Russia to discuss - All the interesting things, achievements and fun

Discussion in 'Europe and Russia' started by gadeshi, Apr 18, 2016.

  1. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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    A tribute to the 12-th of April - a Cosmonautics day:
    Hero of Russia , cosmonaut Sergey Krikaliov's interview:

    a "space train" in the Moscow Metro:

    how the mission had been ready:

    a tribute to Yuriy Gagarin:

    a public actions:
     
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  2. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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    A Yuriy Gagarin's Memorial in Moscow:


    a NASA representative's interview:

    A funny stuff - MopsoNauts parade:

    and a shame for Western world - they donno who is Yuriy Gagarin:
     
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  3. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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  4. Superdefender

    Superdefender Senior Member Senior Member

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    Thinking the Unthinkable: Russia Has Re-Emerged As a Great Power
    04/19/2016 01:32 pm ET
    • Jonathan Adelman Professor, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver
    The Western image of Russia and Putin in recent years has been very negative. President Obama has publicly called Vladimir Putin a “schoolboy who slouches in his chair in the back of the room“ and derided his country as a mere “regional power.”

    This begs the question: how Russia could again become a major power after the disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991? How could Putin do this without an agrarian or consumer revolution and with the massive drop in the price of oil? If Putin is a terrible leader, then how can you explain successful interventions in Georgia (2008), Crimea (2014), Ukraine (2014-2016) and Syria (2015-2016)?

    Putin, however, is actually a very shrewd leader with a brilliant Foreign Minister, Sergei Lavrov, who relies on a capable Foreign Ministry. Putin has rebuilt Russia’s military capability by spending $49B a year on security. Russia retains 1,790 strategic nuclear weapons. With over 140 million people and 13 million college graduates, Russia has nearly a million first-class scientists, engineers and technicians, most of whom work for the military.

    Many former great powers are now no longer major powers. Japan, which smashed the Russian army in the 1904 Sino-Japanese War, occupied much of China from 1937-1945 and has a four trillion dollar economy is no longer a great power. After its defeat in World War II capped by the American dropping of atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and American post-war occupation, Japan has sworn off further intervention in the world and refused to acquire nuclear weapons.

    Europe, which once teemed with great powers such as Germany, France, England and Austro-Hungary, now has gone in another direction. Germany soundly beat the Russians in every World War I battle and came close to doing the same in 1941 and 1942. Today with weak power projection the three main powers have less than 1,000 mainline battle tanks and few aircraft carriers. Weak economic growth (1.5%/year), disputes among its 28 members, migration from the Middle East, serious problems with weaker members such as Greece, promote domestic over international issues.

    China, with its ten trillion dollar GDP, over two trillion dollars of exports, over three trillion dollars in its reserve fund, 1.35 billion people and 3.7 million square miles of territory, is a future great power. It has made huge economic progress since Deng Xiaopong launched the Four Modernizations in 1978.

    Yet, its remaining problems are staggering: enormous air pollution, 675 million peasants, huge governmental corruption, authoritarian one party dictatorship, lack of rule of law, rapidly aging population, hundreds of thousands of children raising themselves and only $7,500 GDP/capita. Its military, while boosted by 150 billion dollars of spending, still needs another decade to become a truly modern force.

    India has 20 percent illiteracy, 300 million people without electricity and a $1,300 GDP/capita that is less than three percent of the United States. It faces Pakistan soon with 200 atomic bombs. India, with over a billion people, will be a major power but not for several decades.

    Then there is the United States, the sole global superpower since victory in the Cold War and one of two superpowers in the world since 1945. Its 18 trillion dollar economy, 17 of the world’s top 20 universities, world leadership in high technology, over 550 billion dollars in military spending and 330 million people give it serious advantages over Russia. But, with the rise of popular neo-isolationist Presidential candidates, the slowest economic recovery since the Great Depression, decline in its manufacturing sector, administration talk of reducing the size of the American military to the 1940 level, and the Obama semi-withdrawal from the Middle East, the door that had been shut to Russia has been open.

    The unthinkable has become a reality. Russia, seemingly finished after its defeat in the Cold War, now is emerging as a prospective great power challenging the West. Russia has done the unthinkable—become a great power filling the void left by other former great powers that have now shrunk in size, power and influence.

    Source Link: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jonat...e-unthinkable-_2_b_9720304.html?section=india
     
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  5. garg_bharat

    garg_bharat Senior Member Senior Member

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    The Sukhoi SuperJet is a very important program for Russia; and proves Russia's resurgence in high-tech aviation field.
     
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  6. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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    Upcoming MS-21 (Yak-242) is rather more important and indicative.

    Отправлено с моего XT1080 через Tapatalk
     
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  7. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Russian scientists have said about the revolution in the creation of processors with thousands of cores

    [​IMG]

    Researchers from the MIPT experimentally proved that nanophotonic components based on copper can successfully work in photonic devices on a par with the components on the basis of gold and silver and copper components will soon become the basis for optoelectronic processors with thousands of cores.


    "We managed to create the copper chips, optical properties are in no way inferior to the golden analogues", - transmits TASS statement of Dmitry Fedyanina leader of the study, with reference to scientific NanoLetters magazine.


    "Moreover, we have achieved this in the production cycle is compatible with CMOS technology, which is the basis of all modern integrated circuits including microprocessors. It's kind of a revolution in nanophotonics, "- said Fedyanin.


    Nanophotonics - area of research, including working hard to replace the existing computing device components improved by using photons instead of electrons.


    Nanoscale Photonic components are created on the basis of the so-called metal-dielectric nanostructures, and was previously thought that in its fundamental properties of only two metals can be used to create effective nanostructures - gold and silver.


    However, in practice, to create components based on gold and silver is very difficult because both metals practically do not enter into chemical reactions, and hence the process of creating nanostructures expensive, long, and sometimes even unfeasible.


    Revolutionary for photonics and computers of the future discovery made by researchers from the laboratory of nano-optics and plasmonics center nanoscale optoelectronicsMoscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). He was the first to make nanophotonic components based on copper, which by their characteristics are not inferior counterparts in gold.


    On the basis of generalization of the theory of the so-called plasmonic metal they had in 2012 we found that the copper as an optical material can not only compete with the gold, but to surpass it.


    Unlike gold, copper can be fairly easy to structure, use a liquid or plasma etching and create on its basis nanoscale components that are easily integrated into the photonic and electronic integrated circuits based on silicon.



    The researchers took more than two years to purchase the necessary equipment, to develop a process, make samples, carry out a number of independent measurement and confirm this hypothesis experimentally.


    Notably, the copper components were made by scientists within the standard technological process used for the production of most modern microcircuits.


    These studies provide the foundation for the beginning of the practical use of copper nanophotonic and plasmonic components that will already be in the future used to create LEDs nanolasers, highly sensitive sensors and sensors for mobile devices, high-performance optoelectronic processors with up to tens of thousands of cores for graphics cards, personal computers and supercomputers.


    Russian scientists have said about the revolution in the creation of processors with thousands of cores
     
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  8. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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    Moreover this, each of these cores is superscalar - i.e. can execute several instructions per tact.

    Отправлено с моего XT1080 через Tapatalk
     
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  9. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Russian Scientist and Team Create Microchip to Replace Laser

    A team of Swiss and Russian physicists have developed a new microchip that can replace the use of complex laser equipment in everything from atomic clocks to telecommunications.

    A scientist from Moscow State University and his colleagues created a chip that can replace a complex laser system, the press service of Moscow State University said on Friday.

    "A group of Russian and Swiss physicists created a chip that generates femtosecond pulses of light with a special frequency spectrum called an optical comb, that is, to do what was possible to achieve only with large and complex laser systems," the university said in a statement.

    The femtosecond optical comb is an invention, which appeared in the late 1990s, which proved popular in a variety of areas, from telecommunication systems to laser spectroscopy and astrophysics. In 2005, the inventors, Theodor Hänsch of Germany and John Hall from the United States, received the Nobel Prize for it. A femtosecond is one millionth of one billionth of a second.

    "To create such combs, lasers with mode locking were used. In this method a laser emits light; however, rather than a single frequency, as is customary to think of lasers, [it uses] several 'modes,' light rays with multiple frequencies. If these modes are synchronized, that is, their phases are tightly linked, then as a result of interference of these modes a continuous laser beam is transformed into a sequence of pulses with the spectrum of a 'comb,'" the press service added.

    To create such combs Physics, Moscow State University and Russian Quantum Center suggested the use of "solitons," or compactly packed waves similar to an electromagnetic tsunami, which behave like particles.

    "The difference, of course, is great. If the mode-locked lasers to generate pulses use sophisticated optical devices, media and special mirrors, we get the same stable pulses in a simple passive resonators embedded in a microchip and having a size not more than 100-200 microns "- said one of the co-authors of the article, Russian Professor Faculty of Physics Mikhail Gorodetsky.

    According to the scientist, the quality of the combs also changed. They are now able to reduce the duration of the pulses from 100-200 to 30 femtoseconds, which not only reduces the size, complexity and cost of generators combs, but in addition, opens up new horizons for the use of modes, "unattainable by other methods."

    Read more: http://sputniknews.com/science/20160101/1032574839/russia-scientist-laser-chip.html#ixzz3vzxwLrAj
     
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  10. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Siberian scientists have grown diamonds for photonic computers

    A team of researchers from the Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS for the first time in the world managed to grow synthetic diamonds for photonic computers. The new generation of computing devices, wherein a qualitatively new level of performance, should replace the traditional electronics. This explains Tass.

    According to Director of IGM SB RAS Nikolai Pokhilenko, this year the staff of the Institute learned to grow artificial diamonds Ge defect centers. Such crystals are important components of so-called photonic computers. After Russian researchers have mastered this technology, American and German research centers.

    Defective called any diamonds that are in its composition have an admixture of other elements other than carbon. Unlike conventional synthetic diamonds a new type of crystal has its center in place of carbon atoms of germanium. Such diamonds allow the use of the physical properties of photons to transfer large amounts of data.

    His discovery of IGM SB RAS employees have already transferred their colleagues from the Institute of Semiconductor Physics and the Institute of Automation and Electrometry SB RAS to use them to work on the experimental setup.

    It is expected that photonic computers are faster than their current semiconductor "brothers" of about 10 million times. This performance, according to experts, already allows for the creation of artificial intelligence. Nikolai Pokhilenko compared the performance of two types of computers with the speed of movement of the snail and of supersonic missiles.

    Another distinctive feature of the new generation of computing devices based on photons is their ability to withstand high temperatures. It is considered that the photonic computer will maintain its performance at a temperature of from 0 to 900 ºC.

    Earlier Portal Science Russia wrote about the prospects for the use of diamonds to create quantum computers.

    Source: http://scientificrussia.ru/
     
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  11. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Russian Scientists May Have Solved One of the Major Barriers to Light-Based Computers

    A new cooling method opens a door to optical chips far faster than today’s electronic ones.


    High-performance microprocessors that harness photons rather than electrons promise to make computers up to a thousand times more efficient because electrons typically move at a low fraction of the speed of light. Problem: scaling down conventional electronic microprocessors is easy; doing the same with photonic components is hard because of the difficulty of getting light to turn corners. So scientists have turned to plasmoniccomponents, which take advantage of the unique oscillating interactions of photons and electrons on the surface of metal.

    Unfortunately, plasmoniccomponents get too hot and you can’t just throw a fan on them. You need a cooling system that works on the scale of the photonic chip’s key features, less than a billionth of a meter in size. It’s one reason why many don’t consider fully light-based transistors a practical possibility for decades. It’s also why there is such excitement around a new paper by a team of Russian researchers showing a new method for cooling photonic components.

    Optoelectronicsare already emerging as a key research area for companies like Oracle and IBM. IBM’s Zurich-based photonics research group explains why: “Based on the current trend toward ever more powerful high-end computers, it is expected that supercomputers comprising nearly 100 million computation modules and featuring exaflop performance rates, i.e. one trillion (1018) operations per second, will be developed within that timeframe. Without improved energy efficiency on all levels, however, a future supercomputer would require its own dedicated power plant.”

    It’s no wonder the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, or DARPA, has also funded optoelectronic research.

    What’s so hard about scaling down optoelectronic components? In order for your on-chip optoelectronic components to work with bulk light waves, it would have to be enormous, which destroys the efficiency gain you were going for. You can confine light to smaller dimensions by converting it into surface plasmon polaritons, electromagnetic waves that propagate on the surface of a the chip’s metal and dielectric layers. But these can cause overheating, a lot of overheating: temperature increases of 100 Kelvin, a big enough temperature differential to take frozen water to boiling. The Russian researchers claim that their method, published this week in the journal ACS Photonics, can limit temperature increases to within just a few degrees K.

    Such components “will give a possibility to create high-performance computers and analyze information many orders of magnitude faster than it is done today. However, in order to design computers based on these microprocessors (ranging from onboard computer for fighter aircrafts to exascale and zettascale supercomputers, which are required for data analysis and simulation of combat situations), the microprocessors should be efficiently cooled,”
     
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  12. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Researchers from the Moscow State University have created a super-fast photonic switch
    The device, which is a disk with a diameter of 250 nanometers, is able to switch the optical pulses in the time, numbering in femtoseconds (a femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a fraction of a second)

    Researchers from the Moscow State University Lomonosov as part of an international group established ultrafast photonic switch that works on silicon nanostructures. This device can be the basis of future computers and allow data transfer at a tremendous speed. Development of scientists presented in an article in the journal Nano Letters.

    This development refers to the photonics - a discipline that emerged in the sixties of the last century, simultaneously with the appearance of lasers. The basic idea of photonics - to do the same, making the electronics, but with the replacement of electrons by photons of light - photons. Their main advantage is that they hardly interact with each other and with the environment in which the subject, and therefore more preferable to transmit information than electrons. This can primarily be used in computers, which is the main indicator of performance. But at that time, as the basis of modern electronic devices - transistors - have characteristic dimensions of less than one hundred nanometers, the size of the prototype optical transistors were on the scale of a few micrometers. The structures also capable in this sense compete with electronics, such as plasmon nanoparticles are characterized by low efficiency and high losses. So the situation for a compact photonic scheme is deadlock.

    But three years ago, researchers at a time of several research groups stumbled on an important effect: in nanoparticles of silicon were found strong resonance in the visible region of the spectrum, the so-called magnetic dipole resonances. This response is characterized by a strong localization of light waves in the subwavelength scale inside the nanoparticles. Effect interested many researchers, however, according to Maxim Shcherbakov, first author of the article in Nano Letters, no reason not to think that this discovery can form the basis of a compact and very fast photonic switch.

    Nanoparticles are able to make the Australian National University by electron-beam lithography followed by plasma etching. This was done by graduate student Alexander Shorohova that took place there in the framework of an internship scholarship of the President of the Russian Federation. These samples were sent to Moscow, and all subsequent experiments were performed with them at the Physics Department of Moscow State University in the laboratory of nano-optics and metamaterials.

    "In our experimental studies we have with my colleague Pauline Vabishchevich, an employee of the Physics Department of Moscow State University, used a large set of different nonlinear optical techniques associated with the interaction of femtosecond laser pulses with matter - said Maxim Shcherbakov. - We used femtosecond laser system, purchased under the program of development of the Moscow State University.

    Ultimately, the researchers had received the device, which is a disk with a diameter of 250 nanometers that can switch between optical pulses during numbering in femtoseconds (a femtosecond is a millionth of a billionth of a fraction of a second). This allows the operating time in the future to create a device information transmission and processing speeds in the tens and hundreds of terabits per second. This speed would allow download thousands of feature films of high quality in one second.

    Jobs created by the scientists of Moscow State University photonic switch is reduced to sending him two laser pulses, which, thanks to the presence in the silicon nanoparticles of magnetic resonance, very well communicate with each other. If the pulses arrive simultaneously, one them, managing, interacts with the second and quenches it due to the effect of two-photon absorption. If the pulses come with a gap in time just a hundred femtoseconds, the interaction does not occur, and the second pulse passes through the nanostructure has not changed.

    "We managed to develop a framework, which also reduced to" no "to the role of free media, - said Maxim Shcherbakov. - Free media - that is, electrons and holes - in integrated photonics devices traditionally impose severe restrictions on speed signal conversion. Our work represents an important step for the development of active photonic devices - gates, transistors, and so on. N. Features of technology applied by us in our development, now allow to use it in the integrated circuits of silicon photonics. In the short term, we intend to verify these nanoparticles in the integrated performance. "
     
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  13. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    By Olga Gertcyk
    06 April 2016
    Scientists make crucial new discoveries of bacteria, up to 30 million years old.

    [​IMG]
    'One of the ways to find something new is to look somewhere where no one has ever looked before.' Picture: Galina Dvoeglazova

    A global and highly competitive search is underway for new bacteria strains leading to fresh sources of antibiotics, with 'great potential' for SIberia to lead the way, according to leading scientists.

    Maxim Timofeyev, director of the R&D Biology Institute at Irkutsk State University, said: 'One of the ways to find something new is to look somewhere where no one has ever looked before.

    'We have found two locations which we're studying now. These are ancient caves and Baikal which have not been studied in this regard. Nature is still providing us with a massive area to study.'



    [​IMG]

    Dr Denis V. Axenov-Gribanov, a leading specialist at R&D Biology Institute, heads the study of new microorganisms. Picture: ISU, Denis Axenov-Gribanov

    'The search for new microorganisms producing new biologically active substances with antibiotic properties has particularly great potential in Siberia and at Baikal. On the one hand, our lands are far away from global research institutions, and on the other, we have multiple unique locations - unstudied and isolated caves and Lake Baikal with its ancient ecosystem.'

    Dr Denis V. Axenov-Gribanov, a leading specialist at the same institute, said: 'One of the features of Siberian caves is that they are rather cold, only 2 to 4C.

    'Among the caves of the Baikal region the most attractive for researchers are ancient and ramified caves such as Botovskaya, Okhotnichya and those of the Tazheranskaya steppe.

    [​IMG]





    Among the caves of the Baikal region the most attractive for researchers are ancient and ramified caves such as Botovskaya, Okhotnichya, those of the Tazheranskaya steppe and Bolshaya Oreshnaya complex in Krasnoyarsk region. Pictures: The Siberian Times, Komanda-K, Denis Axenov-Gribanov

    'Each and every cave is unique: Botovskaya cave is the longest cave in Russia, while the caves of the Tazheranskaya steppe date from when the ancient Lake Baikal was only forming, that is over 30 million years ago.' The lake is the oldest - and deepest - in the world.

    'We have collected Baikal's endemic crayfish, caddis, and did a microbiological analysis. Two weeks afterwards, it wasn't yet clear whether there were bacteria. However, later we obtained 30 great strains, about 90% of which were active.'

    Another success came at the world largest karstic cave in the Bolshaya Oreshnaya complex in Krasnoyarsk region, examined by Russian and German scientists.

    [​IMG]

    [​IMG]

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    In Bolshaya Oreshnaya complex in Krasnoyarsk region were obtained previously unknown biologically active compounds including antibiotics which inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. Pictures: Alexander Balalin, Denis Axenov-Gribanov

    'We obtained moonmilk substance and found 10 new strains of actinobacterias, producers of several antibiotics, from it,' he said. 'According to the study, they produce previously unknown biologically active compounds including antibiotics which inhibit growth of bacteria and fungi. For example, an active strain produces over 120 compounds, 100 out of which are new and haven't been studied before.'

    He said: 'It is necessary to conduct numerous studies... to turn a compound in a commercial product. It will be essential to go through certain bureaucratic procedures, obtain substantial funding and prove your antibiotic is better, non-toxic and effective, and that you're moving in the right direction.'
     
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  14. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    A Russian team has won the Fifth European Girls' Mathematical Olympiad, held in Bușteni (Romania) on April 10-16.

    The official ranking at the EGMO, which brought together 143 girls from 38 countries, was dominated by the Russian Federation (122 points), the United States (111) and Bulgaria (99).

    It is the first year that girls from Russia have taken part in the competition and all of the team won prizes: Maria Dmitrieva, Albina Lialina and Esabella Tolokno recieved gold medals and Alexandra Sonina received a silver one.

    Participants also visited the Cantacuzino Castle and Peles Castle in nearby Sinaia and went on excursions to the Caraiman Monastery and Urlatoarea waterfall. They also enjoyed chamber piano and cello recitals organized by the Bușteni Cultural Center.
     
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  15. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Schwabe has manufactured high-precision optics for satellites
    The instruments allow to distinguish objects up to 85 cm long at a distance of 475 km from Earth
    [​IMG]



    The Schwabe holding company has developed the Geoton-L1 optical electronic instruments for a satellite of the Resurs-P series launched into orbit on March 13, 2016 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome. It is planned to produce two more specimens in 2017 and 2018.

    The resolution of the device allows to distinguish and identify 85 cm long objects from space at a distance of 475 km from the Earth's surface with high certainty. As of today, Geoton-L1 is the most precise optical equipment produced in Russia.

    Geoton-L1 will allow maximally accurate terrain mapping, identification of vehicles and buildings, as well as operational control of the ecological condition of the environment and monitoring of emergency situations. The equipment has a number of enhanced information characteristics, high resolution, as well as an extended guarantee period of normal operation – up to five years. It is planned to produce two more specimens in 2017 and 2018," said Sergey Popov, Deputy Director General of Schwabe for R&D and Innovative Development.

    Многозональная оптико-электронная съемочная аппаратура «Геотон-Л1» разработана на предприятии холдинга «Красногорский завод им. С.А. Зверева». The Geoton-L1 equipment is a modernized version of the Geoton system that was launched as a part of the Resurs-DK spacecraft in 2006. The modern device has not only improved ground resolution and photometric resolution, but also a large number of spectral channels.

    The Geoton-L1 was manufactured by Schwabe for spacecraft intended for remote sensing of the Earth – Resurs-P1 and Resurs-P2. In 2013-2014 the satellites were launched into orbit for space surveillance and mapping in the interests of national economy of Russia, as well as for obtaining information in the field of monitoring and protection of the environment. Today they effectively work as a part of a satellite constellation. The Resurs-P3 spacecraft is the final satellite of the series which joined the constellation on March 13, 2016.
     
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  16. Bahamut

    Bahamut Senior Member Senior Member

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    Ruselectronics Develops Protective Nanocoating for Medical Instruments
    The technology should help to cut the need for imports of medical instruments by a factor of 5 - 10
    [​IMG]


    Ruselectronics Holding Company, a Rostec subsidiary, has presented a technology to apply a protective nanocoating on medical instruments and dentures at the Open Innovation 2014 Forum and Exhibition.

    The coating is biologically inert, making contact with medical instruments safe (unlike stainless steel which contains alloying heavy metals). Using this technology for prosthetics can prevent allergic reactions even in people who are highly sensitive to prosthetic materials, because the surface of the prosthetic plastic is coated by a chemically inert film of silicon carbide. This technology was originally developed for army bayonet knives to increase their useful life without the need for sharpening.

    “We are becoming more active in the medical equipment and tools segment; our subsidiaries are developing products for walk-in clinics and hospitals. We do our best to make sure that the quality of Russian-made substitutes matches that of similar international products. We are involved in implementing the government policy of innovative development for Russia by creating high-tech products that meet world standards in a variety of fields,” CEO of Ruselectronics Holding Company Andrey Zverev said in his comment.

    Putting the coating on Russian-made medical instruments should solve the import substitution problem for healthcare institutions of Moscow, because these instruments will be of higher quality than imported counterparts. This would open up an opportunity to reduce purchases of medical instruments by a factor of 5–10, which should save millions of Rubles in the Moscow City Government spending.

    The unique method was developed by experts working for the S.A. Vekshinsky Scientific Research Institute for Vacuum Machinery.
    Members of the Russian Federal Government led by PM Dmitry Medvedev and members of the Moscow City Government attended the Open Innovation Forum. They carefully examined the products displayed by the Ruselectronics Holding Company’s subsidiaries.

    Ruselectronics Holding Company comprises electronics companies focusing on development and manufacture of electronic devices and components, materials used in electronics and equipment to produce these materials, as well as manufacturing UHF equipment and semiconductor devices and instruments.
     
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  17. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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    A Victory Train has been created by RU MOD to celebrate the WW2 Victory day and make an all-Russian tour to tell and show Victory honor of the army and Soviet people:

    and new Parade repetition video:
     
    Last edited: Apr 21, 2016
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  18. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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    Last edited: Apr 21, 2016
  19. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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  20. gadeshi

    gadeshi Senior Member Senior Member

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