Nuclear Power in India

nitesh

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just to gain moral highground, you know. so, we would be the one shouting and they would be the ones hushing it up.
our PM must 'insist' in every meet with obama that 'world needs nuclear disarmament', otherwise he will talk about CTBT/NPT. so shut his mouth before he even has chance to open it.
He he he true chankya style:2guns::d_training:
 

nitesh

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http://www.domain-b.com/companies/c...vy_Electricals/20090402_nuclear_forgings.html

BHEL in pact with the UK's Sheffield Forgemasters to make nuclear forgings news
02 April 2009

State-run Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd (BHEL) has signed a technology transfer deal with the world's largest independently owned forgemaster, the UK-based Sheffield Forgemasters to manufacture nuclear forgings.

The 10-year deal will see Sheffield Forgemasters using its expertise to oversee the construction of new steel-making and forging facilities for hydro, nuclear and thermal power components in India.

BHEL, in turn, will buy Sheffield Forgemasters' technology durimg the deal period for a royalty on sales of these products.

In January, BHEL CMD, K Ravi Kumar had said that the company was looking at a joint venture with a European firm for manufacturing nuclear forgings to buy technology, without disclosing the identity of the company. (See: BHEL to form JV with European firm for manufacturing nuclear forgings)

Earlier in December, he had said that BHEL and its joint venture partner Nuclear Power Corporation of India were in talks with Japanese and European companies for a casting and forgings plant under a joint venture and was also in the process of entering the field of nuclear reactors. It already has a . (See: BHEL-NPCIL joint venture finalising technology partner)

With the signing of the Indo-US nuclear deal, India is looking to enhance its nuclear power generation capacity by building more reactors and to meet its requirement of 700-800 nuclear forgings, experts say that India will require a minimum of two or three manufacturing plants as China, whose nuclear industry is growing at a rapid pace already has five large nuclear forging plants.

The 200-year old Sheffield Forgemasters expects its deal with BHEL to genrate around £30 million ($43 million) apart from enhancing future business deals in India.

The UK company specialises in a broad range of heavy steel forgings and steel castings as well as stocking steel ingot and bar and supplies these to key industries such as defence, nuclear, oil and gas exploration, power generation, marine and construction.

According to experts, India would require nearly 700-800 large nuclear forgings weighing 100,000 tonnes for its civilian nuclear plant expansion plan in the next 20 to 25 years.

Even though India's atomic and space research programmes are nearly 40-50 years old, the technology denial regime against it by the west have kept it back from being able to make large open die steel forgings for the nuclear industry or large steel castings although India is a major player in the steel industry.

In a nuclear plant, the reactor pressure vessels requie very large and high integrity steel forgings.

Currently the global manufacturing capacity of nuclear forgings is less than half the expected demand and with more countries embracing nuclear energy as a primary source of clean power this shortfall will be more acute and by manufacturing the forgings locally, India will save on precious foreign exchange.

Sheffield Forgemasters was established in 1983 from the merger of Firth Brown and British Steel's River Don Works Forging operations, though the company can trace its heritage back to the start of the steel industry in Sheffield in the 1700s.

The company currently has the capacity for pouring casting Europe's largest single ingot of 570 tonnes. The two forging presses in use can exert a pressure of 2,500 tonnes and 10000 tonnes on a billet of steel.
 

nitesh

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What you say guys about this:

http://www.thaindian.com/newsportal...lead-superseding-earlier-story_100175269.html

Parliament’s nod will be mandatory for international agreements: BJP (Lead, superseding earlier story)
April 4th, 2009 - 12:23 am ICT by IANS

New Delhi, April 3 (IANS) Describing the Indo-US nuclear deal as done in “regrettable secrecy” by the Congress-led UPA, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) said if voted to power it would bring in a constitutional amendment to make parliamentary approval mandatory before the government signs any international agreement that concerns strategic programmes, territorial integrity and economic interests.
In its party manifesto, released here Friday, the BJP said: “In view of the uncalled for and regrettable secrecy with which the Congress and the prime minister dealt with the India-US nuclear deal, the BJP proposes to introduce an amendment to the constitution to make it mandatory for government to seek parliament’s approval/ratification by two-thirds majority before signing any bilateral or multilateral agreement that impinges on India’s strategic programmes, territorial integrity and economic interest.”

It said the country needs nuclear energy, “but not at the cost of our national strategic interests. The Congress has fooled the people of India by selling the over-hyped India-US Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement as an absolute necessity and how it will help light up people’s homes.”

The UPA government had signed the deal by “suppressing two crucial facts”, it said. First, the government “did not make the smallest effort to tap India’s own nuclear fuel supplies”, and second, nuclear power is “tremendously expensive and not affordable for the aam admi”.

“The India-US nuclear deal, in the final analysis, is not about empowering India but disempowering India by making us dependent on American supplies and tying us to discriminatory regimes from which Pakistan is free.

“The BJP believes that India’s strategic nuclear programme has been deeply compromised by the Congress. The gains of Pokhran-II and subsequent development have been frittered away for gains that have accrued to those who wish to see India’s nuclear programme to be contained, rolled back and eventually dismantled.”

The BJP promised to “reverse this drift”.

It said India’s indigenous thorium technology programme will be expedited and given financial assistance, “correcting the grievous wrong done by the UPA government”.

It said if voted to power, the BJP will honour India’s commitments to prevent proliferation. “But it will pursue an independent nuclear policy based on the following:

1. All options will be kept open and all steps will be taken that are necessary for the

technological advancement of India’s civil and military nuclear programmes.

2. Maintain a credible minimum deterrent that is in tune with changing realities.

3. Seek cross-party consensus before agreeing to any control regime, including CTBT,

FMCR and MTCR.”
 

nitesh

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http://www.deccanherald.com/Content/Apr62009/editpage20090405128328.asp

India's heavy water project comes of age
By K S Parthasarathy
Techonology for heavy water is being developed. This may lower energy consumption by 60 pc.

It is six decades since Dr Homi Jehangir Bhabha, the architect of nuclear India, initiated moves to make heavy water as a strategic material; he dreamt that India should produce large quantities of it indigenously. He converted his dream into a resolution and got it approved by the Board of Research on Atomic Energy at its second meeting held in Bombay on April 9 and 10, 1948.

“The government should explore the possibilities of using cheap hydroelectric power in India for manufacturing heavy water, on the one hand for our own requirements, and on the other for sale to other countries,” Bhabha pleaded in a covering note to Nehru. The Board’s resolution did not refer to any sale to other countries. So it probably was an afterthought by Bhabha.

In 1954, Dr Bhabha convinced Nehru to set up a fertiliser cum heavy water plant (HWP) at Nangal. The Nangal plant, the largest plant of this type in the world, produced the first drop of heavy water on August 9, 1962. In the next few decades, such drops accumulated into drums at Nangal, Kota, Tuticorin, Thalcher, Baroda, Thal, Hazira and Manuguru.

The rest as they say is history. From dreams to drums, the saga of heavy water production in India is a notable success story.

Heavy water is the coolant and moderator in Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR). India is self sufficient in heavy water production, and the Heavy Water Board (HWB) has exported 205 tonnes of heavy water so far.

Heavy water is similar to ordinary water (H2O). But there is a key difference in it. In heavy water, two regular hydrogen atoms are replaced with deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen. Ordinary water contains about 150 parts per million of heavy water. We have to process over 100, ten litre buckets of water to get a cup of heavy water.

India is the largest manufacturer of heavy water in the world, perhaps the only country which has mastered the two processes (hydrogen sulphide-water bi-thermal and ammonia -hydrogen mono-thermal) to produce it. HWB is developing a technology at Baroda using water — ammonia exchange process to operate a heavy water plant independently of fertiliser plants. The cost of energy constitutes 70-80 per cent of the operating cost of HWPs. HWB could reduce over the last decade, specific energy (energy needed to produce a kg of heavy water) consumption by about 36 per cent by systematic energy conservation measures.

It is developing a novel, safe and clean technology to produce heavy water based on hydrogen-water exchange process; specific energy consumption may then be reduced by a further 60 per cent.

Low cost

Chairman and managing director of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) SK Jain, the main customer of HWB, has acknowledged that the cost of heavy water had come down by 20 per cent in the last few years. “NPCIL could have a surplus of Rs 11,000 crore just on that account,” he said. Plus during 2007-08, all heavy water plants excelled in their performance.

“The capacity utilisation during 2008-09 is expected to touch 125 per cent. HWP Manuguru achieved a capacity utilisation of 137 per cent and the lowest ever specific energy consumption during the year” A L N Rao chairman and chief executive, HWB, informed scientists attending the Heavy Water Day-2009.

HWB has diversified its activities successfully. The board produced many solvents vital to the nuclear industry, and extracted 18O, a valuable isotope for biomedical research, developed technologies to produce sodium metal, to recover uranium from phosphatic fertilisers and to prepare enriched boron.

HWB has faced many challenges (plant operation with fertiliser factories, power scarcity, export controls, poor national industrial infrastructure etc.) in mastering a technology known only to a few advanced countries.

Rao said, “In the functioning of the HWB or of various sub-committees of the board, or of the senior officers at different levels, I have seen team building qualities, challenges being taken up by youngsters and not getting stuck with problems but finding a way out. That’s what has made us move forward.”

Aptly said, the mood is upbeat in HWB.

(The writer is with the Department of Atomic Energy)
 

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Relief in Delhi as US signals shift on nuke red rag

If US is serious then this will be the best thing to move forward
In his declaration to lead a global effort to eliminate all nuclear weapons, US President Barack Obama has signalled that he intends to deal with India with sensitivity and that a bilateral relationship cherished by his predecessors Bill Clinton and George W. Bush will not be squandered for any ideology.
 

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http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articlelist/articleshow/4390293.cms

N-deal: India is becoming sanctions-proof
12 Apr 2009, 0041 hrs IST, Swaminathan S Anklesaria Aiyar


The manifestos of the BJP and Communist Party (Marxist) accuse the Congress of bartering away India's security in the nuclear deal with the US. They worry that India will be dragooned into signing other treaties that limit its nuclear options, and open it to nuclear sanctions if it ever tests a bomb again.

This is a needless fear. Current developments suggest that, in a decade or so, India itself will become a major nuclear equipment supplier to the whole world. The multinationals of France, US and Japan want to manufacture nuclear equipment in India to meet not just Indian but global demand. Once India becomes part of the global supply chain, it will become effectively sanctions-proof. As a supplier of global equipment, it will be in a position to impose sanctions on others, not just be at the receiving end.

India plans to set up several massive nuclear power parks. The sites chosen so far are Jaitapur in Maharashtra, Haripur in West Bengal, Patisonapur in Orissa, Mithirvirdi in Gujarat and Kowadi in Andhra Pradesh. Six to eight reactors, of 1,000-1,650 MW, will be installed at each nuclear park. Negotiations are in progress with four global suppliers - GE-Hitachi, Toshiba-Westinghouse, Areva of France, and Atomstroyeksport of Russia.

Earlier, when South Korea and China placed major orders for nuclear power plants, their deals mandated transfer of technology and localisation of equipment manufacture. India will follow the same path. All foreign nuclear suppliers will transfer technology and indigenise production in India.

They will do so enthusiastically, not reluctantly. Visiting teams of MNCs from France and the US have expressed great keenness to set up joint ventures in India to meet not just Indian but global demand for equipment.

Why? India and China have emerged as low-cost producers of electrical machinery. Western manufacturers find the cost of new nuclear plants spiralling, casting doubts on the viability of nuclear power. To survive, they must slash costs. They can best do so by outsourcing production to India and China.

For decades, not a single nuclear power plant has come up in the US, UK, or Germany. Nuclear power has been derided as expensive and unsafe. But now global warming is a pressing issue. Nuclear power is suddenly seen as essential to produce carbon-free electricity.

The Copenhagen conference later this year will set ambitious targets for reducing carbon emissions. One key strategy will be to tax fossil fuels - either by a carbon tax or a cap-and-trade system for emissions. This taxation of fossil fuels promises to make nuclear energy economically viable again - provided equipment costs are kept down.

With cost control, the demand for nuclear equipment could quadruple. Existing capacity is not remotely enough for massive new projects in the pipeline. All major suppliers need to create new capacity. And they intend to create much of this in countries which have skills, low costs, and large local demand - India and China.

Only two plants in the whole world (in France and Japan) can make the giant forgings needed for large nuclear power plants. Bharat Forge has recently become the second biggest auto forging company in the world, thanks to its success in cutting costs. It has now signed a pact with Areva to manufacture nuclear equipment - including giant forgings. Larsen & Toubro has signed a similar nuclear equipment deal with Mitsubishi. The Jindals and Anil Ambani also appear interested. All are formidable low-cost producers.

Till now, Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd has held a virtual monopoly on large power plants. Now, Bharat Forge has tied up with Alsthom and L&T with Toshiba to manufacture conventional power plants. These can later be upgraded to produce complete nuclear power plants.

India may still find it difficult to get plutonium reprocessing or uranium enrichment technology. This may be true of some hi-tech components too. So, India may not become self-sufficient in every aspect of nuclear power. But if it becomes a major exporter of nuclear equipment, it will become effectively sanctions-proof.

If all the global manufacturers have plants in India itself, import sanctions will lose their meaning. And if India itself becomes a vital supplier of nuclear components to the rest of the world, others cannot impose sanctions on India without suffering supply disruptions themselves. That's why the biggest hawks in our nuclear establishment, who badly want nuclear testing in the distant future, can relax on the issue of sanctions. De facto, India will become a member of the privileged P-5 when it becomes part of the global supply chain of nuclear equipment in the next 10 years.
 

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Was going to post that mate. He is right in his assesment. But in India political one upmanship costs the country dear. I remember posting my views on similar lines on a different forum when the debate on the nuke deal was in full swing
 

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http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200904121818.htm

India working on ratification procedures of ISSA: Kakodkar

Mumbai (PTI): The country is working on the ratification procedures of the India-specific Safeguards Agreement (ISSA) signed with IAEA to place its civilian nuclear power plants for the international inspection.

"We are working on the ratification procedures of the ISSA. Ratification is a legal step and is expected to be completed soon," Anil Kakodkar, Chairman Atomic Energy Commission, told PTI on Sunday.

Mr. Kakodkar said, "We will catch up with the schedule mentioned in the India-specific safeguards agreement signed with IAEA on February 2 this year at Vienna and will place reactors classified as civilian as per the Separation Plan under a single umbrella.

"We will place first the newly constructed plants at Rajasthan Atomic Power station (RAPS) units 5 and 6 this year under the International nuclear watchdog IAEA."

The next step would be filing of declaration of placing of the civilian plants as per the Separation Plan, 2006, of the Indo-US civil nuclear agreement, he said, adding that the following step would be notification of the same to IAEA.
 

nitesh

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Was going to post that mate. He is right in his assesment. But in India political one upmanship costs the country dear. I remember posting my views on similar lines on a different forum when the debate on the nuke deal was in full swing
You are correct but any way the things are moving in right direction albeit little slowly
 

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If people want the full text of the nuclear deal it is in the articles thread...
 
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Russia offers India role in uranium centre project

http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2009/04/15/stories/2009041551580100.htm

Russia offers India role in uranium centre project

Involvement in the project would ‘guarantee’ nuclear fuel supply.


Anil Sasi

New Delhi, April 14 Russia has offered India the option of participating in its International Uranium Enrichment Centre (IUEC) at Angarsk, Siberia as a means of securing guaranteed fuel supplies in the future.

This was communicated to a visiting Indian delegation to Russia, headed by the Atomic Energy Commission Chairman, Dr Anil Kakodkar, on April 9.

The offer, made during deliberations between the two sides, includes investment possibilities for India in the IUEC, which is being set up under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) supervision, sources said. The investments could be considered in lieu of India paying for nuclear fuel to be supplied to the Russian-built Koodankulam Light Water Reactor units and to existing Indian pressurised heavy water reactor units that are to be fuelled by Russian firm TVEL under a bilateral pact.

The enrichment centre is being set up by Russia for supply of uranium to countries with nuclear energy programmes under the IAEA safeguards. Russia is establishing the project in collaboration with countries such as Kazakhstan under the supervision of the nuclear watchdog at the Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Plant in Eastern Siberia.

The Indian delegation visited the Angarsk Plant, which hosts the IUEC, and nuclear fuel supplier TVEL’s JSC Novosibirsky Chemical Concentrates Plant. According to sources, the Director of Angarsk Electrolysis Chemical Plant, Mr Alexander Belousov, made a pitch for India to invest in the IUEC project. The participation by India in the project, he said, would tackle the problem of guaranteed nuclear fuel supply to ensure safe and reliable operation of the Indian nuclear sector, according to sources.

Proposals regarding joint fundamental research were also discussed during the talks. Dr S.K. Jain, Chairman and Managing Director of the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd, and Mr R. Gupta, Uranium Corporation of India Ltd chief, were also part of the Indian delegation.

Earlier, at the delegation level talks between India and Russia during the Prime Minister, Dr Manmohan Singh’s Moscow visit in 2007, the Russians had indicated at the possibility of India investing in the proposed centre. Subsequently, however, there were reports of a rethink within the Russian government on Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty membership being considered as a prerequisite for IUEC participation.

The Angarsk facility has traditionally been associated with Russian civilian nuclear programme and had been kept completely out of the erstwhile Soviet Union’s atomic weapons plan, thereby, making it easier for the plant to be put under IAEA control.

The enrichment centre would produce only low-enriched uranium, which cannot be diverted for building nuclear weapons. Uranium enriched to low levels can be used as fuel for nuclear power plants, but higher levels of enrichment make it possible to divert the fuel for the construction of the core of a nuclear bomb.
 

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http://www.mydigitalfc.com/power/ntpc-goes-nuclear-packs-officers-barc-training-729

NTPC goes nuclear, packs off officers to BARC for training

By C Sarita

DIVERSIFYING into nuclear power generation is like discovering the zero again for the country’s biggest power company NTPC Ltd. From pure thermal to hydro and now nuclear, its executives are getting trained for the big league. It has identified 25 of its executives for training in nuclear power generation at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in Mumbai.
The employees, including some senior executives, will undergo one year of training. Post training, the executives will be posted in the company’s proposed joint venture with Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL).
Nuclear power generation involves mainly two components—reactor and fuel and the other is actual power generation which is akin to what NTPC does even now.
NTPC and NPCIL this February 14 signed a memorandum-of-understanding to set up a joint venture company to construct nuclear power projects in the country.
A senior NTPC executive said the programme would include both off site and onsite training. “This is the first time that we have posted our employees for training in nuclear energy. There are at least five senior executives in the list,” he said.
The joint venture planned to start with two reactors of 2,000 mw each, a capacity that NTPC targets to reach by 2017.
The joint venture, to mark NTPC’s entry in nuclear energy sector, is in the process of identifying sites for locating the projects. The official said the companies were yet working on financing details of projects.
With the MoU, NTPC will be able to leverage upon NPCIL’s expertise in the nuclear sector. NPCIL is the only company producing electricity through nuclear plants in the country. The firm aims to achieve a 10,000 mw capacity in the 11th Plan period, against about 4,000-mw at present. NPCIL has preliminary arrangements with France’s Areva for supply of six nuclear reactors with lifetime fuel supply for a proposed park at Jaitapur in Maharashtra.
The joint venture agreement between NTPC and NPCIL was inked after India received a waiver from the 45-nation Nuclear Suppliers Group lifting a 34-year ban from nuclear trade.
 

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http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/000200904191222.htm

India seeks n-energy ties with Canada: Montek

Toronto (IANS): India is seeking increased nuclear cooperation with Canada to meet its growing energy demands, Planning Commission Deputy Chairman Montek Singh Ahluwalia said here.

Speaking Saturday at the second annual dinner of the Canada-India Foundation (CIF), Ahluwalia said India's rising demand for energy offered huge business opportunities for Canadian nuclear energy companies.

Since Canada is the world leader in nuclear energy, he said, cooperation between the two countries in the field could give a major boost to India's development.

To maintain its growth rate, he said, India is looking for clean energy and called upon Canadian companies to explore business opportunities in the sector.

He said India grew by about 8.5 percent during the past five years and such a high growth rate offered great opportunities for Canadian investors.

As Indian companies have made more investment in Canada than Canadian companies in India, the planning commission deputy chairman said he was pleased to see them invest in Canada and spread the message about business opportunities in their home country.

Without mentioning the just $4-billion annual trade between the two countries, Ahluwalia said there was much more scope for economic cooperation between the two countries.

Echoing Ahluwalia's sentiments, Canadian Finance Minister Jim Flaherty said Canada-India partnership has a great potential, adding that his government was taking many steps to raise the trade level with India.

With the two countries co-chairing a G-20 group on future financial regulatory reform, Flaherty said Canada and India have raised their voice against protectionism in the current global crisis.

Canadian opposition leader and former Harvard professor Michael Ignatieff said India's ascendancy is not only a business opportunity but also a challenge to Canada to question its 'centre of gravity'.

With the world's economic power shifting to India and China, he said Canada must shift its 'centre of gravity' away from the US to India and China.

With India already a world leader in many areas like IT and steel, he said Canada should lose no time in seeking bigger business partnership with New Delhi.

Later, Tulsi Tanti of Canada's wind power giant Suzlon Energy Limited was given the $50,000 CIF Chanchlani Global Indian award for his contribution to developing clean energy.
 

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http://www.business-standard.com/india/news/lt-ties-uptwo-more-global-n-reactor-makers/356004/

L&T ties up with two more global N-reactor makers
Nevin John & Pb Jayakumar / Mumbai April 23, 2009, 0:23 IST

Larsen & Toubro (L&T) is ready for its foray into the nuclear power plant construction business. The largest engineering and construction company in the country will sign cooperation agreements with General Electric Hitachi of the US and Areva of France, two of the largest vendors of reactors, within three to four weeks.

L&T has already signed cooperation agreements with the other three major reactor makers — Atomstroyexport (ASE), which is part of Rosatom of Russia, Toshiba Westinghouse of the US and Atomic Energy of Canada (AEC).

“We are close to signing cooperation deals with Areva and GE,” a top company official told Business Standard. A spokesperson declined comment.

Sources said the partnership would make L&T a major player in global reactor construction, as the deals covered cooperation on projects in various regions, besides India.

India’s civil nuclear power programme is set for a takeoff following India’s entry into the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) after a three-decade ban. It offers an opportunity worth $60 billion for the global nuclear industry as India plans to add about 60,000 Mw capacity by 2032.

L&T’s discussions with Areva assume significance as the French company will supply reactors and technology for the new 4,000-5,000 Mw nuclear reactors coming up at Jaitapur in Ratnagiri district of Maharashtra. India’s new nuclear capacity addition programme will start with this project. India also planned to source reactors for about 10,000 Mw from the US vendors, White Westinghouse and GE Hitachi, said sources.

The $7 billion L&T, which hopes to get 20 per cent of its future business from the power sector, will partner vendors to supply equipment and systems, valves, electrical and instrumentation, fabrication of structural and piping and construction of plants, besides regular spare sourcing and specialised post-installation support.

L&T has experience in equipment manufacture, construction, project maintenance and other support services for PWR (pressurised water reactor) programmes in India, starting with the Tarapur reactor in 1974. It also has a major role in construction, piping and erection services for the two nuclear reactors coming up at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu. In the next stage, four more 1,000 Mw reactors will be added at Kudankulam. Rosatom, which has a co-operation agreement with L&T, is to supply the reactors and technology for Kudankulam.
 

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good read: read it in full lot of info provided

Nuclear Power in India : WNA

Nuclear Power in India
* India has a flourishing and largely indigenous nuclear power program and expects to have 20,000 MWe nuclear capacity on line by 2020. It aims to supply 25% of electricity from nuclear power by 2050.
* Because India is outside the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty due to its weapons program, it has been for 34 years largely excluded from trade in nuclear plant or materials, which has hampered its development of civil nuclear energy until 2009.
* Due to these trade bans and lack of indigenous uranium, India has uniquely been developing a nuclear fuel cycle to exploit its reserves of thorium.
* From 2009, foreign technology and fuel are expected to boost India's nuclear power plans considerably.
* India has a vision of becoming a world leader in nuclear technology due to its expertise in fast reactors and thorium fuel cycle.
 

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