India's contribution to Science and Technology

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by A.V., Feb 17, 2009.

  1. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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  2. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    http://www.zeenews.com/sci-tech/technology/2009-04-07/521399news.html

    India developing technology to read terrorist's mind

    Bangalore, April 07: In what could help building better strategy for anti-terror mechanism in the country, the Department of Science and Technology is facilitating a group of bright scientists to develop a complex human cognitive technology which would allow reading the mind of a terrorist. At the same time, scientists are also developing sensors that would detect hidden devices.

    As many as 30 groups are involved in the initiative, part of homeland security, Secretary in the Department of Science and Technology, T Ramasami, told.

    The idea is to integrate the technology and sensors to nail down terrorists, he said.

    The Department is funding the programme, which has been taken up on a consortium model, Ramasami said, adding, he is requesting Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, to lead the teams.

    "People who understand language, linguistics and people who look at nuclear magnetic resonance...they have come together to really understand the human cognition associated with the linguistic language processes in the mind," he said.

    "This would really involve people from highly different disciplines including social sciences and humanities to people who understand physics in this mechanism."

    Bureau Report
     
  3. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    cross posting

    http://www.livemint.com/2009/04/21003751/India-to-have-its-own-liquid-t.html

    India to have its own liquid telescope

    Scientents say the telescope will cost only one-hundredth of its mirrored equivalent and is easier to maintain
    Jacob P. Koshy


    New Delhi: For a small town, Devasthal has astronomical ambitions.
    Next year, the town in Uttarakhand will host a unique telescope, only among a handful of its kind in the world, that uses a big, spinning bowl of liquid—and not the usual glass mirrors—to focus light from celestial objects.
    The telescope, with its 4m wide dish, will cost only one-hundredth of its equivalent-sized glass-mirrored counterpart, and is much easier to maintain, say scientists associated with the project, making it a potential candidate for futuristic space and lunar observatories.

    [​IMG]
    Far-sighted: A file photo of a 6m diameter liquid mirror telescope at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in Vancouver, Canada. The liquid mirror telescope at Devasthal, Uttarakhand is modelled on this telescope. Paul Hickson (UBC) / Nasa


    The International Liquid Mirror Telescope (ILMT), as it is called, is part of an agreement between the University of Belgium and the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIES), an autonomous organization funded by the Centre’s department of science and technology.

    “We will not be really involved in the construction and such,” said Ram Sagar, director of ARIES, “We will be handling the operations and maintenance part of it.”
    Sagar said the telescope would not cost more than Rs1.5 crore. “The glass mirror equivalent would be anywhere near Rs150 crore,”
    he added.

    Like in a camera, the primary dish in a telescope collects light from a source and focuses it to a point. From here, a complex arrangement of lenses magnifies the image for the human eye.

    The bigger the primary mirror, greater the chances of catching light, and therefore, “seeing” a distant, elusive celestial body. However, such mirrors are extremely expensive to make. Polishing their surfaces and chiselling them to a parabola (the most effective geometric shape for focusing light) are what adds to the cost.
    In ILMT, mercury is filled in a parabolic dish, which is rotated at a constant speed.
    That a liquid spun in a container naturally acquires a parabolic shape has been known to physicists since centuries.

    But Isaac Newton, who is credited with the design of the modern reflector telescope, and knew this property of liquids, didn’t have electric motors and charge-coupled devices (CCD), for making such a telescope.

    An electric motor turns the dish in ILMT and a CCD—like in digital cameras—allows you to take pictures without a photographic film.

    Sagar said that mercury is the most popularly used liquid for such mirrors. “It’s a highly reflective liquid, can peer as far into the sky as its mirror-equivalent and the images are as clear,” he added.

    However, because the mercury can spill, the telescope can only look straight up and cannot be rotated like the mirror telescopes.

    “So, you may have to have a series of these telescopes to increase the collection area. You can have 20-30 such telescopes instead of the rotating ones,” said Sagar.
    Ravi Subramanhyan, director at the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore founded by late Nobel laureate C.V. Raman, said that such a telescope would be a boost to Indian astronomy. “This, and another 3.6m dish telescope being built in the same spot, would be among the largest optical telescopes in India. That would draw more collaborative efforts among scientists in India, as well as abroad,” he said.
    India and Belgium are collaborating on a 3.6m dish telescope, which promises to be the biggest optical telescope in India. “Since we were anyway building this telescope, the Belgian scientists requested that we host the liquid mirror one, too,” said Sagar, “so that’s how this telescope is being built here.”
    With several lunar missions proposed by the US, China and even India, and the discovery of a class of liquids, called ionic fluids, that have mercury’s reflective properties, but don’t freeze in the moon’s harsh winters, liquid mirror telescopes are slowly becoming more than an academic exercise.
    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (Nasa), the US space agency, last year commissioned a research project to develop liquid mirror telescopes for lunar observatories.
    Lunar observatories are useful, in that there’s a much greater chance of telescopes catching radiation from undetected, unknown bodies. That’s because the moon doesn’t have an atmosphere, which on earth prevents a wide range of radiation from reaching land-based telescopes.
    [email protected]
     
  4. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    http://www.hinduonnet.com/holnus/008200904221231.htm

    ASTROSAT to be launched in mid-2010

    Mumbai (PTI): India's Astronomy satellite, ASTROSAT, which would facilitates study of a range of astrophysical objects, is likely to be launched in mid-2010, scientists from Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR) said here.

    The scientists have completed the developmental phase of complex science payloads and have just begun integrating them before delivery for the 1650 kg satellite.

    "The big challenge was that of design of a satellite attitude control system that will enable accurate control of the pointing of the instruments towards a specific direction in the sky," scientists from TIFR told PTI.

    ASTROSAT project is a collaborative effort of a number of reserch institutions, including the Mumbai-based TIFR.

    The challenges in the design of payloads and Attitude Control System have been overcome and in a recent review committee meeting, it was decided that the delivery of the payload to ISRO satellite Centre will begin from the middle of this year and continue till early next year to enable the launch ASTROSAT in 2010 using ISRO workhorse PSLV.

    The Astrosat will be in an equatorial orbit with inclination of about 8 degrees or less. Two star trackers and gyros will be used for the pointing control of the satellite.

    Orbiting at 600 km above the earth's surface, the ASTROSAT satellite costing about Rs 200 crore, will have a lifespan of at least five years.

    This would facilitate study of astrophysical objects ranging from nearby solar system objects to distant stars and objects at cosmological distances, scientists actively working on the instrumentation said.

    Out of the five science payloads for this multi-wavelength satellite observatory, three X-ray instruments are developed by TIFR.

    The Ultra-Violet Imaging Instrument has been developed jointly by Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore and Inter-university centre for astronomy and astrophysics, Pune with the involvement of TIFR.

    The photon counting detectors of this instrument have been developed jointly by the Indian team and the Canadian Space Agency as a science collaboration. The fifth instrument namely X-ray Sky Monitor is being made by ISRO Satellite Centre and is in advanced stages of fabrication and assembly.


    Astrosat will carry five instruments to observe exotic objects such as black holes, neutron stars, and active galaxies at a number of different wavelengths simultaneously, from the visible and ultraviolet band to energetic x-rays.

    The scientist said that, with the confidence developed by the scientific community in the making of payloads for the large mission ASTROSAT, discussions are taking place for the development and launch of smaller size satellites for astronomy and other areas of science in the near future.

    Its other objectives included broadband spectroscopic studies of galaxy clusters and stellar coronae, studies of periodic and non-periodic variability of x-ray sources, monitoring intensity of known sources and detecting outbursts and luminosity variations, the scientists said.

    Once begins orbiting in the sky, it is capable of gathering 420 gigabits of data every day that can be down loaded in 10 to 11 orbits visible at Tracking and Data receiving center of ISRO in Bangalore.

    Other institutes involved in the project are Raman Research Institute, Bangalore, India Space Research Organisation, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Bangalore, Inter-University Center for Astrophysics, Pune, Bhabha Atomic Reserch Centre, Mumbai, S.N Bose National Centre for Basic Science, Kolkata, Canadian Space Agency.
     
  5. jayadev

    jayadev Founding Member

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  6. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    cross posting from daredevil's post in ISRO thread

    ISRO to send bacteria cells into space

    Bangalore: In its first set of biological experiments, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) will send bacteria cells into space — and bring them back — in the second Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SRE-2) scheduled for launch this year-end.

    Two life science experiments, using E.coli and photosynthetic bacteria, will help us understand cell division, genomics (genetic changes) and proteomics (changes in proteins) in microgravity conditions, said Kamanio Chattopadhyay, national coordinator of the Indian Microgravity Programme, who is coordinating scientific experiments for the mission.

    In the first experiment, an E.coli cell would be grown in a bio-reactor and brought back to the earth to carry out genomic studies.

    “When the experiment is recovered, we will explore why microgravity alters the growth of cells.” The experiment could be seen as a prelude to ISRO’s manned space mission slated for 2015, he said.

    “We know that astronauts experience physiological changes when they go into space, the most common being bone loss. NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration] has done experiments to prove that microgravity impacts genes. We need to understand this phenomenon better.”

    The payload would be developed in collaboration with the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) in Hyderabad and the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram.

    In the other experiment, photosynthetic bacteria would be cultured to study the effect of microgravity on photosynthesis. Much like plants, cynobacteria carry out photosynthesis. This experiment would be developed jointly by CCMB, ISRO and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

    The effect of space radiation and microgravity on seeds — of rice and medicinal plants — would be the subject of a third experiment developed by the Pune and Kerala universities. Using a dosimeter, the experiment would measure levels of radiation exposure on the seeds.

    The satellite would also have a materials science experiment onboard to study the role of gravity on melting and sintering of metal powder. Developed by the Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur, this payload would use a model copper-tin alloy as the subject.

    The experiments would remain in orbit for 10 days, said Dr. Chattopadhyay. “While SRE-1 [launched in 2007] proved we had mastered technology for safe vehicle re-entry, SRE-2 will focus on life science experiments in microgravity.” SRE-1 was launched on January 10, 2007 and it successfully re-entered the earth’s atmosphere 12 days later.

    The Hindu : Front Page : ISRO to send bacteria cells into space
     
  7. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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  8. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    The Hindu News Update Service

    Pak farmers keen to adopt tissue culture technology from India

    Jalandhar (PTI): Impressed with the scientific agriculture practices in Punjab, a delegation of farmers from Pakistan today said they were keen to adopt tissue culture technology for better crops in their country.

    "We are very much impressed with the agriculture practices being adopted in India and have decided to adopt the tissue culture technology to develop potato and banana crops in Pakistan also," Rana Shafiq-Ur-Rehman, who led a team of farmers and intellectuals visiting the country under a "peace initiative" post 26/11 attacks, told reporters here.

    Some of the visiting farmers have ordered 15,000 banana saplings developed through tissue culture for use in Karachi and Sindh where conditions are conducive for banana cultivation, he added. The farmers also took interest in the drip irrigation system adopted for paddy sowing in the state.

    Mr. Rana said strengthening of bilateral agri-trade would be beneficial for both the countries. "Pakistan could import potato and banana saplings from Punjab and in turn could send kinnows for which it is known," he said.

    The 20-member delegation is on a five-day tour under an initiative by Pakistan based NGO -Green Circle Organisation (GCO) and supported by local Jalandhar Potato Growers Association (JPGO). The visit is aimed at promoting peace, technology exchange, cooperation and trade amongst farming communities of the two countries.

    Even in the dairy farming, farmers from Pakistan would like to learn about the new technology from their counterparts in India, Rana added.

    Jaswinder Singh Sangha, General Secretary of JPGO, said that at present farmers from Pakistan were getting potato seeds from Holland.

    "If permission is given to Indian farmers, better quality of potato seeds could be supplied to Pakistan farmers at a cheaper rate," he said.

    Earlier, the delegation visited Hoshiarpur over the weekend to know about steps being taken to improve kinnow yield.

    The team would visit Punjab Agriculture University (PAU) and interact with experts.

    Pak human rights woman activist Saeeda Diep said that the delegation would visit Ludhiana tomorrow and wrap up its tour on June 9.

    Ms. Diep has been fighting for rights of slum dwellers for last more than 15 years has been jailed on several occasions.
     
  9. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    The Space Review: Should India and the US cooperate on space solar power?

    Should India and the US cooperate on space solar power?
    by Taylor Dinerman
    Monday, June 8, 2009
    Comments (9)

    If the US has a serious medium-term need for a very large new source of clean energy, India needs it even more. While there is a lot of talk about terrestrial solar, wind, and geothermal power as alternatives to coal—which seems to be currently politically unacceptable—or nuclear—which has its own set of political problems but whose greatest drawback may simply be the length of time it takes to build new power plants—space solar power (SSP) may be the only alternative that could be made to work before the major global electricity demand crisis hits, around the year 2050.

    In Washington lots of people have complained that the Obama Administration has so far not given the India-US relationship the attention it deserves. Others are waiting to see if this relatively new team is going to follow up on the progress made by both the Clinton and the George W. Bush Administrations in building a real friendship between the two democratic giants. The one area in which there seems to be movement on, though, is a “renewable energy partnership”.
    If the US has a serious medium-term need for a very large new source of clean energy, India needs it even more.

    From India’s standpoint the government does take the energy problem very seriously. While they connect it with the question of climate change, they have made it clear that they are not willing to inflict economic pain on their people in order to appease those in the West who are demanding that they cease their current drive to climb out of mass poverty in the name of the environment. Former External Affairs Minister Pranab Mukherjee made this clear when he spoke at the Asia Society in New York last year and said, “It is therefore completely one sided to target countries like India, whose emissions though modest are rising, but fail to bring to account those who have been responsible for more than 70% of the accumulated emissions in the atmosphere.”

    Recognizing the potential weakness of a case based strictly on the question of climate change, Mukherjee was wise enough to add that “even if there were no climate change arguments, considerations of energy security alone would require a medium to long term strategy of implementing a strategic shift from fossil fuels to non fossil fuels.” He called for a “major R&D effort to develop applications that that can provide convenient, cost effective large scale applications of solar energy.”

    Any analysis of the potential of terrestrial solar energy in India or elsewhere runs up against the awesome size of the future demand for power. Photovoltaic panels on rooftops and solar water heaters all make excellent small-scale contributions to the solution, but they cannot by any stretch of the imagination fulfill the requirements of a huge growing economy like India’s. Only SSP, which operates 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, year after year, can hope to meet this need.

    Fortunately both India and the US have space programs and technologies that could, if developed together and possibly with other interested nations such as Japan, bring SSP systems into service sometime late next decade or the early 2020s. With its commitment to develop a new low cost reusable spaceplane, the India Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is already working on one of the key technologies needed for an SSP system.

    Indian participation in both private and public SSP programs should be welcomed by the US. Ehe US government should make an effort to facilitate this by helping with visas and work permits for qualified Indian scientists and engineers. Recent moves towards reforming the notorious International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) should include ensuring that SSP systems are covered by the Department of Commerce regulators rather than by the State Department, which has gained such a sorry reputation in this area.
    Safe, clean, abundant energy from the Sun is not an impossible dream.

    In the near term the new Indo-US renewable energy partnership would seem to be the right place to start this collaboration. Together the partners can identify what will be needed in the way of technological and scientific investments over the next decade in order to make SSP a reality. India has lots of talent that can be committed to this effort and so does the US. In fact, the kind of ambitious idealism that we saw at NASA during the Apollo years could be engendered by this goal.

    Safe, clean, abundant energy from the Sun is not an impossible dream. The technology has not been perfected and the need for new, low-cost Earth-to-orbit transportation systems is as urgent as ever, but there are no requirements for any scientific breakthroughs.

    The Space Solar Power Study released by the US National Security Space Office (NSSO) in October 2007 found that since the 1977 “Reference” study, there had been:

    (a) improvements in PV [photovoltaic] efficiency from about 10% (1970s) to more than 40% (2007); (b) increases in robotics capabilities from simple tele-operated manipulators in a few degrees of freedom (1970s) to fully autonomous robotics with insect-class intelligence and 30–100 degrees of freedom (2007); (c) increases in the efficiency of solid state devices from around 20% (1970s) to as much as 70%–90% (2007); (d) improvements in materials for structures from simple aluminum (1970s) to advanced composites including nanotechnology composites (2007)

    The 2007 NSSO study showed just how far the technology had come and why space solar power is now a more viable alternative for very large-scale power generation than ever before. India and the US are natural partners in the development of this technology and the opportunity provided by the planned renewable energy partnership is a perfect place to begin.

    Taylor Dinerman is an author and journalist based in New York City.
     
  10. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    Coimbatore univ develops wireless tech to detect landslides

    COIMBATORE: Students of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University here have developed a wireless network system for landslide detection, in collaboration with European commission and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).

    "Landslides occur frequently in mountainous terrains, especially during monsoons but detecting them in advance is not an easy task,''
    says Dr P Venkat Rangan, vice chancellor, Amrita university. An expert in wireless communication, Rangan led a team of students in developing the model that has become operational in Munnar town in Idukki district of Kerala.

    The technological breakthrough system was developed as part of the research project WINSOC' (wireless sensor network with self-organisation capabilities for critical and emergency applications). Wireless panels with sensor nodes to read different parameters of the soil, like moisture, vibration and movement will be embedded 15 metres beneath the earth at different points, says Maneesha Ramesh, a faculty member, who was part of the project.

    These sensors will be attached to a wireless transmission device, which will convert analog value into digital value and send the inputs to the base stations, which will be connected to Amrita mutt's Kollam campus. "Experts will be monitoring the inputs from the base stations in real time and any unusual behaviour or extreme value will trigger an alarm,'' says Dr Rangan. The fully tested model has become operational in Munnar. The system can be deployed in any part of the country prone to landslides and snow avalanches. Besides, the application could be put to industrial use for study of gas leakages or in conservation of forests by early identification of forest fires during summer.

    As part of this project, representatives from various European partners like University of Rome, Selex Communications, Intracom Telecom, Czech Centre for Science and Technology have arrived at the Amrita University to learn about the first-ever wireless sensor network system for landslide detection.
     
  11. RPK

    RPK Indyakudimahan Senior Member

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    Indian scientists create world's hardest nano-composite

    [​IMG]

    domain-b.com : Indian scientists create world's hardest nano-composite

    New Delhi: A team of five Bangalore-based researchers headed by Dr CNR Rao, scientific advisor to the Indian prime minister, has discovered the world's hardest plastic nano-composite material, which is also capable of being used in missiles and aircraft.

    The team created the material by reinforcing ordinary plastic with nano-diamonds, a sheet of layered carbon honeycomb and tiny carbon nano-cylinders. Nano dimensions are smaller than the width of a single strand of human hair, with one nano-metre being one millionth of a millimetre.

    The team reinforced a common polymer with nano-diamond, a new age material called graphene (one atom thick carbon honeycomb sheet) and carbon nano-tube producing the new material.

    ''The mechanical properties like hardness and stiffness (after moulding) improved by as much as 400 per cent compared to those obtained with single reinforcements,'' the researchers reported in the 'Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences'.

    Drawn from the Indian Institute of Science and Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), the team of researchers worked on an original idea from Dr Rao.

    An eminent scientist, Dr CNR Rao is also the founding president of the JNCASR.

    Team members have said that despite its hardness the material was extremely light-weight.

    ''It can be used in missile and aerospace engineering. However, we have not yet looked into the application side,'' they said.

    Although the use of nano-materials as reinforcing agents is nothing new, the Bangalore team has been innovative in using a combination two nano-materials to reinforce a polyvinyl alcohol polymer.

    The team evolved two usable combinations – graphene with nano-diamonds and carbon nano tubes with nano-diamonds. Both combinations resulted in the development of ''high-performance polymer matrix composite.''

    High performance in the material evolves from the synergy taking place between polymer and nano-materials.

    Despite being the world's hardest plastic nano-composite, the newly developed reinforcement material constitutes only one per cent of the weight of the composite.

    To create a similar material using conventional methods, 50-60 per cent glass would be required to act as the reinforcing agent and the resultant composite cannot be moulded.

    Besides displaying excellent mechanical properties, the scientists said the reinforced polymer also reveals semi-conducting behaviour, which too can be exploited.

    To assess the practical applications that the new material can be put to, scientists will have to analyse the material's toughness and ductility. This is the next step
     
    [email protected] likes this.
  12. gokulakannan

    gokulakannan Regular Member

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    Wow! could any one tell me how reliable is this if it is used in missles and aircraft? I think this will be less weight as compared to Al alloys, which can increase the efficiency. :Laie_39:
     
  13. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    very simple lighter and stronger material makes the missile faster thereby increasing the efficiency.
     
  14. Koji

    Koji New Member

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    Good luck. Nano tech has been under discovery in other countries as well, and the best they could do was string together a few nano piece together. Nevermind manufacturing weapons out of them.
     
  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    others have failed so everyone will fail??
     
  16. Koji

    Koji New Member

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    You let me know when you can make an aircraft out of nano-pieces.
     
  17. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    they are usually made into long carbon fiber sheets type material.
     
  18. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    India moves towards military nanotechnology

    India moves towards military nanotechnology


    (Nanowerk News) The Indian Express reports today that the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt of India will be making use of the Agharkar Research Institute's (ARI) expertise in nanotechnology for the defence establishment. The work, which is to begin soon, will see the ARI providing nanoparticles to the defence establishment.
    This was stated by Prof Hari Gopal, senior scientist, DST on the concluding function of the diamond jubilee of ARI.
    At ARI to inaugurate its Rs 3-crore new microbiological laboratory, Hari Gopal said that the government has approved filling up of 20 posts at the ARI.
    Dr VS Rao, director, ARI said that the new lab will start functioning from next year and will help bring all the works of microbiology that are now scattered, under one roof.
    The institute will also add up new staff to increase its efficiency in different fields of molecular biology, stem cell research, pharmacology, nanotechnology.
    The Indian Defence Research & Development Organization (DRDO) has undertaken certain initiatives for making the country self-sufficient in a number of strategic materials, e.g. technology for fullerenes and carbon nanotubes which have potential applications in stealth, smart materials and nanoelectronics have been initialized.
     
  19. rahulrds1

    rahulrds1 Regular Member

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    This is very useful discovery by India,Congratulations!
    THis can be used for ,

    # 5th generation stealth multirole fighter -MCA(Medium combact aircraft)
    [​IMG]


    #Space Re-entry vehicle like AVATAR(mainly the TIP of the space vehicle):
    [​IMG]


    # armed vehicles
    [​IMG]

    # Human armors:
    [​IMG]
     
  20. tharikiran

    tharikiran Regular Member

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    I smell something burning here...:blum3:
     

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