Science and technology advancements in India

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Ultra-high mobility electron gas can increase information transfer speed &data storage density in quantum devices


Scientists have produced electron gas with ultra-high mobility, which can speed up transfer of quantum information and signal from one part of a device to another and increase data storage and memory.


The need for attaining new functionalities in modern electronic devices has led to the manipulation of property of an electron called spin degree of freedom along with its charge. This has given rise to an altogether new field of spin-electronics or ‘spintronics’. It has been realized that a phenomenon called the ‘Rashba effect’, which consists of splitting of spin-bands in an electronic system, might play a key role in spintronic devices.


Scientists at Institute of Nano Science and Technology (INST), Mohali (Punjab), an autonomous institution of Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, have produced an ultra-high mobility 2d-electron gas(2DEG) at the interface of two insulating oxide layers.


Due to the high mobility of the electron gas, electrons do not collide inside the medium for a long distance and hence do not lose the memory and information. Hence, such a system can easily remember and transfer its memory for a long time and distance. In addition, since they collide less during their flow, their resistance is very low, and hence they don’t dissipate energy as heat. So, such devices do not heat up easily and need less input energy to operate.


Aided by a grant from the DST-Nanomission in the form of a sophisticated, custom-made instrument called a combinatorial pulsed laser deposition setup, Dr.SuvankarChakraverty Associate Professor at Institute of Nano Science and Technology (INST), Mohali (Punjab), have produced 2DEG with ultra mobility at the novel interface composed of chemicals EuO and KTaO3. The strong spin-orbit coupling and relativistic nature of the electrons in the 2DEG resulted in the ‘Rashba field’. The research was published in the journal ‘Advanced Quantum Technologies’.


According to the INST team, realization of large Rashba-effect at such oxide interfaces containing highly mobile electron gas may open up a new field of device physics, especially in the field of quantum technology applicable for next-generation data storage media and quantum computers.








Figure showing device configuration, Quantum oscillation in the resistance, and Spin-Momentum electronic band splitting revealed through transport measurements





[Publication details:DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/qute.202000081


For more details, Dr.SuvankarChakraverty ([email protected]) can be contacted.]
 

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Innovation Portal developed by National Innovation Foundation (NIF)

Posted On: 14 JAN 2021 5:38PM by PIB Delhi



The Union Minister for Science & Technology, Earth Sciences, Health & Family Welfare Dr. Harsh Vardhan dedicated an Innovation Portal, developed by National Innovation Foundation (NIF) – India, an autonomous body of the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, to the nation, in New Delhi today.


The National Innovation Portal(NIP) is currently home to about 1.15 lakh innovations scouted from common people of the country, covering Engineering, Agriculture, Veterinary and Human Health. In terms of domain areas, presently the innovations cover Energy, mechanical, automobile, electrical, electronics, household, chemical, civil, textiles, Farm / cultivation practice, storage practice, plant variety, plant protection, poultry, livestock management, nutraceuticals etc.


Speaking on the occasion, Dr. Harsh Vardhan said that credit goes to the Prime Minister for igniting the Innovation Movement and creating an Innovation Eco-system in the country during the last 6 years.He congratulated the Atmanirbhar citizens who defeated the problems and challenges through their creative potential and deployment of their innovative Science and Technology based solutions. The Minister emphasized on the growing importance of outstanding Traditional Knowledge, particularly herbal practices which stem from tribal areas, and is one of the key highlights of the Innovation Portal. He said that this Innovation Portal will help institutionalise new ideas by common people towards finding solutions to local problems.


The Minister highlighted “Best Economy is the Idea Economy and Innovative co-efficient is the most important for the progress of the country”, and added that in future it will be the idea that will drive the progress of the nation. He emphasized that the Innovation Portal will create an eco-system where the Institutions will stand behind all those who can convert their ideas and innovations into entrepreneurship. He urged for a Stand-up Start-up system in the country where anyone who has the desire to innovate,should be encouraged to develop his or her ideas, irrespective of their background whether rural, tribal or anyone with formal science background.He further observed that the year 2020 was a year of turbulence like never before, and digital infrastructure of our nation has immensely grown and helped all of us. The Innovation Portal in coming days could be one of the significant contributions amongst all of our digital progress so far and would act as a bridge between people who are looking for Innovative solutions and those who had been at the helm of their evolution.He urged students, entrepreneurs, MSME’sand common people engaged in a variety of occupations to take advantage of the Innovations portal and explore innovations of interest.


Dr Harsh Vardhan expressed his confidence in extraordinary commitment from common people toward innovations which would drive country’s Technology Leadership and have it touch great heights in years to come. He lauded the efforts of NIF and DST in arriving at 1.15 Lakh Innovations as a starting point of this Innovations portal, which by itself is a great beginning.


Speaking on the occasion, Prof Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, DST mentioned that this innovation portal is being on-boarded at a very appropriate time within the innovation eco-system of our nation, by way of coinciding with evolution of 5th National STI Policy of India. He said the future contributors to the innovation portal will stem from the focus areas of the policy, and hence it is important that eco-system of R&D and innovation be created in rural and remote areas, particularly in the North East, Islands and Tribal areas. Prof Ashutosh explained the NIF is not only engaged in scouting for ideas but also taking them forward. The Innovation Portal will help create local entrepreneurs out of grassroots ideas and will help bring ideas to the market, he said.


Dr PS Goel, Chairperson, NIFobserved that innovation portal is a saga of determination of every Indian who believed in evolving his or her own solutions to fit the needs. He urged the industry to visit the portal with an eye to develop them into products for commercialisation.


Dr Vipin Kumar, Director, NIF proposed a vote of thanks on the occasion of the launch of innovations portal.


Innovation Portal is a step towards Atmanirbhar Bharat and an excellent resource for students, entrepreneurs, MSME’s, Technology Business Incubators (TBI’s) and common people engaged in a variety of occupations.


Click here for background note on National Innovation Portal

Portal : https://innovation.nif.org.in/
 

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Technology to combat harmful emissions from DG sets--India Science Wire



The team developed ‘Chakr Shield’, a Retrofit Emission Control Device for DG sets and patented it. They have collaborated with Select CITYWALK mall in Delhi and installed the equipment there. “The installation of the Chakr Shield will help in reducing 80% of pollution from the DG set while saving about 1260 billion litres of air from getting polluted”, said Khushboo Gulati, General Manager Sales and Marketing for Chakr Innovation. The device has been installed just adjacent to the silencer of the DG. From there it can easily take the harmful gases, there with the help of filter and catalytic material it converts hydrocarbons to carbon-di-oxide and this then gets released in the atmosphere with the help of chimney. Carbon-di-oxide is 460 times lesser harmful than Particulate Matter (PM) 2.5 and PM 10.

 

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India’s global position rises both in innovations & publications




India’s excellence in science has now been combined with the recognition of its brilliance as an innovative economy.


While the country has already attained the third position in terms of publications, it now features among the top 50 innovative economies globally as per the Global Innovation Index (GII), placing it ahead of many developed and developing countries.


The combination of scientific excellence and innovation has been possible through encouraging investments in scientific activities, infrastructure as well as manpower development along with boosting of the entire innovation chain in an environment charged with the start-up India movement.


“Our efforts for connecting the invention ecosystem that excels in creating knowledge and the innovation ecosystem facilitating knowledge consumption have helped bring about this transformation, and the 5th National Science Technology and Innovation Policy will help us take this forward more effectively,” said Professor Ashutosh Sharma, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology (DST) while talking about this achievement.


India’s national investment in R&D has increased from Rs. 1,13,825.03 crore in 2017-18 to Rs. 1,23,847.71 crore in 2018-19. At the same time, initiatives of DST like NIDHI have played a crucial role to reach this position. The implementation of NIDHI has nurtured 3681 startups under incubation through the network of around 150 Incubators created by DST, generated 1992 intellectual property. Further, in the last five years, jobs generated in the form of direct employment were 65,864 and Rs 27,262 crores of economic wealth.


The movement to convert ideas to usable technologies and then to scale them up has now spread through the country. Among the 13,045 patents sealed in the year 2017-18, 1,937 patents were by Indians. However, some states held the lion’s share of patents filed. Out of 15,550 patents filed by Indians at Indian Patent Office during 2017-18, 65% were filed from the States of Maharashtra, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, and Delhi. At the same time, the start-up India mission has given a boost to convert these patentable innovative ideas into start-ups levitating India into the country among those with the highest number of start-ups.


While the startup India movement and push for patenting has brought a paradigm shift in science and technology, the country has maintained its growth in publications—the traditional indicator of scientific excellence.


The number of publications has increased exponentially over the last 10 years. According to data from the US agency, the National Science Foundation (NSF), India is currently in third place, only behind China and the United States, with 135,788 scientific articles in the year 2018. The NSF database shows that India's growth rate of scientific publication was 12.9 percent, as against the world average of 4.9 percent. India recorded the fastest average annual growth rate of publications between 2008 and 2018 with 10.73 percent. In comparison, the average annual growth rate of China and the United States are respectively 7.81 and 0.71 percent.


This was a result of the government’s encouragement to researchers in the form of increasing investment on R&D activities, R&D infrastructure as well as manpower development. The country’s per capita R&D expenditure increased to PPP $ 47.2 in 2017-18 from PPP $ 29.2 in 2007-08, as has the R&D manpower to 3.42 lakh in 2018 from 2.83 lakh in 2015. The country now has a stronger manpower base, with India’s researchers per million population increased to 255 in 2017 from 218 in 2015.


The breeding ground of this escalating scientific research lay in the country’s 993 Universities/Deemed Universities, 127 institutes of national importance, and 39,931 colleges across the length and breadth of the country, which nurtures human resources that will take forward the scientific and technological legacy of the nation. It is here that India’s future hopes in science and technology lie, and the country is now among the top in nurturing the talents in them. It has attained 3rd rank in terms of the number of PhDs produced as also in the size of the Higher Education System, creating a massive strength of human resource that will take the nation forward in S&T.
 

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शहरों में बेहतर ट्रैफिक और सुरक्षा प्रबंधन के लिए नया सॉफ्टवेयर -


स्पॉटलाइट एल्गोरिदम वीडियो फीड्स के विश्लेषण के लिए खोज के दायरे को सीमित करने में उपयोगी है। यह कृत्रिम बुद्धिमत्ता हजारों कैमरों से प्राप्त वीडियो फीड के सटीक विश्लेषण के लिए विस्तृत गणना को कम करने में मदद कर सकती है। (इमेज क्रेडिट: योगेश सिम्मन)


भारतीय विज्ञान संस्थान, बेंगलुरु के शोधकर्ताओं ने एक नया सॉफ्टवेयर प्लेटफॉर्म विकसित किया है। इस सॉफ्टवेयर के साथ समायोजित कुछ विशिष्ट ऐप और एल्गोरिदम शहरों में लगे कैमरों से प्राप्त होने वाले वीडियो-फीड को ट्रैक करने और प्राप्त डेटा का विश्लेषण करने में सहायक हो सकते हैं। इस तरह के स्मार्ट विश्लेषण न केवल लापता व्यक्तियों या वस्तुओं पर नजर रखने के लिए उपयोगी हो सकते हैं, बल्कि स्वचालित ट्रैफिक नियंत्रण और "स्मार्ट सिटी" जैसी पहल को मजबूत करने में भी महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका निभा सकते हैं।


दुनियाभर के शहरों में निगरानी के लिए बड़ी संख्या में वीडियो कैमरे लगाए जा रहे हैं। मशीन लर्निंग मॉडल इन कैमरों से प्राप्त होने वाली फीड के विश्लेषण से विभिन्न विशिष्ट उद्देश्यों के समाधान खोजने में उपयोगी हो सकते हैं। किसी चोरी हुई कार को ट्रैक करना, या फिर ट्रैफिक प्रबंधन जैसे विषय इन उद्देश्यों में शामिल हो सकते हैं। ये मॉडल खुद से काम नहीं करते; बल्कि इन्हें किसी सॉफ्टवेयर प्लेटफॉर्म पर चलाना पड़ता है, जो काफी हद तक कंप्यूटर के ऑपरेटिंग सिस्टम के समान होता है। मौजूदा सॉफ्टवेयर प्लेटफॉर्म आमतौर पर अपरिवर्तनीय होते हैं, और उनमें परिवर्तित परिस्थितियों के अनुसार मशीन लर्निंग मॉडल को संशोधित करने, या समान कैमरा नेटवर्क पर नये मॉडल्स के परीक्षण के लिए लचीलापन नहीं होता।


भारतीय विज्ञान संस्थान के डिपार्टमेंट ऑफ कम्प्यूटेशनल ऐंड डेटा साइंसेज (सीडीएस) में एसोसिएट प्रोफेसर योगेश सिम्मन ने बताया कि “इन मॉडलों की सटीकता बढ़ाने के लिए बहुत-सारे शोध हुए हैं, लेकिन इस बात पर पर्याप्त ध्यान नहीं दिया गया है कि इन मॉडल्स को किसी बड़े ऑपरेशन के घटक के रूप में कैसे अनुकूलित किया जाए।” शोधकर्ताओं ने बताया कि उन्होंने इस कमी को दूर करने के लिए यह नया सॉफ्टवेयर विकसित किया है, जिसका नाम ‘अन्वेषक’ है। ‘अन्वेषक’ ट्रैकिंग मॉडल्स को कुशलता से संचालित कर सकता है, और उन्नत कंप्यूटर विज़न टूल्स में प्लग-इन कर सकता है। यह सॉफ्टवेयर वास्तविक समय में कैमरा नेटवर्क के खोज के दायरे के अलग-अलग मापदंडों को समायोजित भी कर सकता है।



भारतीय विज्ञान संस्थान के डिपार्टमेंट ऑफ कम्प्यूटेशनल ऐंड डेटा साइंसेज (सीडीएस) में एसोसिएट प्रोफेसर योगेश सिम्मन ने बताया कि “इन मॉडलों की सटीकता बढ़ाने के लिए बहुत-सारे शोध हुए हैं, लेकिन इस बात पर पर्याप्त ध्यान नहीं दिया गया है कि इन मॉडल्स को किसी बड़े ऑपरेशन के घटक के रूप में कैसे अनुकूलित किया जाए।” शोधकर्ताओं ने बताया कि उन्होंने इस कमी को दूर करने के लिए यह नया सॉफ्टवेयर विकसित किया है, जिसका नाम ‘अन्वेषक’ है। ‘अन्वेषक’ ट्रैकिंग मॉडल्स को कुशलता से संचालित कर सकता है, और उन्नत कंप्यूटर विज़न टूल्स में प्लग-इन कर सकता है। यह सॉफ्टवेयर वास्तविक समय में कैमरा नेटवर्क के खोज के दायरे के अलग-अलग मापदंडों को समायोजित भी कर सकता है।
इस अध्ययन में शोधकर्ताओं ने एक हजार कैमरों के नेटवर्क में दिखाया है कि ‘अन्वेषक’ किस तरह किसी चोरी हुई कार जैसी वस्तु को खोजने में उपयोगी हो सकता है। इस प्लेटफॉर्म की एक प्रमुख विशेषता यह है कि यह एक ट्रैकिंग मॉडल या एल्गोरिदम को केवल एक निश्चित मार्ग के कुछ कैमरों से प्राप्त फीड पर ध्यान केंद्रित करने की अनुमति देता है, और अन्य फीड पर ध्यान नहीं देता है। यह ऑब्जेक्ट की अंतिम ज्ञात स्थिति के आधार पर खोज के दायरे को स्वचालित रूप से बढ़ा या घटा सकता है।


फीड्स का विश्लेषण करने वाले कंप्यूटरों का प्रकार और संख्या जैसे संसाधन सीमित होने के बावजूद यह सॉफ्टवेयर ट्रैकिंग को निर्बाध रूप से जारी रखने में सक्षम है। प्रोफेसर योगेश सिम्मन कहना है कि “यदि खोज का दायरा बढ़ाने की आवश्यकता हो, और कंप्यूटर पर दबाव बढ़ने लगे, तो इस प्लेटफॉर्म पर बैंडविथ बचाए रखने के लिए स्वतः वीडियो की गुणवत्ता कम होने लगती है, जबकि ऑब्जेट को ट्रैक करने का क्रम चलता रहता है।”


शोधकर्ताओं ने यह भी दिखाया है कि ‘अन्वेषक’ चौराहों पर ट्रैफिक नियंत्रित करने, और एंबुलेंस को तेजी से आगे बढ़ने के लिए उपयुक्त मार्ग सुझाने में उपयोगी हो सकता है। इस फ्लेटफॉर्म पर एक मशीन लर्निंग मॉडल का उपयोग लगभग 4,000 कैमरों से लैस बेंगलुरु के एक कृत्रिम रोड नेटवर्क पर एम्बुलेंस को ट्रैक करने के लिए किया गया है। इसमें एक "स्पॉटलाइट ट्रैकिंग एल्गोरिदम" को भी स्वचालित रूप से प्रतिबंधित करने के लिए लगाया गया है, जहाँ एंबुलेंस के जाने की संभावना के आधार पर विश्लेषण की आवश्यकता होती है।


शोधकर्ता इस प्लेटफॉर्म में गोपनीयता आधारित प्रतिबंधों को शामिल करने पर भी काम कर रहे हैं। उनका कहना है कि हम यह सुनिश्चित कर सकते हैं कि इस प्लेटफॉर्म पर किस तरह के विश्लेषण को संचालित किया जाना है, और किसे प्रतिबंधित किये जाने की आवश्यकता है। प्रोफेसर सिम्मन कहते हैं कि उदाहरण के लिए इस प्लेटफॉर्म के जरिये एक तरफ गाड़ियों को ट्रैक करने से संबंधित एनालिटिक्स को अनुमति दी जा सकती है, तो दूसरी ओर लोगों की निगरानी करने वाले तंत्र को प्रतिबंधित कर सकते हैं।


यह अध्ययन शोध पत्रिका ‘आईईईई ट्रांजैक्शन्स ऑन पैरलेल ऐंड डिस्ट्रीब्यूटेड सिस्टम्स’ में प्रकाशित किया गया है। अध्ययन से जुड़े शोधकर्ताओं में प्रोफेसर सिम्मन के अलावा, भारतीय विज्ञान संस्थान, बेंगलुरु के शोधकर्ता आकाश दिगंबर कोचारे और तमिलनाडु के वेल्लोर में स्थित वेल्लोर इंस्टीट्यूट ऑफ टेक्नोलॉजी के शोधकर्ता अरविंदन कृष्णन शामिल हैं।
 

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Science diplomats, representatives of foreign missions in India discuss shaping of science policy
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New security ink for protection to bank-cheques against counterfeiting



Counterfeiting a banknote containing multiple security features is rather difficult. But counterfeiting a bank cheque is not that tough because of a lack of security features. To fix this problem a group of researchers from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research- National Physical Laboratory (CSIR-NPL) has developed a new security ink for bank cheques that is difficult to replicate.


Banknotes contain a security pigment that appears white under ambient light, and red under UV light and after removal of UV illumination, in green. That is the pigment used for this security feature has both phosphorescence (shining in a colour under a light) and fluorescence (radiating light in a particular colour after removal from a light source). The MICR code in the cheque is printed with a special ink that has ferromagnetic properties; however, they do not have the light exciting security features like a currency note. MICR means Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, which makes the cheques machine-readable.


Banknotes contain a security pigment that appears white under ambient light, and red under UV light and after removal of UV illumination, in green. That is the pigment used for this security feature has both phosphorescence (shining in a colour under a light) and fluorescence (radiating light in a particular colour after removal from a light source). The MICR code in the cheque is printed with a special ink that has ferromagnetic properties; however, they do not have the light exciting security features like a currency note. MICR means Magnetic Ink Character Recognition, which makes the cheques machine-readable.
The researchers have formulated a high-security anti-counterfeiting ink by synthesizing a pigment having phosphorescence, luminescent as well as magnetic properties in it. They synthesized a compound pigment that emits intense orange (580 nm wavelength) and red (660 nm wavelength) when put under ultraviolet (UV) light of 351 and 980 nm wavelength, respectively. The ink also reacts under a magnetic field making it machine-readable like the cheques used today.


The new ink developed by the NPL researchers, is more secure as they have a multi-stage excitable luminescent pigment-based pattern that emits two different encrypted wavelengths when excited with two distinct wavelengths. The current inks, used even in currency notes shine only in one colour under say UV light. However, this ink shines at two colours when excited with two different wavelengths of light. This technology of single unit emitting dual-colour when exposed to different wavelengths is not easy to duplicate. Thus, with this pigment ink, the cheques will become even more difficult to counterfeit.


The research team comprised Dr Bipin Kumar Gupta, Dr Kanika, Dr Garima Kedawat and Dr Satbir Singh. The research findings have been published in the journal Advanced Material Technologies.
 

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Balasore to get India’s first lightning research unit

BHUBANESWAR: The India Meteorological Department (IMD) is all set to establish the country’s first thunderstorm research testbed at Balasore.Expected to be fully operational in next five years, the facility will aim to reduce fatalities and loss of property due to lightning strikes in Odisha and the eastern states.


DRDO Chandipur, ISRO Balasore and Bhubaneswar met office will jointly implement the project. The new facility will be developed at IMD’s observation centre in Balasore, Director General of Meteorology Dr Mrutyunjay Mohapatra told TNIE.Between 2011 and February 2020, about 3,218 people lost their lives in the State in lightning strikes. The IMD, Ministry of Earth Sciences, Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) are jointly working on the project.
 

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DIAT’s School of Robotics to research and develop applications for military use

THE School of Robotics at the Defence Institute of Advanced Technology (DIAT) is set to enter into various interdisciplinary areas of research and development needed for the Indian Armed forces and allied defence establishments, the institute has said.


The DIAT which started in 2020 and is based at Girinagar in Pune, is an establishment of the Defence Research and Development Organisation under purview of the Ministry of Defence. Its Mechanical Engineering Department launched the ‘School of Robotics’ in mid 2020, considering the interdisciplinary requirements of the research and development in robotics.

 

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India plans ‘Ease of Doing Science Index’ for high value research

The proposed policy apart from developing an ‘Ease of Doing Science Index,’, aims to develop regulatory guidelines for plants, microbes, insects, poultry, livestock, gene editing and other cutting-edge technologies



In a bid to bring scientific research in India at par with the global standards, the union government is working on a new playbook for a coordinated high impact research funding. As part of this plan, it is working on developing an ‘Ease of Doing Science Index’ to ensure effective use of both disbursed funds (including flexibility of fund utilisation) and the researchers’ time to weed out sub-standard research.

 

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New material found can efficiently convert waste heat to electricity to power small home equipment & vehicles


Scientists have found a new Lead (Pb) free material which can efficiently convert waste heat to power our small home equipment and automobiles.


Thermoelectric energy conversion allows generation of electrical voltage when one end of a material is heated while keeping the other side cold. Finding an efficient material to realize this scientific principle has been a daunting task for scientists. It entails fitting in three seemingly different properties into a single material-- high electrical conductivity of metals, high thermoelectric sensitivity of semiconductors, and low thermal conductivity of glasses.


Most efficient thermoelectric materials developed by scientists so far use Lead (Pb) as a major constituent element, restricting their use for mass-market applications.


Scientists from Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Bengaluru, an autonomous institution of the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India led by Prof. Kanishka Biswas have now identified a lead-free material called Cadmium (Cd) doped Silver Antimony Telluride (AgSbTe2) which can efficiently allow recovery of electricity from ‘waste heat’ marking a paradigm shift in the thermoelectric puzzle. They have reported this major breakthrough in the journal Science.


Prof. Kanishka Biswas and his group doped (internally introduced) Silver Antimony Telluride with Cadmium (Cd) and used an advanced electron microscopy technique to visualize the resultant ordering of atoms in nanometer scale. The nanometer-scale atomic ordering scatters phonons that carries heat in a solid and enhances electrical transport by delocalizing the electronic state in the material.


Previously reported state of the art material is exhibiting the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) in the range 1.5-2 in the mid-temperature range (400-700 K). The team reported a record increase in thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) to 2.6 at 573 K, which can provide the heat to electrical energy conversion efficiency to 14 %. Prof. Biswas is now trying to commercialize the high-performance thermoelectric materials and devices; in collaboration with TATA steel where lots of waste heat is generated in steel power plant.


This work is supported by Swarna-Jayanti fellowship and project fund from Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) and Department of Science & Technology (DST), India, along with support from New Chemistry Unit (NCU) & International Centre for Materials Science (ICMS), JNCASR, Bangalore.








Figure. (A) Schematic of the atomic ordering optimization strategy and its impact on thermoelectric parameters: electrical conductivity (s) and Seebeck coefficient (S). (B) Electron microscopic image exhibits the formation of cation ordering in 6 mol% Cd doped AgSbTe2. (C) Temperature dependent thermoelectric figure of merit, zT of pristine AgSbTe2 and 6 mol% Cd doped AgSbTe2.
 

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Indian Scientist's Device Measures Quakes Better Than Richter Scale?
The Indian geophysics scientist made a Physics-based earthquake measuring system with a greater degree of accuracy than the American scientist Charles Francis Richter’s ‘localised’ creation. The Mwg is a fundamental contribution to understanding the physics of earthquakes and the tectonic processes that cause them.

 

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Indigenously designed and developed ‘Made in India’ spectrograph, commissioned on Devasthal Optical Telescope, can locate faint light from distant celestial objects


Posted On: 03 MAR 2021 11:33AM by PIB Delhi



Indian Scientists have indigenously designed and developed a low-cost optical spectrograph that can locate sources of faint light from distant quasars and galaxies in a very young universe, regions around supermassive black-holes around the galaxies, and cosmic explosions.


Such spectroscopes were so far imported from abroad involved high costs. The ‘Made in India’ optical spectrograph named as Aries-Devasthal Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera (ADFOSC), indigenously designed and developed by Aryabhatta Research Institute of observational sciences (ARIES), Nainital, an autonomous institute of Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, is about 2.5 times less costly compared to the imported ones and can locate sources of light with a photon-rate as low as about 1 photon per second.


The spectroscope, the largest of its kind among the existing astronomical spectrographs in the country, has been successfully commissioned on the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), the largest in the country and in Asia, near Nainital Uttarakhand.


This instrument, a backbone of the 3.6-m DOT for observations of extremely faint celestial sources, uses a complex arrangement of several lenses made of special glasses, polished to better than 5-nanometer smoothness to produce sharp images of the celestial sky. Photons coming from distant celestial sources, collected by the telescope, are sorted into different colors by the spectrograph and are finally converted into electronic recordable signals using an in-house developed Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera cooled to an extremely low temperature of -120 0C. The total cost of this instrument is nearly Rs. 4 Crore.


Dr. Amitesh Omar, scientist at ARIES, led this project with a technical and scientific team, which together researched and developed various optical, mechanical, and electronics subsystems of the spectrograph and camera. The spectrograph is presently being used by astronomers from India and abroad to study distant quasars and galaxies in a very young universe, regions around supermassive black-holes around the galaxies, cosmic explosions like supernovae and highly energetic Gamma-ray bursts, young and massive stars, and faint dwarf galaxies.


“The indigenous efforts to build complex instruments like ADFOSC in India is an important step to become ‘Aatmanirbhar’ in the field of astronomy & astrophysics,” said Prof. Dipankar Banerjee, Director, ARIES.


Expertise from various national institutes, organizations, including the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and some micro-small-medium-enterprises, were involved to review and build parts of the instrument serving as an example of effective collaboration. With this expertise, ARIES now plans to commission more complex instruments such as spectro-polarimeter and high spectral resolution spectrograph on the 3.6-m Devasthal telescope in the near future.


https://static.pib.gov.in/WriteReadData/userfiles/image/image0010DGO.png






This collage shows pictures of the 3.6-m Devasthal Optical Telescope (DOT), the ‘Made-in-India’ ARIES-Devasthal Faint Object Spectrograph & Camera (ADFOSC), and an image of celestial source obtained from the telescope. The image of the Crab Nebulae shows the aftermath of a star explosion, which happened in the Milky-way galaxy in the year 1054. The color-coded optical spectrum obtained from ADFOSC shown here is of a recently dead massive star with spectral signatures of various elements such as Hydrogen, Iron, Sodium, Calcium, etc., once synthesized in its core and now being expelled out. This material becomes raw material to form new stars and planets in the future, thereby establishing the continuous cycle of birth and death of heavenly bodies.
 

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DGPS based technology to Improve fertilizer application--India Science Wire
By India Science Wire

4-5 minutes



Fertilizer dropped is collected into zipper bags during operation

Geospatial mapping is a buzzword today with the Govt. of India liberalizing the sector. There is another side of mapping that could transform the food security program of India; soil maps, which could be accessed using differential GPS (DGPS), developed by researchers at (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur) IIT, Kharagpur for a variable rate of fertilization application in farmlands.

Spatial variations in soil type and mineral content in large agricultural tracts are a common phenomenon that leads to a dynamic need for resources such as fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and even water. Farmers have been collecting information on these variations through soil test by local bodies or installing sensors to collect the data in real-time. However, the proximity of the applicator vehicle to the sensor hinders real-time sensor-based data processing and fertilizer application.

The novel technology, developed by researchers at IIT, Kharagpur, is aimed towards efficient use of Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potash (NPK) for automated soil nutrition management by bypassing both manual labour based operations or sensor-based fertilization technologies which are still under development, say researchers.


Rover mounted on tractor

Geospatial mapping is a buzzword today with the Govt. of India liberalizing the sector. There is another side of mapping that could transform the food security program of India; soil maps, which could be accessed using differential GPS (DGPS), developed by researchers at (Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur) IIT, Kharagpur for a variable rate of fertilization application in farmlands.
Prof. VK Tewari, Director, IIT Kharagpur along with his former research scholar Dr. Sneha Jha from the Dept. of Agricultural and Food Engineering, explored an alternate method of creating a soil nutrition map that can be accessed in real-time through differential global positioning system for variable rate application of NPK. The soil map can be replicated for agricultural plots based on soil tests which can be performed at district administration levels or by private labs. This data when fed into the DGPS module will be accessible to farms using the GUI installed-applicator.

Explaining the process Prof. Tewari said, “We divided one hectare of land into 36 grids with the nutritional requirement of each grid fed in the soil map. The fertilizer applicator vehicle, fitted with a DGPS module and GUI enabled Microprocessor cum Microcontroller, can access this map and compute in real-time the variable rates in the fertilizer application function.” He further added remarking on how this technology can bring down the cost of fertilizer application by improving the efficiency of the job and reducing manual labour.


Microcontroller circuit for relay operation

“The system can detect the field grids in real-time with a length-wise accuracy of 16 cm towards the east and breadth-wise accuracy of 20 cm towards the north. It can manage the automated application from 5 to 400 Kg per hectare. Application of such desired amount of NPK precisely at a specific location will enhance crop production and avoid environmental degradation. This technology would be able to reduce 30% of fertilizers used in manual methods thus ensuring substantial savings in resource applications,” said Prof. Tewari.

India Science Wire
 

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Battlefield Management System

Ludhiana: In a joint effort of Guru Nanak Dev Engineering College, Ludhiana, and Indian Army, a Battlefield Management System developed by team of GNDEC students got huge praise from Indian Army, said GNDEC Prinicipal Dr Sehijpal Singh. The principal congratulated the department and students namely Shiv Charan, Raghu Gulati, Lakshya Chopra and Puran Singh for completing the great project for the Army. Dr Parminder Singh, HOD and Prof Satinderpal Singh of Computer Science and Engineering Department, were specially invited for honouring at regiment headquarter. They said the system developed by the college will play a major role in battlefield.

 
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As told before, always copy tweets' content to forum, tweets may take time to load or get deleted.
@ICMRDELHI
We are proud to announce that India’s indigenous neurosurgery simulator, neuro-endoscope-box-trainer, granted US Patent through the ICMR Patent Cell. The simulator has been developed jointly by @aiims_newdelhi & @iitdelhi #MakeInIndia @MoHFW_INDIA @DeptHealthRes @PMOIndia
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@iiscbangalore
In the latest issue of IISc's Kernel, learn more about how IISc researchers are working on developing brain-inspired systems that can lead to smarter and faster computers.
https://t.co/jLYtI3oulV https://t.co/rsglZNarMm
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@EduMinOfIndia
.@IITGuwahati has developed an automated #AI-based system to detect colorectal #cancer using colonoscopy images. Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of cancer in India, but if detected early it can be cured.
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