Scorpene v/s. Agosta: Silent killers of the deep

Discussion in 'Indian Navy' started by Atul, Mar 2, 2009.

  1. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    To meet India's stated objective of being recognised as a 21st century superpower, the country must have a blue-water navy, an integral part of which is a modern submarine fleet. Sourya Biswas profiles the Indian Navy's latest acquisition the Scorpene vis-à-vis the pride of Pakistan Navy's Agosta 90B.

    Some of us may remember the fable of the two kingfishers fighting over a fish and asking a cat to make an equal division, whereupon the cat gave one kingfisher the head of the fish and the other the tail, and kept the fleshy body as his fee.

    One can think something similar regarding the current scenario involving the Indian and Pakistan navies, where both of them are spending millions to acquire different submarines from the same French manufacturer. Yes, we are talking of the Pakistan Navy's recently acquired Agosta submarines and the Indian Navy's soon-to-be-acquired Scorpene submarines.

    Both these submarines are built by DCNS (Direction des Constructions Navales Services), which is a naval defence company based in France and promises to provide ''strength at sea''. But what are these machines that these cash-strapped economies are spending millions on?

    Utility of submarines for the modern navy

    Any modern navy worth its flag cannot do without a modern submarine fleet, especially so when it harbours ambitions of being recognized as a regional power. Submarines, with their ability to ''shoot-and-scoot'' and to remain hidden under the ocean depths for months, provide a nation with an unparalleled capacity for inflicting damage on the enemy. Nuclear-armed, they provide the all-important second-strike capability if land-based missiles and airfields are destroyed in a pre-emptive attack. They are truly the ''silent killers of the deep''.

    Even in this nuclear age, the utility of conventional diesel-electric submarines hasn't diminished. This is because nuclear submarines, though providing vastly improved range and speeds, are inherently noisy. So for stealthy operations, conventional submarines are preferred over nuclear ones. With the introduction of AIP (air-independent propulsion) systems like the French MESMA (Module d'Energie Sous-Marine Autonome) and German fuel cells, even the durations they can stay underwater can be increased substantially. They also have the added advantages of being smaller and cheaper than nuclear submarines. That is why under Indian Navy's ambitious 20:20 plan for the future, it proposes to have a mix of twenty-four nuclear and conventional submarines.

    India enjoys a considerable advantage in conventional forces over its smaller neighbour, and this military superiority has enabled it to win three wars against Pakistan, four if one includes the Kargil conflict. In such a scenario, the Pakistan military is always on the lookout for the latest technologies to negate the opponent's numerical superiority. And it finally got its answer in the Agosta 90B submarine.

    Even during the humiliating defeat of 1971 when the Indian Navy had effectively blockaded Pakistan Navy's homeport of Karachi, the lone submarine PNS Hangor managed to slip through and sink the Indian frigate INS Khukri, which till date remains India's biggest wartime casualty. Drawing on these experiences and the perceived threat posed by a larger Indian Navy, Pakistan has been continuously investing in its submarine force, within the constraints posed by its economy, and found in the Agosta an ideal fit to its requirements. The Pakistan Navy ordered three of these submarines, in the advanced 90B version, in September 1994, at a cost of 750 million dollars.

    The Pakistan Navy's new acquisitions
    The first, Khalid (S137), was built at DCN's Cherbourg yard and was commissioned in 1999. The second, Saad, assembled at Karachi Naval Dockyard with French assistance, was launched in August 2002 and was commissioned in December 2003. The third, Hamza, indigenously constructed and assembled in Karachi, was launched in August 2006. The Hamza has been fitted with the MESMA AIP system, which will be retrofitted to the previous two Agosta 90B submarines.

    Pakistan's acquisition of the modern Agostas was a severe jolt to the superiority enjoyed by the Indian Navy vis-à-vis its traditional opponent. At the same time, China's expansionist tendencies could not be ignored, s acknowledged in the recently publicized Indian Maritime Doctrine. This document reiterates earlier calls for a stronger deterrent capability against foreign intervention by non-littoral navies, i.e. navies with which India doesn't share a coastline.

    The Indian Navy's response
    With this in mind, India has been modernizing its fleet and has been continually interested in procuring nuclear attack and diesel submarines, establishing two aircraft carrier groups, and developing new cruise missiles like the Brahmos. While India's much-hyped nuclear submarine ATV project is still undergoing tests, the navy has decided to lease an Akula nuclear submarine from Russia.

    In such a scenario, India's ageing Foxtrot and Kilo class submarines and German-made HDW submarines were found to be lacking when compared to more modern conventional submarines like the Agosta 90B. This prompted the India Navy to go for the Scorpene, six of which are going to be built at the Mazgaon shipyard under a ToT (Transfer of Technology) programme, now officially called Project 75. The order cost is to the tune of $3.5 billion, with the MESMA AIP systems to cost extra, at around $55 million dollars each if India should opt for them.

    At the recently concluded Defence Expo in New Delhi, DCNS executive vice president and chief operating officer, Bernard Planchais, announced that the first of the Scorpene submarines would be launched in 2012. The company also aimed to address Indian concerns by stating that the Scorpenes could be fitted with the Brahmos cruise missiles, if India so desired. DCN also aims to compete for a future Indian Navy order of six more diesel-electric submarines, along with a Russian-Italian offer based on the Russian Amur class and the latest German HDW 214-type submarines with Siemens polymer exchange membrane (PEM) hydrogen fuel cell AIP (air-independent propulsion).
     
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  3. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    Which is better – the Agosta or the Scorpene?
    As to which one is better, the Agosta or the Scorpene, the question can be answered by the simple axiom that ''newer is better''. Submarine technology, like that for fighter aircraft, keeps improving every day, and hence it's logical that a design of the 90s will be better than one of the 70s, albeit improved in its 90B avatar. Even at the Defence Expo, DCNS project director Xavier Marchal was emphatic when he said, ''Of course Agostas are inferior than Scorpenes''. Pakistan Navy officials also acknowledge this fact, pointing to the later design elements included in the Scorpene.

    Of course, this happiness that we may feel on obtaining a better product has to be tempered with the fact that we haven't got it yet. The Indian Navy will receive the first Scorpene only by the fag end of 2012, a full four years later, and that too subject to the unlikely situation that everything proceeds according to plan. If the current military development projects are anything to go by, the deployment of the stealthy Scorpenes are likely to undergo procedural delays, even under the relative advantages of a ToT program. Such bureaucratic red-tape characteristic of India's defence projects almost makes one wish for a Pakistan-like dictatorship where such delays would be non-existent, although some bribery of senior military staff may be required.
     
  4. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    The development of the Agosta
    Going back in history, the first Agosta class submarine was launched as far back as 1974 as a precursor to the Rubis nuclear attack submarine. She had a crew of 58 personnel and had an armament of Exocet missiles and 533 mm torpedoes. The earliest users of this submarine were the French and Spanish navies. The Pakistan Navy also acquired two of them when the original customers, the South Africans, could not receive them due to the arms embargo caused by the nation's apartheid policy.

    By late 1999 a total of 13 Agosta-class submarines had been ordered by France, Spain and Pakistan. While the original design incorporated a lot of modern technologies, more importantly, its inherent adaptability made it an excellent candidate for an upgrade.

    The Agosta 90B is a direct derivative of the above but features significant improvements in acoustic discretion and detection, as well as considerable more automation compared to its predecessors. This has resulted in a reduction of the stipulated crew from 58 to 36. Other improvements include a new battery for increased range and a deeper diving capability of 350m resulting from the use of new materials such as HLES 80 steel. Another important improvement is compatibility with the MESMA AIP system, which has already been fitted onto the Hamza and will be added to the Khalid and Saad in the near future.

    The Agosta 90B is equipped with a fully integrated SUBTICS combat system and can carry a mix of 16 wire-guided torpedoes and sea-skimming Exocet missiles. The submarine is fitted with a Thales Underwater Systems TSM 223 sonar suite, which includes bow-mounted sonar and towed sonar arrays, SAGEM periscopes and navigation system and Thales I-band navigation radar.

    The propulsion system consists of two SEMT-Pielstick 16 PA4 V 185 VG diesels providing 3,600hp and a 2200kW electric motor driving a single propeller. As an enhancement, it's now fitted with the MESMA AIP system that allows the submarine to remain submerged three times longer. However, this results in an increase in the length and weight of the submarine, and also marginally reduces its maximum speed underwater.
     
  5. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    The development of the Scorpene
    The Scorpene is the latest submarine from the DCNS shop and is built in collaboration with Navantia of Spain. Ironically, the first one was built in 2003 at the same location where the first Pakistani Agosta 90B was constructed in 1999 – the DCN shipyard at Cherbourg in France. It was named O'Higgins and acquired by Chile. The second, Carrera, built at the Cartagena shipyard of Navantia in Spain was launched in November 2004 and commissioned in July 2006.

    The Malaysian Navy had also ordered two Scorpenes as far back as 2002, which are expected to be commissioned in 2009. The first one is being built in France and the second one in Spain. India placed an order for six of these submarines in October 2005, with the condition that they are built at the Mazegaon Shipyard in India under a Transfer of Technology programme. In addition, as armament for these vessels, the Indian Navy has also ordered 36 MBDA SM-39 Exocet anti-ship missiles. Construction on the first vessel started in December 2006,with delivery due in December 2012. The remaining five Scorpenes will be delivered over the next five years, at the rate of one a year.

    The Scorpene is fitted with the SUBTICS combat management system, with up to six multifunction common consoles and a centrally situated tactical table. It is composed of a command and tactical data handling system, a weapon control system and an integrated suite of acoustic sensors with an interface to a set of air surface detection sensors and the integrated navigation system. The vessel has excellent detection capability due to its extensive sonar suite which includes a long-range passive cylindrical array, an intercept sonar, active sonar, distributed array, flank array, a high-resolution sonar for mine and obstacle avoidance and a towed array.
     
  6. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    Where the Scorpene outscores the Agosta
    The Scorpene has an increased diving depth of 370m as compared to the Agosta 90B's 320m, and has no limitations on operations at maximum depth due to the increased usage of high-yield stress-specific steel in its construction. Submerged, the Scorpene is quieter than most submarines due to the utilization of advanced hydrodynamics with an albacore bow shape, with fewer appendages and an optimised propeller. Placing systems on elastic mountings further minimizes noise.

    Where the Scorpene particularly scores over the Agosta 90B is in its stealth capabilities. Unlike the Agosta, which is a modification of a three-decade old design, the Scorpene incorporates the latest in hydrodynamics, damping and stealth technologies to reduce its noise signature, thereby greatly increasing its detection capability and offensive power.

    The submarine is manned by a standard crew of 31 (less than the Agosta 90B), with additional space for 6 special operations personnel. The entire operational and living area is air-conditioned, and the latest safety systems to allow for the operation of a Deep Submergence Rescue Vehicle (DSRV) are present. The propulsion system consists of two diesel generation sets providing 1,250kW of power coupled with a 2,900kW electric engine.

    The Scorpene can also carry more weapons than the Agosta 90B – a mix of 18 torpedoes and missiles or 30 mines. The six bow-located 21-inch torpedo tubes also have salvo launch capability, and DCNS has expressed its willingness to integrate the Brahmos cruise missile in its armoury as well, in addition to the Exocets already ordered.

    While the original Agosta had not been designed keeping an AIP system in mind but had it included only in the 90B variant, the Scorpene has been designed to seamlessly integrate an AIP system. This results in increased submerged range steaming under AIP for the Scorpene as compared to the Agosta. The question now arises as to what exactly is an AIP system?
     
  7. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    What is air-independent propulsion?
    AIP stands for Air-independent Propulsion, and refers to technologies which allow a submarine to operate without the need to surface or use a snorkel to access atmospheric oxygen, and usually excludes nuclear power. The USP of a conventional diesel-electric submarine is its ability to remain undetected for long periods of time. This is primarily because of the quietness of its electric engine and ability to remain underwater for extended periods. Even though such submarines are powered by electric motors, driven by batteries, these batteries need to be regularly charged using diesel engines.

    This ability of remaining undetectable is severely compromised if it has to repeatedly come to periscope or snorkel depth to recharge its batteries that drive the electric motor, using its diesel engine that requires air for operation. Not only can the snorkel be more easily detected, the noisier diesels may also make the submarine's presence known to the enemy. To overcome this problem, the submarine can be fitted with an AIP system that can temporarily charge the vessel's batteries or drive the electric motor.

    The following types of AIP systems have been developed till date:

    1. Closed cycle engines – uses a conventional diesel engine with liquid oxygen as an oxidant for underwater operation. Not used due to safety concerns.
    2. Stirling cycle engines – closed-cycle regenerative hot-air engine using diesel and liquid oxygen. Currently used by the Swedish Navy. Heat from an outside source is transferred to an enclosed quantity of working fluid, generally an inert gas, and drives it through a repeating sequence of thermodynamic changes. By expanding the gas against a piston and then drawing it into a separate cooling chamber for subsequent compression, the heat from external combustion can be converted to mechanical work and then, in turn, to electricity.
    3. Fuel cells – developed by Siemens for use by the German Navy. Uses oxygen and hydrogen as reactants to produce electricity and water. Considered to be the quietest due to the lack of moving parts and exhaust gases, but safety concerns remain due to the dangers of storing highly inflammable volatile hydrogen in pressurised form.
    4. Closed cycle steam turbines – the French MESMA system is the only operational example. Burning ethanol with compressed oxygen at 60 atmospheres produces heat in the primary circuit. Although power output is highest of the four processes, it is also the least efficient requiring the maximum amount of oxygen, and is also noisier than fuel cells owing to the presence of moving parts and exhaust gases.

    It is to be noted that AIP systems can provide only a fraction of the conventional propulsion system and can be used only for low-speed maneuvers. However, it does increase a submarine's capability to stay underwater at low speeds by several factors and hence form an indispensable part of the modern diesel-electric submarine.

    The Indian Navy is yet to decide between Siemens PEM (polymer electrolyte membrane) fuel cells and the MESMA system for its six Scorpenes, though the latter seems to be at an advantage considering it comes from the same manufacturer as the submarines themselves. The German system may be fitted onto the existing Shishumar class boats of the Indian Navy.
     
  8. ahmedsid

    ahmedsid Top Gun Senior Member

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    I always wanted to know which were better, thanks Atul for posting this!
     
  9. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    Variants of the Scorpene
    The Scorpene class submarines come in three subtypes: Basic, Basic-AIP (with MESMA air-independent propulsion) and Compact. The Scorpenes used by the Chilean Navy are of the first type. India is most probably ordering the second type.

    Variants ------------------ Basic -------Basic-AIP--------Compact
    Overall length ------------- 66 metres ----76 metres ------60 metres
    Submerged displacement --- 1700 tons ---2010 tons ------1450 tons
    Maximum submerged speed -- 20 knots -----19 knots -------14 knots
    Diving depth --------------- 370 metres ---370 metres-----250 metres
    Crew complement ---------- 31 ----------- 31 ------------ 22
    Endurance ---------------- 45 days ------ 45 days ------- 40 days
     
  10. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    Conclusion
    In conclusion, it can be said that though the Indian Navy is receiving a better product vis-à-vis its traditional adversary, it must make sure that the product is delivered as per schedule, and meets all original specifications, especially the ''transfer of technology'' part. At the same time, it must ensure, in conjunction with other agencies like the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO), to have a working prototype of the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) at the earliest. It must always be kept in mind that ''a bird in hand is worth two in the bush'', and the Pakistan Navy already has three of them in hand.

    Here is a comparison table of the MESMA AIP variants of the Agosta 90B and the Scorpene. Some of these figures may not be entirely accurate, but that is only expected of top-secret military projects.

    =========================================================

    Parameters --------------------- Agosta 90B ----------Scorpene
    Dimensions
    Overall length ------------------- 76 metres ------------ 76 metres
    Overall width ------------------- 6.8 metres ----------- 6.2 metres
    Overall height ------------------ 5.4 metres ----------- 5.8 metres
    Displacement
    Surfaced ----------------------- 1810 tons ------------ 1850 tons
    Submerged --------------------- 1980 tons ------------ 2010 tons
    Range
    Surfaced ----------------------- 13,700 km ------------ 10,500 km
    Submerged --------------------- 2,250 km ------------3,500 km
    Maximum Speed
    Surfaced ----------------------- 12 knots -------------- 12 knots
    Submerged --------------------- 19 knots -------------- 19 knots
    Endurance
    Diving endurance --------------- 60 days ---------------- 45 days
    Diving depth ------------------- 320 metres ------------ 370 metres
    Carriage
    Complement --------------------- 36 (7 officers) ----------31 (6 officers)
    Weapons ------------------------ 16 missiles and torpedoes -- 18 missiles and torpedoes.
    ==========================================================:vehicle_plane:
     
  11. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    nice details
     
  12. A.V.

    A.V. New Member

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    to make the discussions more interesting i decided to upload a few pictures of them.

    ATUL that was a great thread congratulations on that the best part was that we must not forget that the PN has their subs in place while we are still waiting to receive them.
    now that the scorpene tops the agostas in this comparision i am getting more interested to know how is it going to fare with the recent PN proposal to get the german subs.


    anyways here is a picture of the pakistani agosta.

    [​IMG]


    here is the scorpene being constructed.

    [​IMG]
     
  13. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Pakistan's French Subs: A Threat?

    http://www.windsofchange.net/archives/005619.html



    Pakistan's French Subs: A Threat?
    By Joe Katzman on October 1, 2004 6:44 AM | 30 Comments | 1 TrackBack

    There's currently a minor flap going on about France selling submarines to Pakistan, including worries that this will give Pakistan a sub-based nuclear deterrent. We noticed that program back in 2002, and Pakistan's subs aren't a big concern. Not yet, anyway. Let me explain why.

    Let's start with some background. Naval-Technology.com has details on the French Agosta class of submarines, and GlobalSecurity.org adds a cutaway diagram and details re: the Khalid-class version for export to Pakistan. Over at Roger Simon's blog, commenter Holmwood has some intelligent background on the Agosta-class subs and Pakistans likely level of warhead development.

    The bottom line? Agostas are diesel-powered attack subs, not missile subs. The submarine also has a limited range when submerged, unlike a nuclear-powered boat that can cruise around the world without surfacing. It's possible to have an Agosta-class sub carry nuclear weapons, but you need to have very advanced warhead designs to fit them, and the missiles you fire tend to have fairly short ranges.

    That isn't what Pakistan is building them for.

    The Agostas are primarily designed as a counter to India's growing Navy, which will soon include an aircraft carrier that is also planned as a nuclear strike platform and command-and-control center. The deal for is to be finalized this December, with delivery in 2007-2008. It is also in India's long-term strategic interest to build its navy into the pre-eminent local force between the Straits of Malacca (Indonesia) and the Arabian Sea, and its carrier will force procurement and doctrinal changes that will accelerate this evolution. Something the USA may even find it smart to encourage.

    Pakistan obviously wants a lever against that potential threat. They cannot compete in a surface ship race, and they know it - so submarines are their logical choice. Hence the Agostas.

    With that said, the future is murkier. The logic of deterrence is likely to push Pakistan toward nuclear-armed submarines eventually, especially if they decide that India is getting a potential first strike capability on their land-based weapons. So watch for any acquisition of new sub designs in future years, though Tom Roberts is correct in stating that this will be the least of their challenges, and now that Holmwood has found us here at Winds, he adds more thoughtful commentary on Pakistan's strategic options.

    To see the logic of submarine-based missiles in action on another front, the Israelis are already moving in the direction of sub-launched nukes, with some Dolphin class subs that have been modified to carry cruise missiles. Missile testing was carried out by a submarine in the Indian Ocean about 4 years ago, almost certainly in cooperation with India.
     
  14. Atul

    Atul Founding Member

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    Yes Its a matter of Concern that the Pakistani Subs are in Place while Ours are still in Ship Building Yards..

    But India Possesses a Very strong ASW wing, which is far more efficient & effective considering the Current Pakistani fleet.

    Their Presence will not go un-noticed. Gone are the days when the Paki Subs reached the Vizag, to say it in easy words, its safe for them in today's scenario to stay in either Karachi or Gwadar port.

    INDIAN Navy is considering to buy another 6 Subs, lets see which would that be.:vehicle_plane:
     
    prateikf likes this.
  15. nitesh

    nitesh Mob Control Manager Stars and Ambassadors

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    Guys while comparing the sub fleet why you guys are forgetting the upgraded kilos in IN inventory
     
  16. vijaytripoli

    vijaytripoli Regular Member

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    Germany Is Poised to Sell Submarines to Pakistan (Update1)
    Share | Email | Print | A A A

    By Patrick Donahue and Brian Parkin

    June 18 (Bloomberg) -- Chancellor Angela Merkel’s coalition will probably go ahead with the sale of three submarines to Pakistan, ignoring opposition concerns about the delivery of military hardware to the nuclear-armed state, two German government officials said.

    The Federal Security Council, a body made up of ministers that vets all military hardware sales, is prepared to back the sale of the Class 214 submarines made by ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems AG, the officials said on condition of anonymity because the decision is not yet final.

    A Pakistani delegation including army chief Ashfaq Parvez Kayani is in Berlin today for meetings with German officials. Opposition lawmakers are wary of sales to Pakistan as it struggles with Islamist radicals along the border with neighboring Afghanistan.

    “We have to ask ourselves whether such an unstable country really needs such submarine technology,” said Alexander Bonde, a Green Party lawmaker leading opposition to the sale in the lower house of parliament in Berlin. Bonde said a final decision will probably be made after German national elections Sept. 27.

    Taliban Offensive

    Pakistan has struggled in a seven-week campaign to push back radicals after Taliban fighters advanced to within 100 kilometers (60 miles) of the capital, Islamabad. The army is preparing to mount an offensive in South Waziristan to drive out militants from its northwest tribal areas.

    A Pakistani delegation visited Berlin several weeks ago to express interest in the submarines, said Muhammad Azam, a spokesman for the Pakistani embassy in Berlin. No official orders have yet been tendered, he said.

    A preliminary inquiry from Pakistan has been “positively assessed” by the German government, though no official request yet been processed, Economy Ministry spokesman Steffen Moritz said in a phone interview.

    Andrea Wessel, a spokeswoman for ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems, a unit of Dusseldorf-based ThyssenKrupp AG, said the company wouldn’t comment on “ongoing projects.”

    “Pakistan’s interest in these submarines shows it still sees India as the traditional enemy, even though bilateral tensions have eased somewhat since 2004,” Christian Wagner, an analyst at the Berlin-based German Institute for International and Security Affairs, said in an interview. “The money would be better spent on equipping and training its land forces to combat terrorist insurgents.”

    The 65-meter (213-foot) submarines, non-nuclear vessels equipped with eight torpedo tubes, rely on a fuel-cell system to remain silent beneath the water for longer periods than previous models. ThyssenKrupp describes the vessels as having “extraordinarily developed stealth characteristics and an impressive weapon and sensor payload.”

    Bloomberg.com
     
  17. Soham

    Soham DFI TEAM Senior Member

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    Can we stick to DFI please ?
     
  18. kuku

    kuku Respected Member

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    Pakistan will keep on spending on their under water force, the only chance they have of achieving some sort of sea denial against India is if they are able to constantly stay ahead and acquire the best technology they can.

    For this reason i feel they should (and may be they are), invest a lot of resources on their submarine force, even at the expense of other equipment/forces.

    With out a sea denial/deterrence capability with PN enforcing a blockade will always be a option for IN with a blockade in place and their fuel reserves under constant attack they might run out of it in a very short time.

    With the lease of the Russian SSN and the Indian ATV program, there might be a escalation that could prove difficult to match (from the Pakistani PoV).
     
  19. Pintu

    Pintu New Member

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    A HDW made Type 214 Submarine of ROK in front of USS Nimitz (Image : Wikipedia)

    [​IMG]

    General characteristics

    * Displacement: 1,700 t surfaced / 1,980 t submerged(GR) / 1,860 t submerged(SK)
    * Dimensions: length 65 m / beam 6.3 m / draught 6 m
    * Pressure hull: austenitic steel
    * Armament: 8 x 533 mm torpedo tubes, 4 subharpoon-capable
    * Propulsion: low noise skew back propeller
    * Diesel engines: 2 MTU 16V 396 (6.24 MW)(GR) / 1 MTU 16V 396 (3.12 MW)(SK)
    * Charging generators: 2 x Piller Ntb56.40-10 970KW
    * AIP system: 2 HDW PEM fuel cells (240 kW)(GR) / 9 HDW PEM fuel cells (306 kW)(SK)
    * Electric motor: 1 Siemens Permasyn (2.85 MW)
    * Speed: 12 kt surfaced / 20 kt submerged
    * Speed on fuel cells: 2-6 kt estimated
    * Range surfaced: 12,000 miles (19,300 km)
    * Range submerged: 420 nmi @ 8 kt (780 km @ 15 km/h)
    * Range on fuel cells: 1,248 nmi @ 4 kt (2,310 km @ 7 km/h)
    * Mission endurance: 12 weeks
    * Submerged without snorkelling: 3 weeks
    * Operating depth: more than 250 m officially, 400 m estimated
    * Complement: 5 officers + 22 crew
    * Navigation radar: SPHINX-D with 4Kw pulse and tactical LPI radar sensor [Thales Deutschland Kiel]

    (Wikipedia)


    Pakistan is trying to acquire this type of Sub.

    Regards
     
  20. vijaytripoli

    vijaytripoli Regular Member

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    Is it a Stealth Submarine?
    chau
     
  21. kuku

    kuku Respected Member

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    Every submarine could be called a stealth submarine i suppose, as long as its under the water there is the visual stealth thing :D
     

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