throwing weapon from the Indian subcontinent. It is circular with a sharpened outer edge and a diameter of 12–30 centimetres (4.7–11.8 in). It is also known as chalikar meaning "circle". The Chakram is primarily a throwing weapon but can also be used hand-to-hand. A smaller variant called chakri was worn on the wrist. A related weapon is the chakri dong, a bamboo staff with a chakri attached at one end.

The earliest references to the chakram come from the Indian epics Mahabharata and Ramayana where the Sudarshana Chakra is the weapon of the god Vishnu. Contemporaneous Tamil poems from the 2nd century BC record it as thikiri (திகிரி). Chakra-dhāri ("chakram-wielder" or "disc-bearer") is a name for Krishna. The chakram was later used extensively by the Sikhs at least until the days of Ranjit Singh. It came to be associated with Sikhs because of the Nihang practice of wearing chakram on their arms, around the neck and even tied in tiers on high turbans. Chakram are traditionally made from steel or brass which is beaten into a circular shape against an anvil with an indentation for the curvature. Two ends are connected with a piece of brass and then heated, forming a complete circle before the brass is removed. Some chakram, even those used in combat, were ornately engraved, or inlaid with brass, silver or gold. The chakram is 0.5–1.0 in (13–25 mm) wide and is typically 5–12 in (130–300 mm) in diameter. The smaller variations are known as chakri while the larger ones are called vada chakra which were as large as a shield.
 

timmy

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I am well aware stitched clothing is used especially in military application, I've posted many from Sanchi, etc. in this very thread - go and look. Many more examples older than that Saka warrior too. But it's not the standard outside it. Especially something like boots, which is even more uncommon even all the way in Ganahara even in the Kushan era.

Especially with the Khalingas - you can look at the other two guards and the reliefs at the same site.
question is why would Kalingas show a central asian warrior (even more, a female warrior) as a dwarapala of their temples, doesnt make any sense.

Persian soldier wore boots, assyrian soldier wore boots, greek soldiers wore boots, but indian soldiers didn't wear boots because probably they were aliens and could fight with bare feet lmao.

regards
 
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Shaitan

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question is why would Kalingas show a central asian warrior (even more, a female warrior) as a dwarapala of their temples, doesnt make any sense.

Persian soldier wore boots, assyrian soldier wore boots, greek soldiers wore boots, but indian soldiers didn't wear boots because probably they were aliens and could fight with bare feet lmao.

regards
Because foreign warriors and foreign attire was adopted by Indians. Simple as that. You can see several foreigners with foreign clothing and musical instruments in Sanchi as well. Maurya army's would've been a composite army of Indians along with outsiders as well. Most of the soldiers in Satavahana, Sunga, etc. wear the tunics, coats, but never boots - this isnt common even in Gandhara centuries later. The locals even the elite do not do so in regular circumstances. Even things like a toe loop/stirrup/horse support was developed because Indians dont wear even riding boots back then.
 
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timmy

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Because foreign warriors and foreign attire was adopted by Indians. Simple as that. You can see several foreigners with foreign clothing and musical instruments in Sanchi as well. Maurya army's would've been a composite army of Indians along with outsiders as well. Most of the soldiers in Satavahana, Sunga, etc. wear the tunics, coats, but never boots - this isnt common even in Gandhara centuries later. The locals even the elite do not do so in regular circumstances. Even things like a toe loop/stirrup/horse support was developed because Indians dont wear even riding boots back then.
Are you Aberc?

secondly, your point of indian soldiers fighting wars barefoot wont make any sense, boots were common in all armies, whether it be european (greek), middle eastern (assyrian, persian etc)

fighting barefoot would be a serious handicap for any fighting army, one would not be able to make any serious army with such a handicap.

regards
 

Shaitan

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Are you Aberc?

secondly, your point of indian soldiers fighting wars barefoot wont make any sense, boots were common in all armies, whether it be european (greek), middle eastern (assyrian, persian etc)

fighting barefoot would be a serious handicap for any fighting army, one would not be able to make any serious army with such a handicap.

regards
Assyrians, Greeks, etc. also fought barefoot before to a degree before boots, sandles, become more popular. Many warriors in Africa, MesoAmerica, ancient Egypt, etc. did the same. I dont care about your logic, I am using historic art work of the period. Indian artist are very accurate of even small details let alone footwear. It wasnt common, period.
 

Shaitan

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Kiradu9.png


Some of the war elephants look like they are fully draped in clothing, padding, armor, etc. The one on the left looks like it has a chamfron on as well.

Kiradu10.jpg


This example look like it could be of metallic armor - maybe

Kiradu11.jpg


Close up of the Calvary

The infantry here are largely the same across India. Unlike the Deccan, Deep South their shields are of medium size. They are using the forward curved, angled swords and straight broadswords that's common across India.

Si-Yu-Ki1.png

Si-Yu-Ki2.png

Si-Yu-Ki3.png


Emperor Harsha's Army - Si-Yu-Ki - Xuanzang

Mentions of armoured war elephants with tusk blades, even chariots as this late in time?

trunkswords.png


Trunk Swords Gandhara Gupta Era - Sung Yun
 
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Shaitan

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View attachment 52397

far left, seems like chain mail.

o_O

regards
Yeah, I saw that, but hard to make out any fine details. Like with Sanchi stupa relief, we need high res images to make out what's going on.

kashmir1.jpeg

kashmir2.jpg

kashmir3.jpg

kashmir4.jpg


Kashmiri Art, 10th-11th Century AD - Unique looking club can be seen.

kashmir5.jpg



Kashmiri warriors from the 12th century AD. You can see they have a similar war attire from the Kushan era Gandharas.


Jaisalamer.jpg


Jain Temple , Jaisalamer, 12th century Century AD

palasword7.jpg

palasword6.jpg

palasword5.jpg

palasword4.jpg


Pala Empire - 9th, 10th Century AD
 
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Bleh

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fighting barefoot would be a serious handicap for any fighting army, one would not be able to make any serious army with such a handicap.
In the more remote rural areas of India even today people walk miles after miles barefoot... it's just a matter of habit. Have you never in your life visited any such place?!..

Don't make such sweeping generalised assumptions based on half-baked info.
 

Belagutti

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Pattisa

Title:Sword Khanda, Patisa, Pattisa,

Date 14th–18th century

Culture:Indian, South Indian

Medium:Steel

Dimensions:L. 41 in. (104.1 cm); W. 3 7/16 in. (8.7 cm); D. 3 3/4 in. (9.5 cm); Wt. 2 lb. 14.1 oz. (1306.9 g)

Khanda sword, 18 C. or earlier, with a 32 inches blade forged from very fine pattern welded ( Damascus) steel. The blade is widening to its maximum width of 2 ½ inches just above the tip, which is rounded in a spatula shape. Swords with this form of blade is some time called Patisa. The blade is reinforced with a long decorative steel strip on the spine and riveted to the handle extension plates. The basket shape handle is classical Indian. The grip is bound with its original leather cover. The pommel is ending with a curved 3 inches spike.
 

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Kayamkulam vaal (meaning Kayamkulam sword) is a double-edged sword that was used by the rulers and soldiers of Nair aristocracy (mostly in Travancore), in the Kayamkulam princely state of India.

It is said to have been used by the Kayamkulam Rajas in the 18th century. Some Nair families such as Velathandethu house (Pallarimangalam), Padanilathu house (olakettyambalam), Edathitta house Changankulangara (The vaal presented to Valiyakulangara devi temple, Oachira), Thottathil Ellam Valiyakulangara, Oachira are keeping kayamkulam vaal as their historical evidence of family.
 

Belagutti

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The khanda is a double-edge straight sword originating from the Indian subcontinent. It is often featured in religious iconography, theatre and art depicting the ancient history of India. It is a common weapon in Indian martial arts. Khanda often appears in Hindu, Jain, Buddhist and Sikh scriptures and art.

The blade broadens from the hilt to the point, which is usually quite blunt. While both edges are sharp, one side usually has a strengthening plate along most of its length, which both adds weight to downward cuts and allows the wielder to place their hand on the plated edge. The hilt has a large plate guard and a wide finger guard connected to the pommel. The pommel is round and flat with a spike projecting from its centre. The spike may be used offensively or as a grip when delivering a two-handed stroke. The hilt is identical to that employed on another South Asian straight sword, the firangi.

Early swords appear in the archaeological record of ritual copper swords in Fatehgarh Northern India and Kallur in Southern India. Although the Puranas and Vedas give an even older date to the sacrificial knife. Straight swords, (as well as other swords curved both inward and outward), have been used in Indian history since the Iron Age Mahajanapadas (roughly 600 to 300 BC), being mentioned in the Sanskrit epics, and used in soldiers in armies such as those of the Mauryan Empire. Several sculptures from the Gupta era (AD 280-550) portray soldiers holding khanda-like broadswords. These are again flared out at the tip. They continued to be used in art such as Chola-era murtis.

There is host of paintings depicting the khanda being worn by Rajput kings throughout the medieval era. It was used usually by foot-soldiers and by nobles who were unhorsed in battle. The Rajput warrior clans venerated the khanda as a weapon of great prestige.


Goddess Durga wielding khanda sword, 7th century.
According to some, the design was improved by Prithviraj Chauhan. He added a back spine on the blade to add more strength. He also made the blade wider and flatter, making it a formidable cutting weapon. It also gave a good advantage to infantry over light cavalry enemy armies.

Rajput warriors in battle wielded the khanda with both hands and swung it over their head when surrounded and outnumbered by the enemy. It was in this manner that they traditionally committed an honourable last stand rather than be captured. Even today they venerate the khanda on the occasion of Dasara.

Maharana Pratap is known to have wielded a khanda. The son in law of Miyan Tansen Naubat Khan also wielded khanda and the family was known as Khandara Beenkar. Wazir Khan Khandara was a famous beenkar of 19th century.

Many Sikh warriors of the Akali-Nihang order are known to have wielded khandas. For instance, Akali Deep Singh is famous for wielding a khanda in his final battle before reaching his death, which is still preserved at Akaal Takhat Sahib. Akali Phula Singh is also known to have wielded a khanda, and this practise was popular among officers and leaders in the Sikh Khalsa Army as well as by Sikh sardars of the Misls and of the Sikh Empire. The Sikh martial art, Gatka also uses khandas.
 

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