Maharana Pratap of Mewar

Discussion in 'Military History' started by SajeevJino, Jun 27, 2012.

  1. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    While the Hindu reconquista of Rajasthan was spearheaded by the Sesodias, mention has to be made to another branch of the Chauhans, the Hada Rajputs who liberated the Chambal valley area from Muslim rule. The region came to be called Hadoti after its ruling clan.

    Fort of Bundi was founded in 1341 by Rao Deva of the Hara Chauhan Rajput clan. This walled town is surrounded on three sides by the Aravalli hills. The Hada Chauhan kingdom was closely allied with Mewar, and was located to its east on the border with Madhya Pradesh.

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    Group of five Hara Rajputs posed at the base of a tree, photo taken by Eugene Clutterbuck Impey in the early 1860s, from the Archaeological Survey of India Collections. Impey wrote in 'Delhi, Agra, and Rajpootana, illustrated by eighty photographs' (London, 1865): 'The Haras are the most important of the twenty-four branches of the Chauhan clan of Rajpoots, and are descended from Manikrae, King of Ajmere, who encountered the first Mahometan invaders in A.D. 685...'. (BOL)
     
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  2. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    The area of Hadoti was wedged between Mewar and Malwa, and became involved in their wars. A Rajput principality should have been a natural ally of the powerful Rajput Kingdom of Mewar against the sultanate of Malwa, but it did not work that way. Quoted from Rajasthan through the ages:

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  3. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    [​IMG]

    Chambal river flowing through the Hadoti region of Rajasthan.
     
  4. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    By the tenth century the term, sthana (locality), was in use for administrative units under officials called varikas. As the rest of India succumbed to Islamic invasion, the area that stoutly held out, came to be called 'land of Rajputs' Rajput-sthana >>>> Rajputana in local parlance. Other similar local names were Raja-sthana >>>> Rajasthan, Raithana, and Rajwara.....all meaning 'land of Rajput kings'. The Islamic invaders did not have any counter name for this vast region because it never came under their rule.

    But it did come under the British. Colonel Tod, in his study of the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, mentions all the terms but used "Rajasthan" in the title. However the British government preferred using Rajputana as the official name. After independence, Rajasthan was chosen as the official name for the state.

    The Rajput rulers of Mewar had a role in this decision. On January 14, 1949 Maharana Bhupal Singh met the home minister Vallabhbhai Patel. It was in this meeting that the idea of naming the erstwhile Rajputana state as Rajasthan was suggested by the Maharana.
     
  5. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    But the extract from the book shows that Mewar, at least under Maharana Kumbha, followed a policy of aggression against both Hindu and Muslim states. They did not give protection to Hadoti:

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  6. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Yes I've read that and it is about Hadoti, not Amber. Kumbha was a seasoned poet at heart and at the same time given to council advice - good or bad (which even led to a chief's revolt).
    Hence we see his aggression and expansion doing friendly fire at times. We don't see Kumbha making any serious alliances at all.
    My original point was that Mewar as the strongest Rajput state could rally others under its banner (be it choice or force) and fight any external invasions.
    But once Mewar lost its prime in 1527 A.D. and went into a decade of instability, other states could not wait for Mewar's protection.
    They took their own measures to ensure survival. This "each to his own" hurt Mewar in return too, later when they faced Mughals.
     
  7. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    I believe one long-running war, against Rathores of Marwar, was not of Kumbha's doing. Something he inherited. And at the same time fighting Mewar's traditional rivals, sultans of Gujarat and Malwa, were fretting at the domination of Mewar and plotting its downfall.

    But all credit to Kumbha that he managed to forge Mewar's ascendancy, despite all these wars, so much so that the two Muslim sultans had to unite their armies to battle Mewar! The book also says that Kumbha established his suzerainity over the muslim sultanate of Nagor.
     
  8. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Nevermind, I mixed up with an incident that took place with Rana Mokal instead.
    The question of Hadoti stands for investigation.
     
  9. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    Kumbha's relations with the Deora Chauhans of Sirohi is another case for investigation. Sirohi became involved in the wars of Mewar and Gujarat, and sided with Mewar, but could not get timely assistance from Mewar.

    But the book admits that one main reason why Kumbha failed to build on alliances was the multiple wars he was involved in: against Nagor, Gujarat, Malwa, Marwar. This did not give him any spare time from war.
     
  10. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    When we compare Kumbha's war with Gujarat to Sanga's, we find that the grandson was able to forge a grand alliance. Quoting from The Hindupat Maharana Sanga:

     
  11. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Will put together the post explaining this by EOD today.
     
  12. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    [​IMG]

    There was a great fervor at BN Institutions on the occasion of the national hero Durgadas Rathore’s 375th birth anniversary. The grand celebration was held at Bhupal Nobels Seminar Hall in Udaipur city.

    K.S. Gupta on this occasion told that Veer Durgadas was the most revered guardian and protector of Marwar. It is known fact that Durgadas fought bravely with mighty mughals and King Aurangzeb in 17th century for the independence of Marwar. He was the main hero for the preservation of the integrity and independent identity of Marwar.

    He also narrated that every mother wish that his son should be as brave as Durgadas (Mayad eida put zan zehda Durgadas, Bandh mandaso takhiyo bin thamba aakash). O.S. Kelwa told about the spiritual qualities of Durgadas like selflessness, work for his country’s freedom, mass leadership, fearlessness and ability to inspire posterity all combine to highlight the spiritual element in his character.

    Thus Durgadas emerged a saint-soldier of Marwar, reminiscent of Bheeshma of Mahabharat and he will continue to inspire nationalism in Indian youth. He also compared Durgadas as the Pratap of Marwar. He suggested that there should be a Prize for the selflessness service for the country on the name of Veer Durgadas should be constituted.

    Veer Durgadas Rathore Jayanti celebrations
     
  13. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Apologies for delay.
    ---------------------------------------

    Hadas are a people very stubborn in the long run. They kept changing camps to get rid of an aggressive ally or Imperial power, for maintaining their Independence.
    The overall history of Hadas tells that though they were subdued of many occasions, never fully reconciled with it. So time and again, they kept fighting and allying with various neighbors to
    keep their Independence absolute.

    In expansion spree, Hadas first subdued Meenas and Bhils of the region and then attacked a Solanki Chief at Toda in 1346 A.D. Next they defeated Kheechis at Palaith in 2nd attempt.
    All this was happening parallel to a crucial change unfolding in a war torn Mewar. The line of power at Chittor was taken over by Sisodias (cadet branch of Guhilots) under Rana Hammir.
    So Mewar as well was expanding its territories at the same time.
    In 1350s the two powers ultimately clashed. Hadas under Rao Narpal were defeated in a battle with Mewari forces against Kunwar Kheta, prince of Rana Hammir.
    They handed over the prime fort of Mandalgarh and accepted the suzerainty of Mewar, but only for name sake.

    After this, some minor skirmishes occured (starting with Mewar allies attacking Hadas' Zamindar in retaliation to his land grab) but mostly calm was maintained via diplomacy and marriage (Hada daughter given to Mewar prince).
    Peace was once again broken in 1382 A.D. when some controversy led to flaying of tempers and Maharana Kheta attacked Bundi. Rao Lal Singh Hada and Maharana Kheta both died in that battle and Bundi fell to Mewar.
    After some fighting, Hadas realized the situation and returned to diplomacy and appeals.
    Bundi was restored to Hadas by Rana precisely with the reasoning that stateless Hadas would only cause trouble, while settled as friendly vassals they would add to Mewar's strength.
    There was marriage season again but so was the slowly simmering resentment against Mewar's shadow. Hadas wanted to be independent.

    In Mewar once Maharana Lakha was succeeded by Mokal/Mokul in 1397 A.D. (who was a weaker ruler), the Hadas took back 3 of their forts from them (including the most important Mandalgarh).
    Hadas knew that Mewar won't oversee this and hence they tried to build alliances in the region, to deter Mewar from any action. That is the context in which they courted Malwa Sultanate.
    Bairisal Hada came to Bundi throne in 1413 A.D. Initially in his reign since Mewar wasn't in strongest form, the Hada Chief dared (in 1423 A.D.) to aid Malwa Sultanate's invasion of Gagraun.

    The place was then under Kheechi Chauhans led by Achal Das who was son-in-law of Maharana Mokul. This move also intended to further deter Mewar from moving against Hadas.

    But then on one hand the Malwa Sultan died, while on the other Maharana Kumbha ascended the Mewar throne, thus tables were turned. Hadas became anxious.
    Kumbha not only believed those forts (that Hadas took earlier) belonged to Mewar, but also considered their alliance with Malwa as detrimental.
    In 1435-36 Kumbha asked Ranmal Rathore to invade Bundi. Hada Chief Bairi Sal sued for peace instead, handed over the forts again and accepted suzerainty of Mewar.

    In 1440 A.D. Mahmud Khilji attacked Chittor, got defeated and had to stay captive in Chittor for 6 months before Maharana release him.
    Hadas revolted again in 1442 A.D. and Kumbha went in personally to suppress them.
    Seeing Hadoti under Mewar was unbearable for Malwa. When Mahmud Khilji got to know of Kumbha's absence from Mewar, he began another attempt to capture Mewar.
    Before attacking Chittor, Khilji started with attack on Bundi region of Hadoti. However due to an appeal of help from Chief of Mewat, Khilji had to divert his attention there, thus Bundi was spared. Khilji sent his father to plunder Mandsaur (countryside), left a portion of army to seige Chittor and himself set out to attack Maharana Kumbha. The latter sprinting back from Hadoti, fell on Khilji near Mandalgarh fort. He eventually defeated khilji by a night attack.

    Two years later in 1444 A.D Khilji spent his ire on Hadoti by another invasion and subdued it. He however had to come again and again in the region afterwards as his authority was never fully established there. Khilji was hell bent on discouraging smaller states from allying with Mewar, thus while on one side he waged long term war with Mewar, he also kept sending troops into

    Hadoti to keep the Haddas under pressure. Further, in 1446 A.D before coming back towards Mandalgarh (in Mewar) for battle, Khilji first went to Kota (in Hadoti) where he deposed his ally (a son of Bairisal Hada) on suspicion of his secret alliance with Mewar and put another son in charge whom he thought was more loyal.
    But given the stubborn nature of Hadas, Khilji had to send troops in Hadoti multiple times even in 1450s to suppress revolts.
    Kota's Hada forces then joined Khilji in another of his attempt to win Mandalgarh from Mewar in 1457 A.D. and he succeeded this time (as his Hada supporters obviously knew the fort inside out, having held it before).

    Before Khilji could continue towards Chittor, news of Bairisal's revolt in Bundi came in. Khilji sent 2 officers to punish Bairisal harshly and himself set on Chittor. Bairisal's Hadas fought this army fiercely but got defeated. Bairisal died and two of his seven sons were converted to Islam.
    All this time, Kumbha was finishing the Nagor Sultanate. He then got news to twin attack (Gujarat Sultanate towards Kumbhalgarh & Malwa towards Chittor). He fought with Gujarat Sultanate near Kumbhalgarh and then stood in vigil of Khilji's forces. He had no time and opportunity to help the lonely revolting Bairisal Hada.
    Khilji when foiled in his latest effort of joint attack, went back quietly to Malwa.

    The succesor of Bairisal (Rao Bhan Deo) discarded three of his brothers for not helping the father against Malwa. He regained Bundi from Malwa, with help of Maharana Kumbha.
    Two officers from Malwa were sent to Bundi with the promise that if won, they'll get to rule it. They capture Bundi and Bhan Deo took shelter in Mewar, got Bhilwara as Jagir.

    Later Hada Chiefs not only recovered Bundi again but also helped Mewar in turn, against Malwa invasions.

    It seems, both Mewar and Malwa could never trust the Hadas in matters of loyalty (rightly so because Hadas also never considered themselves truly subservient to anyone) and hence kept
    pressure on the latter to desist them from going to the other's side.
    The appetite of Hadas for war and zeal for sovereignty can be guessed from the fact that despite being a small state and facing defeats on many occasions, they often crossed swords with Mewar, Solankis, Kheechis and Turks of Malwa.
    They tried to ally with one of the powers (Malwa / Mewar) in different times as per the need, to avoid dominance of the other on them.
    Sources - Maharana Kumbha by Harbilas Sarda, Relations of Hadas with Mughals by R. S. Mathur.

    Regards,
    Virendra
     
  14. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    Before all this, Malwa was ruled by Parmar Rajputs, and Mewar by Guhilot Rajputs. Which of these kingdoms held sway over Bundi and Hadoti region?

    From the terrain I believe Hadoti, with the river Chambal flowing through, was geographical part of Malwa.
     
  15. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    [​IMG]

    This grand temple of Shiva was built in 12th century AD by the Rajput rulers of Dungarpur, in Malva style of temple architecture.This is enclosed by a prakara. Built of huge slabs of micaceous schist and gneiss, the three-storeyed temple has imposing appearance. Its sanctum, which is sunk 2.7 m below the ground level, has a false ceiling over which rises the sikhara with prominent ratha projections. It has a narrow antarala preceded by sabhamandapa with a samvarana roof and three entrance porches.

    There are two inscriptions in the temple, one by Maharawal Sesmal (AD 1586-1606) and the other by Maharawal Gopinath (AD 1424-47).

    DEO SOMNATH TEMPLE | ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA JAIPUR CIRCLE
     
  16. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    I doubt that Bundi and Hadoti were that colonized/urbanized before Hadas arrival, that they would have to wrest it from another power like themselves.
    Mostly the place was under local sway of tribals/bhils and may have been subject to occasional raids/tribute from Solankis, Kheechis or Mewar.

    This is true of Rathors and Kachwahas rise too.
    Centruries before Hadas, they also did not replace any organized Rajput states to start with, but carved their space amongs the local tribals.
    Of course these tribal lands might be under indirect influence of some other state.
    But anything above short skirmishes here and there between conventional Rajput states would find mention in form of battles, which is not the case.

    Rajputs rulers bonds with tribals wee strong and consisted of long running interactive traditions. Examples :
    1. Practice of new Kachwaha King anointed by the blood of Meena Chief's toe/thumb (till replacement by Mughal emperor's Sandalwood paste).
    2. Meena guards being trusted with escorting even the ladies of Royal family whenever outside the palace.

    These things not only indicate the passing of reigns from tribals to Rajputs but also maintenance of co-ordial relations overall.

    Regards,
    Virendra
     
  17. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    Just because the Hadas had to subdue the tribals does not mean that there existed a sovereign state of tribals. After the flood of Muslim invasion threw the existing state of the Parmars and Guhilots into turmoil, all manner of vassals/adventurers/tribals saw opportunities to profit by brigandage. All these had to be subdued either by the Muslims or the new entrants the Hadas.

    [​IMG]
    KOTA MONUMENT | ARCHAEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA JAIPUR CIRCLE
    The Charchoma Shiv temple consists of a garbhagriha, an antarala and a sabhamandapa. The sabhamandapa is rectangular and has a flat roof. The temple was renovated during the nineteenth century A.D. In the temple premises, there are two Brahmi inscriptions with Gupta letters. Stylistically, the temple seems to be ascribable to the Gupta period.

    There are other ancient temples like this in Hadoti. Temples were not built in the middle of nowhere.
     
  18. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    Obviously tribals didn't run States like other powers of that era. Why else would they be - tribals.
    But if it is the tribals that Hadas replace then obviously tribals were ruling the place. They didn't have a State machinery like other powers, yet held sway nevertheless.
    That they were pestered with raids and may have given tributes occasionally is also known, so yes absolute sovereignty isn't the case and I didn't push it either.
    But Tod, Nainsi and others have given similar accounts of how Hadas defeated tribals as the resident/prime enemy to acquire Hadoti. Others are only on the fringe.

    I never said Hadoti was some unhabited 'nowhere' before Hadas. Here's what I said, highlighted this time for better understanding:
    And why did I say so? Because, again, tribals lived there before Hadas.
    As for the temples, I thought were talking about what/who immediately preeceded Hadas in Hadoti; not about some ancient temples going way back to Gupta era.

    Regards,
    Virendra
     
  19. Simple_Guy

    Simple_Guy Regular Member

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    Even in Mewar the Islamic invasions threw the state in such turmoil that Rana Hammir had to wrest control, not just from Muslims, but internal dacoits and plunderers as well. His first achievement as prince was the killing of Munja. And he also had to subdue Bhils:

    Hammir's state was a direct successor of the Guhilot state. And yet he had to fight the Bhils who had an ancient association with the Guhilots. One cannot conclude that Bhils were the ancient rulers of Jilwara....rather that they occupied it in the confusion following the Islamic invasions.

    It was indeed the Muslim conquest of Malwa that threw Hadoti in similar confusion. By the way tribals were never stationary inhabitants of any one place. They were constantly migrating and seeking new lands.
     
  20. Virendra

    Virendra Moderator Moderator

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    The thread has been made sticky for now. Will be reviewed for the same later, based on activity level.
     
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