Is the Chinese Economy Really Growing?‏

Discussion in 'China' started by desicanuk, Jan 23, 2013.

  1. desicanuk

    desicanuk Regular Member

    Nov 7, 2011
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    Chinese Growth, GDP, and Other Things the U.S. Should Doubt
    By Derek Scissors, Ph.D.

    The first question regarding China’s newly released economic numbers is not how fast the People’s Republic of China (PRC) grew last year. Rather, it is whether stars are aligned for the State Statistical Bureau (SSB) to provide accurate information about GDP and more useful measures, such as household consumption.

    Answer: to some extent. The Chinese economy is undergoing a cyclical recovery and the SSB can honestly report a noticeable improvement.
    There are two large qualifiers to this happy statement. First, the SSB never provides much valuable information due to political imperatives and flaws in GDP accounting itself. Second, the recovery is cyclical, not structural. The PRC’s economy structurally weakened under Hu Jintao’s outgoing government and, until market reform restarts, slow weakening will continue. Chinese data do not reflect this weakness and, therefore, incentives at work in Beijing. The U.S. needs its own measurements of China’s economy as the first step toward better policymaking.

    SSB + GDP = LOL

    The Communist Party suppresses information it dislikes. How can anyone argue that quarterly economic reporting is exempt?
    Beijing almost never reports a genuine unemployment number, because it is too sensitive. The PRC counts only a subset of those unemployed in cities and no one at all in rural areas. Including rural areas, official unemployment in the range of 4–4.5 percent may be off by a factor of five.[1] Housing prices, non-performing bank loans, and coal production are a few examples of the important figures that disappear from view when outcomes turn sour.
    Is data quality improving? First, this suggests older data should not be used, which makes trends difficult to identify. Second, it is not clear quality is improving. Some improvements have been made, but other steps look manipulative. Data revisions typically find more of what the SSB wants to find: more consumption, more services, and so on. They are always left incomplete, so the end result is less comparability, less consistency, and effectively less transparency.
    The problems come to a head over GDP and its constituent elements, such as investment and consumption. When China releases GDP figures, it releases indicators that look like investment and consumption—fixed asset investment and retail sales. But these numbers are virtually useless. More accurate components of GDP are released far later. How can GDP be available within two weeks of the quarter ending (compared to two months in far richer countries) while its principal components are not available for months afterward? Ensuing revisions always find more GDP.
    Another fault is intrinsic. GDP is an accounting tool for annual expenditure or production. It is a poor way to describe economic performance over time. The PRC embraces short-term projects: For instance, buildings are built, torn down, and rebuilt. Each action adds to GDP, but together they add nothing to national wealth. China also runs the world’s biggest trade surplus, each dollar of which adds to GDP. Does restricting competition from imported goods and services boost China’s prosperity?
    The scope of the problem makes it hard to grasp. Growth in narrow money supply (M1) hit a 15-year low in 2011, then fell further in 2012. This is compatible with a major economic shift. Yet GDP growth remained within its historical range and is now rising. The relationship between M1 and GDP has changed in a somewhat suspicious way. But where is the problem: with M1, with GDP, with older data, with newer data? There is little foundation on which to proceed.

    Surprise! Everything Is Fine Again

    This is the context in which to report SSB claims. Fourth-quarter and 2012 GDP as a whole were going to outperform whatever expectations were set. GDP growth was thus reported at 7.9 percent for the quarter and 7.8 percent for the year, pushing annual output past $8 trillion (more than half of America’s). Examining other measures suggest that annual growth was lower than this, but fourth-quarter growth is close to accurate.
    More important, household income in both rural and urban areas outpaced GDP. Very strong output growth in the middle of the last decade contrasted with comparatively weak income growth, a problem that is no longer visible. Now the problem is income inequality, which is not reported.
    Figures on components of GDP are again dubious. Fixed investment appears slower—which is welcome, because it is excessive. Consumption was said to generate more than half of GDP gains. But fixed investment still rose faster and is far larger than retail sales. The trade surplus grew three times faster than retail sales. One cannot see consumption-driven growth in numbers the SSB publishes. Trends in industrial production and the purchasing managers’ index are also incompatible. GDP is not too far off, but more important indicators are more muddled.

    A Weaker Chinese Economy

    The typical observation is that China’s economy has been weakening because reported GDP growth has slipped over time from 13 percent to below 8 percent. This is a symptom, not the disease, and a minor symptom at that—GDP is not a good measurement of health.
    In fact, the economy began faltering while GDP was still accelerating. With the arrival of a new government in 2003, market reform faded, fixed investment spiked, and the imbalances now plaguing the economy first manifested. Growth in fixed investment jumped 10 percentage points in 2003 and has not returned to its 2002 level. Moreover, the gap between fixed investment and gross fixed capital formation—the world’s investment measure—has widened. This suggests greater waste.
    Genuine Chinese consumption is weaker than suggested by retail sales. The performance is not weak in absolute terms; it simply cannot keep pace with investment. Some observers claim that consumption has been underestimated. While possible, this tells us little without similar evaluation of other indicators and the distribution over time. For example, if consumption was heavily understated in the 1990s, growth since has been weaker than reported.
    More investment than consumption leads to more supply than demand. For instance, more than one-third of domestic shipyards received no orders in 2012. Officially, auto sales weakened in 2012 (though these data are spotty), while auto capacity continues to expand.[2] And when demand is inadequate, high investment breeds debt rather than expansion.
    Rising debt indicates that economic performance is unsustainable. China’s trend is hard to establish because debt is often treated literally as a state secret. A Chinese Academy of Social Sciences corporate survey put the 2011 debt-to-asset ratio at 105 percent, the highest among 20 countries evaluated.[3] This bottom-of-the-list debt performance came after years of world-beating official GDP growth.
    If expansion requires domestic debt, it will not last. Foreign demand is unreliable—and less important to China than a decade ago. The only solution is internal reform. The PRC must innovate, and it must become more efficient in use of its battered land, a labor force that will soon stop expanding, and capital. Sharper ownership rights (to both intellectual property and land) would accomplish the first two objectives, sharper competition the second two. If these improvements are not seen, the economy will stagnate. Then political imperatives will overwhelm any methods of improvement, pushing Chinese data further from reality.

    If You Want Something Done Right

    The PRC is ostensibly becoming an economic rival of the U.S. or, if public debt continues to drag America down, even a contender for the leading global economy. The U.S. cannot be viewed as taking that challenge seriously if it considers official Chinese economic data accurate rather than driven by politics or otherwise misleading (as with GDP).
    It is past time for the U.S. to generate its own estimates of important Chinese economic statistics, to guide policy in the bilateral relationship and make clear the economic balance. This would both raise the quality of American policy and offer friends and allies a more accurate picture of the global economy.
    Specifically, the Departments of Treasury and Commerce and the Central Intelligence Agency should compile independent economic series for the PRC for wealth, unemployment, and other vital information and publish these data on an annual basis.

    Hope Is Not Enough

    A cyclical economic recovery means official data are not too far off concerning Chinese economic aggregates for 2012. But structural weakening will continue, and the cyclical recovery will ebb by the end of this year without reform. If that happens, official statistics will become less useful again. For its part, the U.S. can and should do better than parroting the latest claim that GDP growth exceeded China’s target.

    —Derek Scissors, PhD, is Senior Research Fellow in Asia Economic Policy in the Asian Studies Center at The Heritage Foundation.

    China Economy: Growth, GDP and China’s Other Economic Data
  3. badguy2000

    badguy2000 Respected Member Senior Member

    May 20, 2009
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    hehe, the whole ariticle is tell us that China is bankrupting while west is propering......
    of course, you can accept it or not ,according to your IQ.
  4. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    If the Chinese economy was NOT growing,then the economies of all the major countries are contracting to the tunes of 5-10%。:rofl:

    The residential complex where I live is surrounded by three construction sites。And I lived in one of the best-developed areas in Shanghai!!

    China under-reports its growth rates for OBVIOUS reasons of tax evasion and a large underground economy that thrives on a huge migrant population。

    The on-going third economic census should shed more light on the true scale of the “hidden economy”。
  5. Armand2REP

    Armand2REP CHINI EXPERT Veteran Member

    Dec 17, 2009
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    CCP Jumps Sinking Ship

    ~ According to an internal report obtained by the EO, the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection (CCDI), the Chinese Communist Party's anti-corruption watchdog, "a wave of luxury home sales began last November and has accelerated since December".
    ~ The CCDI report implied that nearly 10,000 luxury homes had been sold by government officials in Guangzhou and Shanghai alone last year.
    ~ The report also estimated the amount of funds that had been illegally smuggled out of China in recent years. According to the report, $412 billion left China in 2010 and in 2011 that number rose to $600 billion. The report estimated that over $1 trillion of funds was illegally moved out China in 2012 and forecast that this figure could grow to $1.5 trillion in 2013.
    ~ A source at the CCDI told the EO that during last year's extended National Day holidays, more than 1,100 government officials left the country and failed to return on time. Of this number, it's been determined that 714 had fled abroad.

    Issue 604 21-01-2011 - Economic Observer Online - In-depth and Independent
  6. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    So a China that opened the following expressways in the last 3 months of 2012(Oct. 1 2012 - Dec. 31 2012)is NOT growing:

    10.1 Shilin-Suolongsi expressway 石锁高速, Yunnan Province
    105km, 7.5 billion yuan

    10.8 Dandong-Tonghua expressway 丹通高速, Liaoning Province

    10.8 Zhanghe-Gaizhou expressway 庄盖高速, Liaoning Province

    10.8 Fushun-Tonghua expressway 抚通高速, Liaoning Province

    10.8 Xinmin-Tieling expressway 新铁高速, Liaoning Province

    10.8 Hengren-Yongling expressway 桓永高速, Liaoning Province

    10.9 Ningde-Wuyi Mountain expressway 宁武高速, Fujian Province
    203km, 15.16 billion yuan, 160 bridges and 43 tunnels

    10.11 Kuitun-Kelamayi expressway 奎克高速, Xinjiang Province
    135km, 3.5 billion yuan

    10.16 Xgxingxia-Tulufan expressway 星吐高速, Xinjiang Province
    589km, 3.58 billion yuan

    10.17 Xiangtan-Laiyang expressway 潭耒高速, Hunan Province
    103.952km, 2.686 billion yuan

    10.25 Yongchun-Yongding expressway 龙岩双永高速, Fujian Province

    10.26 City Ring expressway Taigu connection 环城高速太谷连接线, Tiyuan, Shanxi Province
    34.388km, 0.231 billion yuan

    10.31 Suqian-Suxin expressway 宿新高速, Jiangsu Province

    10.31 Tongren-Dalong expressway 铜大高速, Guizhou Province
    56km, 3.735 billion yuan

    11.2 Fengxin-Tonggu expressway 奉铜高速, Jiangxi Province
    154.4km, 6.95 billion yuan

    11.7 Dalian Bay Inter-habor expressway 大连湾疏港高速, Liaoning rovince
    4.492km, 0.3462 billion yuan

    11.9 Xi'an-Shangzhou expressway 西商高速, Shaanxi Province

    11.18 Putian-Yongding expressway 莆永高速, Fujian Province
    64km, 4.308 billion yuan

    11.22 Yantai-Haiyang expressway 烟海高速, Shandong Province
    80.375km, 4.37 billion yuan

    11.22 Linyi-Zaozhuang expressway 临枣高速, Shandong Province
    88.633km, 3.55 billion yuan

    11.27 Guyaozi-Qingtongxia expressway 古青高速, Ningxia Province

    11.28 Naxi-Qianchuan expressway 纳黔高速, Sichuan and Guizhou Provinces
    135km, 10.753 billion yuan

    11.30 Hefei Xinqiao Airport expressway 新桥机场高速, Anhui Province
    17.6km, 1.209 billion yuan

    11.30 Yingxiu-Wenzhuan expressway 映汶高速, Sichuan Province

    12.16 Loudi-Xinhua expressway 娄新高速, Hunan Province
    96.71km, 7 bln yuan

    12.17 Dazhou-Wanzhou expressway 达万高速, Sichuan Province

    12.19 Gongyi-Dengfeng section of Jiaozuo-Tongbai expressway 焦桐高速, Hunan Province
    43.267km, 2.88 bln yuan

    12.19 Zhengzhou-Luoyang expressway 连霍高速郑洛段, Henan Province
    106.391km, 5.042 bln yuan

    12.19 Zigong section of Chengdu-Zigong-Luzhu-Chishui expressway 成自泸赤高速公路自贡段, Sichuan Province

    12.20 Jiangdu-Liuhe expressway 江六高速, Jiangsu Province
    76.1km, 6.819 bln yuan

    12.22 Zhangjiakou-Shijiazhuang expressway 张石高速, Hunan Province

    12.23 Jishou-Huaihua expressway 吉怀高速, Hunan Province

    12.23 Hengyang-Nanyue expressway 南岳高速, Hunan Province

    12.23 Ruchen-Binzhou expressway 汝郴高速, Hunan Province
    112.3km, 9.64 bln yuan

    12.24 Nanjing Bypass expressway 南京绕越高速, Jiangsu Province

    12.24 Luoning-Lushi expressway 郑卢高速洛宁至卢氏段, Hunan Province

    12.25 Guangyuan-Chuangan expressway 广甘高速, Sichuan and Gansu Province

    12.25 Huaibei section of Sihong-Xuchang expressway 泗许高速淮北段, Jiangsu Province

    12.25 Jiaoyang-Lincheng expressway 蛟城高速, Fujian Province

    12.26 Hangzhou-Changhu expressway phase II 杭长高速二期, Zhejiang Province

    12.26 Yibin-Luzhou expressway 宜泸高速, Sichuan Province
    78km, 6.845 bln yuan

    12.27 Qinhuangdao section of Chengde-Qinhuangdao expressway 承秦高速秦皇島段, Hebei Province

    12.27 Jiaoyang-Lincheng expressway 平榆高速, Shanxi Province

    12.27 Adai-Lijiaxia expressway 阿岱至李家峡高速公路, Qinhai Province
    27.919km, 1.342 bln yuan

    12.28 Leshan-Emeishan expressway 乐峨高速, Sichuan Province

    12.29 Zhangjiakou section of Zhangjiakou-Zhuozhou expressway 张涿高速张家口段, Hebei Province
    83.556km, 7.7299 bln yuan

    12.29 Baiyangdian expressway 大广高速白洋淀支线, Hebei Province

    12.29 Haikou-Tunchang expressway 海屯高速, Hainan Province
    72km, 3 bln yuan

    12.30 Zhaoqing section of Jiangmen-Zhaoqing expressway 江肇高速肇庆高要蚬岗至四会东城段, Guangdong Province

    12.30 Wuhan-Ezhou expressway 武鄂高速公路汉鄂段, Hubei Province
    54.75km, 3.5 bln yuan

    12.30 Chengdu-Deyang-Nanchong expressway phase I 成德南高速, Sichuan Province

    12.30 Yunfu-Luoding expressway phase I 云罗高速公路一期, Guangdong Province

    12.31 Chongqing section of Jiangjin-Hejiang expressway 江合高速重庆段, Sichuan Province

    12.31 Qinzhou-Chongzuo expressway 钦崇高速, Guangxi Province

    12.31 Ganzhou-Chongyi expressway 赣崇高速, Jiangxi Province

    12.31 Jintao-Anxi expressway 金安高速, Fujian Province

    12.31 Jinjing-Shishi expressway 晋石高速, Fujian Province

    12.31 Luoyang-Luanchuan expressway 洛栾高速, Henan Province
    103km, 10.3 bln yuan
  7. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
    Likes Received:
    Major Airports throughput in 2012:

    1 Beijing 81.93 million
    2 Guangzhou 48.31 million
    3 Shanghai Pudong 44.86 million
    4 Shanghai Hongqiao 33.85 million
    5 Chengdu 31.5 million
    6 Shenzhen 29.57 million
    7 Kunming 23.98 million
    8 Xi'an 23.42 million
    9 Chongqing 22.05 million
    10 Hangzhou 19.11 million
    11 Xiamen 17.35 million
    12 Changsha 14.75 million
    13 Wuhan 13.98 million
    14 Nanjing 13.95 million
    15 Urumqi 13.35 million
    16 Dalian 13.34 million
    17 Qingdao 12.6 million
    18 Zhengzhou 11.67 million
    19 Sanya 11.34 milion
    20 Shenyang 11.01 million
    21 Haikou 10.7 million

    What are the figures for India's busiest 20?lol!
  8. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    Beijing's New Airport with 7 runways。

    New capital airport cleared for takeoff

    Updated: 2013-01-14 01:01

    By WANG XIAODONG ( China Daily)

    Beijing's new airport will greatly ease the burden on the current airport, but civilian and military use must be coordinated to ensure smooth operations, experts have said.

    Approval of the airport, to be located in the south of the capital, was announced on Sunday.

    "The rapidly increasing number of passengers has forced the airport in Beijing to run at near-full capacity," said Liu Weimin, a professor of Civilian Aviation Management Institute of China. "A second airport is needed to divert passenger flow."

    Beijing Capital International Airport has been ranked as the world's second-busiest airport for three consecutive years.

    It handled 81.8 million passenger trips last year, a 4.2 percent increase from the previous year, second only to Atlanta's Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in the United States.

    Shanghai's two airports handled more than 78 million passenger trips in 2012.

    "The plan for a new airport has been approved by the State Council," Beijing airport spokesman Li Shengbo said on Sunday.

    He declined to give further details, such as when construction will start and what the new airport will look like, as "this is still under discussion".

    Zhong Ning, a spokeswoman for the Civil Aviation Administration of China, declined to comment on Sunday.

    According to CAAC News, a newspaper affiliated with the aviation administration, large-scale construction will commence next year, and the airport is scheduled to open before the end of 2018.

    The airport will be located near the border between

    Beijing's southern suburban Daxing district and Hebei province.

    It will cost at least 70 billion yuan ($11.2 billion) and have six runways for civil use and one for military use, CAAC News reported, quoting Zhu Wenxin, who works in the office in charge of construction.

    The airport will be able to handle 70 million passenger trips annually by 2025, Zhu was quoted as saying.

    A rail line will be built to connect the airport with the city center, according to a plan approved by the National Development and Reform Commission.

    Passengers will be able to reach the airport within 30 minutes from Beijing South Railway Station with trains running on the 37-kilometer line.

    Increasing flight numbers have affected punctuality at Beijing airport, according to media reports.

    "Flight delays are frequent," said Iryo Tsukada, a 55-year-old Japanese businessman from Tokyo who travels to Beijing frequently.

    "Another airport in the city might provide more options for me."

    Yang Yanli, a 26-year-old Beijing accountant, said the airport was too crowded.

    "Sometimes you have to line up for a while to take an elevator," she said. "Another airport might ease traffic pressure."

    The plan to build a second airport in Beijing was proposed as early as 2008, but the plan was not approved by the State Council and the Central Military Commission until the end of last year, CAAC News quoted Zhu as saying.

    "The biggest obstacle to approving building the airport is a dispute in distribution of airspace between civil and military use," Zhu said.

    The new airport will be built close to Nanyuan Airport, which is mainly for military use, in the southern suburban district of Fengtai.

    Some flights handled at Nanyuan Airport will move to the new airport after it is completed, according to Zhu.

    Liu Weimin, the professor at the Civil Aviation Management Institute of China, said civil and military use must be coordinated for smooth operations.

    The military usually has airspace priority, Li said.

    "The current law on civil aviation was made in 1995, and it should be revised after 18 years of tremendous changes in society and rapid economic development," he said.

    Liu suggests more rights be given to civil aviation so it can play a bigger role.

    "Besides, the new airport and the current one should have a clear division of duty to better serve the customers," he said.

    Zheng Xin contributed to this story.
  9. Armand2REP

    Armand2REP CHINI EXPERT Veteran Member

    Dec 17, 2009
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    Nice job listing China's public debt projects. :rofl:
  10. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    China spends big to develop shale gas industry

    by: Emily Ford From: The Times January 23, 2013 3:08PM


    CHINA has mounted a huge investment drive to explore its vast untapped reserves of shale gas in what it hopes could become a repeat of the energy revolution taking place in North America.

    Sixteen Chinese companies, including 14 state-owned enterprises, pledged to invest ¥12.8billion when they won contracts from the Ministry of Land and Resources to search for shale gas in remote parts of the country over three years, according to Xinhua, the state news agency.

    The Chinese companies are part of a larger group of 57 businesses awarded rights to explore 19 shale gas blocks in a second round of auctions.

    Beijing is hungry to secure its future energy supplies, investing billions of dollars in buying oil and gas assets overseas, as well as ploughing funds into its domestic industry.

    China is thought to hold the world's largest reserves of shale gas, according to the US Energy Information Administration, far outstripping those of North America and potentially enough to meet its energy needs for two centuries.

    However, its industry is at only an embryonic stage, with about 60 wells, compared with more than 8000 in the United States. Shale gas, which is trapped in rocks, is complex to extract, requiring a sophisticated process of horizontal drilling known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, to unlock it.

    Experts said that the contracts, mostly given to smaller, inexperienced companies, could provide opportunities for international oil groups to lend their expertise.

    Julian Lee, a senior analyst at the Centre for Global Energy Studies in London, said that the Chinese companies awarded contracts would be looking to bring in oil majors with experience of shale drilling.

    "BP - certainly there is interest coming there, they are interested in similar opportunities in Russia. Shell are reasonably well connected in China and I certainly think they would be looking to get a foothold in the emerging shale industry," Mr Lee said.

    Cookies must be enabled. | The Australian
    Last edited: Jan 23, 2013
  11. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    The Chinese must be as crackbrained as some western analysts building its nuclear power plants like there is no tomorrow while the economy is NOT growing。

    First criticality for Hongyanhe unit


    by World Nuclear News
    22 January 2013

    Unit 1 of the Hongyanhe plant in Liaoning province in northeast China has moved closer to commissioning by achieving a sustained chain reaction.

    The four CPR-1000 units under construction at Hongyanhe Phase I (Image: CGNPC)

    The 1080 MWe reactor achieved first criticality on 16 January, China Guangdong Nuclear Power Co (CGNPC) and China Power Investment Corp (CPI) reported. Construction of Hongyanhe 1 - the first of four CPR-1000 pressurized water reactors (PWRs) currently being built at the Hongyanhe Phase I project - started in August 2007. Cold testing of the nuclear island of Hongyanhe 1 was successfully completed in October 2012.

    Since then, further tests have been conducted to check the operation of equipment and instrumentation under normal working conditions, prior to the reactor entering the commissioning phase. Previously scheduled to begin commercial operation by the end of 2012, Hongyanhe 1 now looks set to enter operation this year. All four units at Phase I should be in operation by the end of 2014.

    An adjacent site - Hongyanhe Phase II - will comprise two further CPR-1000 units. A ceremony was held in July 2010 to mark the breaking of ground for the two units. However, work on those units was suspended while China reconsidered its plans following the March 2011 accident at Japan's Fukushima Daiichi plant.

    The Hongyanhe plant is owned and operated by Liaoning Hongyanhe Nuclear Power Co, a joint venture in which CGNPC and CPI each hold a 45% stake, with the Dalian Municipal Construction Investment Co holding the remaining 10%. The CPR-1000 is the standardized design which is derived from the Areva-supplied PWRs at Lingao and Daya Bay in Guangdong province.


  12. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    Sanmen crane in place


    21 January 2013
    by World Nuclear News

    The bridge of the polar crane for unit 1 of the Sanmen nuclear power plant in China's Zhejiang province has been raised into position near the top of the reactor building. Once the lifting mechanism has been installed on this, the dome of the reactor building can be put in place.

    The bridge of Sanmen 1's polar crane during the lift (Image: SNPTC)

    The 350-tonne bridge was successfully raised into place on 15 January, State Nuclear Power Technology Corporation (SNPTC) reported. Sitting on a circular rail, it can rotate 360 degrees and will be used to lift reactor components and main pump components. A trolley and lifting mechanism will now been installed on the bridge to complete the crane, after which the dome of the reactor building can be built on top of the containment walls, marking another milestone.

    Polar cranes are used in pressurized water reactors to lift reactor vessel heads, internals, and a multitude of lighter loads during refuelling outages. In some plants the polar crane is also used to lift the reactor vessel itself and the steam generators during construction. The AP1000 crane has a main hoist capacity of 300 tonnes and an auxiliary hoist rated at 25 tonnes. The bridge has a rated capacity of 800 tonnes to enable it to support special construction lifting equipment if necessary. The AP1000 polar crane is almost 38 metres long, 13.5 metres wide, and weighs more than 450 tonnes. This model was manufactured at the NuCrane facility in Hutchinson, Minnesota, USA and was transported in sections.

    Sanmen 1 is one of two AP1000 units being constructed at the site and is the lead unit of four AP1000s currently being built in China, the other two being at Haiyang. All these are scheduled to begin operating between November this year and March 2015.

    The Sanmen nuclear power plant site as of July 2011.

    Location of Sanmen Nuclear power facility
  13. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    China building nuke plant with fourth-generation features


    Last Updated: 2013-01-06

    China has broken ground on a 3 billion-yuan ($476 million) nuclear power project that will be the first in the world to put a reactor with fourth-generation features into commercial use, a Chinese energy company said Sunday. It also marks China's latest move to speed up nuclear power development, which came to a halt after the Fukushima nuclear crisis in Japan in 2011. Construction of the project at Shidao Bay in the coastal city of Rongcheng, East China's Shandong province, began last month, Xinhua learned from Huaneng Shandong Shidao Bay Nuclear Power Co Ltd, the builder and operator of the plant. With a designed capacity of 200 megawatts and "the characteristics of fourth-generation nuclear energy systems," the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor will start generating power by the end of 2017, the HSNPC said in a statement sent to Xinhua via email.

    Independently developed by China's Tsinghua University, the reactor has the features of "inherent safety" and "passive nuclear safety" in line with the fourth-generation concept, meaning it can shut down safely in the event of an emergency without causing a reactor core meltdown or massive leakage of radioactive material, according to the statement. The reactor can have an outlet temperature of 750 degrees Celsius, compared with 1,000 degrees Celsius that can be reached by the very-high-temperature gas-cooled reactor, an internationally-accepted fourth-generation reactor concept. It can also raise electricity generation efficiency to around 40 percent from the current 30-percent level of second- and third-generation reactors, said the statement.

    If it is commercially successful, the reactor's technology and equipment can be exported to other countries in the future, said an HSNPC public relations officer who declined to be named. "That will be a great boost to China's nuclear industry, as a very high percentage of the equipment is produced domestically instead of being imported," the official told Xinhua by telephone.
    The project is part of the HSNPC's broader plan to build a 6.6-gigawatt (GW) nuclear power plant that will require approximately 100 billion yuan in investment over 20 years. If completed, it would be China's largest nuclear power plant, said the official. The rest of the plan includes four 1.25-GW AP1000 pressurized water reactors and a 1.4-GW CAP1400 pressurized water reactor. The plan has not yet been approved by regulators. China Huaneng Group , China Nuclear Engineering Group Co and Tsinghua University are investors in the plant.

    Originally scheduled to be launched in 2011, the construction of the project was put off after a tsunami hit nuclear facilities at Japan's Fukushima plant in March 2011, triggering a nuclear meltdown and public panic. China suspended the approval of new nuclear plants and carried out a nationwide safety review after the crisis. The government cautiously resumed nuclear project approvals in October last year in a bid to meet growing energy demands in the world's second-largest economy. Out of safety concerns, authorities vowed not to build any nuclear power plants in inland regions during the 2011-2015 period and demanded that the world's strictest safety requirements be applied to new plants.

    After the Fukushima crisis, the Shidao Bay project went through on-site checks in accident prevention and emergency management and passe d government safety inspections, the HSNPC statement said. China had 15 nuclear power-generating units in operation with a total installed capacity of 12.54 GW, and another 26 units currently under construction will add another 29.24 GW, according to a government white paper on energy policy released in October 2012. Nuclear power only accounts for 1.8 percent of China's total power output, far below the world average of 14 percent, and China plans to increase its installed nuclear power capacity to 40 GW by 2015, the paper said.

    "The world's first high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor" will be installed at Rongcheng in
    Shandong province. Rather than using fuel rods encased in water as in most reactors,
    engineers in China are building pebble-bed reactors that use billiard ball-size fuel spheres
    known as pebbles. Amassing these pebbles inside the reactor creates nuclear fission, which
    heats a gas. The gas in turn heats water into steam, driving a turbine. The reactor core
    consists of 420,000 of these fuel spheres, and every 15 seconds one is removed and
    replaced by another one. Experts say these reactors offer a safer nuclear alternative.

  14. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    First concrete at Tianwan 3


    29 December 2012
    by World Nuclear News

    Construction of a new reactor was started this week in China. The Russian-designed model is the fourth to be inaugurated since China resumed approvals for new plants at the end of October.

    The new build is at the Tianwan site in Jiangsu province. An AES-91 VVER-1000 unit designed by Gidropress and supplied by Russian state firm Rosatom, it follows two similar units at the site. A fourth is also contracted under terms sealed by an intergovernmental protocol earlier this month. Each of the VVERs is rated to produce 1060 MWe, while four further potential units of similar size are foreseen by Chinese planners.

    AtomStroyExport is the main contractor, supplying the nuclear island worth about 30% of the project value. The reactor system components will be sourced from the Russian supply chain, while an Areva-Siemens instrumentation and control system will be used. Jiangsu Nuclear Power Corporation is responsible for the remaining 70% - the civil work, turbine island with equipment and related infrastructure. Tianwan 3 is slated to begin power generation in 2018, with unit 4 expected to follow one year later, operated by China National Nuclear Corporation.

    New new build
    A new nuclear reactor is officially under constuction after the first concrete related to nuclear safety is poured. This follows years of planning and months of groundwork and took place for Tianwan 3 on 27 December.
    Tianwan 3 is now the 30th large power reactor under construction in China - and the fourth to be approved and begin work since the Fukushima accident of March 2011. Chinese authorities halted approval for new units in reaction to the accident, which was triggered by a tsunami and allowed to worsen by a lack of emergency preparation by the Japanese industry and government.

    Having taken 18 months to review existing Chinese plants and national regulatory systems, the country went back to approving new reactors in late October. Since then work has started on four units: Fuqing 4 in Fujian province, Yangjiang 4 in Guangdong province (both 1080 MWe CPR-1000 units) and the Shidaowan HTR-PM project - a demonstration high-temperature gas-cooled reactor in Shandong province.




    First concrete at Tianwan 3. The new build is at the Tianwan site in Jiangsu province. An AES-91. VVER-1000 unit designed
    by Gidropress and supplied by Russian state firm Rosatom, it follows two similar units at the site. Tianwan 3 is slated to begin
    power generation in 2018 operated by China National Nuclear Corporation.
  15. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
    Likes Received:
    Nuclear reactors in operation、under construction and planned in Mainland China:


    In operation:16
    Under construction:7

    The Chinese must be as dumb as Indians planning so many nuclear power plants when its economy is NOT growing。:rofl:
  16. badguy2000

    badguy2000 Respected Member Senior Member

    May 20, 2009
    Likes Received:
    Last edited: Jan 23, 2013
  17. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
    Likes Received:
    China Manufacturing Expands at Fastest Pace in Two Years:cool2:

    By Bloomberg News - 2013-01-24

    China’s manufacturing is expanding at the fastest rate in two years, according to a private survey of companies, bolstering prospects that economic growth will accelerate for a second straight quarter.

    The preliminary reading of a Purchasing Managers’ Index was 51.9 in January, according to a statement from HSBC Holdings Plc and Markit Economics today. That compares with the 51.5 final reading for December and the 51.7 median estimate of 17 analysts surveyed by Bloomberg News.

    China Manufacturing Expands at Fastest Pace in Two Years - Bloomberg
  18. cir

    cir Senior Member Senior Member

    Dec 28, 2010
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    Heck。China's problem is that it might again be growing too FAST。

    If China were allowed to run an inflation level comparable to what's found in India,China would be growing 10% plus annually!!:rofl:

    China Overheating Risk Resurfaces, Ex-PBOC Adviser Says

    By Bloomberg News on January 23, 2013

    China’s economic risks have shifted back to growing too quickly as new regional-government officials try to boost development, a former central bank adviser said.

    “The new problem is how to prevent overheating:cool2:,” which would stoke inflation and asset bubbles while pushing the government to enact controls, Fan Gang, a People’s Bank of China academic adviser from 2006 to 2010, said yesterday in an interview in Davos, Switzerland, where he is attending the World Economic Forum. “That kind of complication has come back again.”

    Fan’s comments mark a resurfacing of concerns that had receded last year as growth, inflation and the housing market cooled. The world’s second-largest economy may expand by 8 percent to 8.5 percent this year, Fan said, following the weakest pace since 1999. He said he hopes the rate stays below 9 percent:thumb:, withstanding “ambitious” plans by local governments.

    “I really hope China can this year achieve a little bit above 8 percent” growth and lay a foundation for 8 percent expansion in the next couple of years, said Fan, director of the National Economic Research Institute of the China Reform Foundation. “The momentum is really there again” with talk of urbanization and infrastructure construction, he said.

    Li Keqiang, appointed No. 2 in the ruling Communist Party in November and set to become premier in March, has been championing urbanization as a growth driver for the economy as export gains slow.

    ‘Modest’ Appreciation

    Fan said he sees “modest” appreciation in the yuan against the dollar this year as money flows in from other countries. The currency rose about 1 percent in 2012 against the dollar, the least in three years.

    China’s economic growth accelerated for the first time in two years in the fourth quarter. Gross domestic product expanded 7.9 percent from a year earlier, up from the three-year low of 7.4 percent in the previous quarter and snapping a seven-quarter slowdown, a government report last week showed. Industrial production and retail sales also accelerated in December.

    The median estimate of economists surveyed last month by Bloomberg News was for GDP growth of 8.1 percent in 2013. Expansion was 7.8 percent in 2012, statistics bureau data showed last week.

    Manufacturing may be expanding at a faster pace in January, based on the median economist estimate for a preliminary reading scheduled for today for a purchasing managers’ index from HSBC Holdings Plc and Markit Economics.

    China’s consumer inflation has slowed since reaching a three-year high of 6.5 percent in July 2011. The rate was 2.5 percent in December, rebounding from a 33-month low of 1.7 percent in October.

    Home Prices

    New home prices in China rose in December in the most cities in 20 months, renewing concerns that the government may issue new tightening measures.

    The central bank has refrained from easing monetary policy since July, after two interest-rate cuts and three reductions in the reserve-requirement ratio for lenders, on concern that any loosening may fuel inflation and drive up property prices.

    The government may further loosen controls over interest rates this year, especially on deposit rates, Fan said. “The demand for this kind of liberalization is really there and people do not see much problem with that,” he said.

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