Maritime Reconnaissance and Surveillance

Discussion in 'Indian Navy' started by Neil, Oct 23, 2011.

  1. Neil

    Neil Senior Member Senior Member

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    [​IMG]


    Maritime Reconnaissance involves anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, anti-ship, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance gathering and search and rescue operations by fixed-wing aircrafts which are designed to operate for long durations over water. They are operated by military forces and other government agencies for also roles such as battlefield surveillance, airspace surveillance, observation (e.g. artillery spotting) and border patrol. Maritime Reconnaissance is critical in wartime situations for navies to locate enemy forces to engage or defend against. Peacetime patrols are important for interdiction of criminal activities and for ensuring legal use of waters. Maritime patrols can be conducted by surface ships and submarines, by aircraft and other aerial vehicles and even by satellites.

    The use of maritime reconnaissance aircrafts dates back to World War I. They were known as patrol bombers and were flown by the Royal Naval Air Service on anti-submarine patrols. During World War II long-range bombers or airliners were converted to patrol aircraft such as Germany’s Focke-Wulf Fw 200 “Condor”. To cover the Mid-Atlantic Gap that existed the British introduced a “Very Long Range” version of the Consolidated B-24 Liberator bomber which was capable of patrolling the areas between Iceland and Greenland and attack German submarines. The main threat to NATO powers throughout the 1960s and into the 1980s were Soviet submarines which led to the development of various maritime reconnaissance aircrafts. During this time the Lockheed P-3 Orion was developed for the United States Navy and was introduced in the 1960s. The P-3 Orion is still in use by numerous navies and air forces around the world. P-3s will join the handful of military aircraft which have served 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer been the United States Navy.

    [​IMG]


    A new maritime reconnaissance aircraft has been developed by Boeing, the P-8 Poseidon. It will replace U.S. Navy’s remaining P-3C. The P-8A Poseidon is a long-range anti-submarine warfare, anti-surface warfare, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance aircraft. It possesses an advanced mission system that ensures maximum interoperability in the future battle space. Capable of broad-area maritime and littoral operations, the P-8A will influence how the U.S. Navy’s maritime patrol and reconnaissance forces train, operate and deploy. According to Boeing on board P-8A, all sensors contribute to a single fused tactical situation display, which is then shared over both military standard and internet protocol data links, allowing for seamless delivery of information amongst U.S. and coalition forces. The P-8A is a derivative of the highly successful and reliable Next-Generation 737. The P-8A has the fuselage of a 737-800 and the wings of a 737-900. U.S. Navy has plans to purchase 117 aircraft and initial operational capability is scheduled for 2013. In January 2009 Boeing was selected to provide 12 P-8I long-range maritime reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare aircraft to the Indian navy. India is the first international customer for the P-8. First deliveries aren’t expected until 2013 at the earliest and the jets are expected to enter service before 2015.

    Russian Maritime Patrol and Reconnaissance aircrafts includes Antonov An-30, Antonov An-72 and Ilyushin Il-76 (Airborne Early Warning & Control). The Soviet era Tupolev Tu-142 Bear and Ilyushin Il-38 May are serving the Indian Naval Air Arm. India has also deployed Israeli UAVs for Maritime Patrol operations. These UAVs includes IAI Heron and IAI Searcher. The IAI Heron developed by the Malat (UAV) division of Israel Aerospace Industries is capable of Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) operations of up to 52 hours’ duration at up to 35,000 feet. United States Navy also uses UAVs for reconnaissance. Northrop Grumman has developed the MQ-8 Fire Scout designed to provide reconnaissance, surveillance, situational awareness, and precision targeting support for air and sea forces. The Fire Scout was to be fitted with a sensor ball turret that carries electro-optic and infrared cameras, and a laser range finder. It will be controlled over a data link derived from the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk UAV, operating over a line of sight to a distance of 280 kilometers (172 miles). The control system was to be fitted onto a ship, or could be carried on a Humvee light vehicle for U.S. Marine service. Three variants of Fire Scout are planed: RQ-8A, RQ-8B and MQ-8B, United States Navy plans to acquire 168 of these VTOL UAVs.

    Earlier in 2010 the UK government’s Strategic Defence and Security Review of the Armed Forces announced the cancellation of the BAE Systems Nimrod MRA4. Nimrod MRA4 was a maritime patrol and attack aircraft intended to replace the Hawker Siddeley Nimrod MR2. MRA4 was £789 million over-budget and over nine years late.

    India has been in need of good maritime reconnaissance aircraft and anti-submarine aircraft due to Chinese intervention and activity in the Indian Ocean. With growing naval power India’s naval responsibility is to increased operational requirements and enhanced maritime role. With the procurement of P-8I Poseidon India will have a greater surveillance, reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare power than China. Many defence analysts believe that P-8I could be the world’s most capable aircraft of its category far surpassing the P-3Cs of Pakistan’s Navy. P-8I will give India the capability to monitor the Chinese ports coming up in Myanmar and Sri Lanka and Indian maritime capability would reach Australia as well. The P-8I is a derivative of the P-8A designed specifically for the Indian navy. Once aircraft carrier Vikramaditya is introduced along with MIG 29K by Indian Navy, the combination of P-8 aircraft and the MiG-29K will be lethal in terms of maritime reconnaissance.

    Maritime Reconnaissance and Surveillance 2011 was held in Rome, Italy on 20 – 22 September, 2011. It will give an insight on how the Canadian Armed Forces, Indian Coast Guard, Philippines Armed Forces, South African Air Force, Turkish Navy and Italian Navy are looking to procure and upgrade reconnaissance assets in light of recent operations to improve Maritime Domain Awareness


    .Maritime Reconnaissance and Surveillance | Defence Aviation
     
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  3. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    This thread get 5 star..

    Very Interesting topic..
     
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  4. Neil

    Neil Senior Member Senior Member

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    thankx a lot kunal sir....!!

    sir...US wants 117 of these birds and we are getting 12 starting form 2013...how is boeing going to manage it...??
     
    Last edited: Oct 24, 2011
  5. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Indian Navy offered Maritime version of Global Hawk

    [h=2] Indian Navy offered Maritime version of Global Hawk [/h] [​IMG]

    Northrop Grumman has received and responded to Request for Information (RFI) issued recently by Indian Ministry of defence. Northrop Grumman has received necessary permission from United States government and has offered MQ-4C, which is a modified version of combat proven Global Hawk, improvised for the Maritime surveillance.

    MQ-4C also known as Broad Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAV based on Global Hawk and will complement the 737 based Multimission Maritime Aircraft (MMA), the P-8A Poseidon.


    Indian Navy has already ordered 12 of P-8I which is an export variant of the P-8A Poseidon which US Navy will be operating ,which they will be replacing their older turbo prop based P-3 Maritime surveillance aircraft .

    MQ-4C Area Maritime Surveillance (BAMS) UAV will have 36 hour endurance and will be able to operate up to 60000 ft against strong winds and severe weather, and has a payload of 3200 LB .MQ-4C will have 2D AESA radar providing it 360 degree coverage over vast section of the ocean.

    MQ-4C will provide Indian Navy, a tactical platform which will be able to scan large section of Indian Ocean for Hostile surface and Submarine fleet, and it also will be operationally be quite cheaper to operate than a manned surveillance aircraft.








    Source:
    Indian navy considering Northrop's MQ-4C BAMS
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  6. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Well looking at the production rate of US manufacturer..

    I sure they will mange it..
     
  7. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    India to buy more UAVs from IAI in $250m deal

    [h=1]India to buy more UAVs from IAI in $250m deal [/h][​IMG]


    India already had about 12 Heron-1 drones before the 2005 sale, and they played a crucial part in search and rescue operations following the Indian Ocean tsunami in December 2004. IAI Searcher tactical UAVs and and high-end Heron UAVs were used to locate trapped survivors and missing bodies near the Andaman and Nicobar islands, relaying clear live feed photographs while in flight, and allowing immediate response as soon as survivors or victims were identified on screen.


    The Heron UAV is reportedly capable of flying for over 24 hours at a time at altitudes around 32,000 feet. IAI lists flight time as >40 hours, and says that it has demonstrated 52 hours of continuous flight. It has a maximum range of about 3,000 km and can carry a maximum payload weighing 250 kg/ 550 lbs. As a large MALE (Medium Altitude, Long Endurance) UAV, it’s built to carry multiple payloads at a time for a variety of missions. Choices include electro-optical and thermal surveillance equipment, SAR radars for ground surveillance, maritime patrol radars and sensors, signals and other intelligence collection antennas and equipment, laser designators, and even radio relays.






    Source:
    http://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/india-to-buy-more-uavs-from-iai-in-250m-deal-171280/
    Israel Sells Heron UAVs to India
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  8. Galaxy

    Galaxy Elite Member Elite Member

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    @ Kunal

    This is very old news about Heron, Inducted long back too.
     
  9. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Searcher MK-2

    [h=2]Searcher MK-2[/h][​IMG]

    The smaller Searcher II has an 8.5m (28ft) wingspan, a maximum take-off weight of 436kg including a 120kg payload, and an endurance approaching 20h."India is also developing indigenous UAVs and trials are in progress," says the navy. "Advancement in development of UAVs would soon see unmanned flying surpassing manned flying."The service also wants to deploy unmanned rotorcraft from some of its ships. IAI and Hindustan Aeronautics are co-operating on a project to prepare the Indian-developed Dhruv advanced light helicopter for such an application.


    Payloads

    • Electro Optical (TV & IR Combi or Triple Sensor TV/IR/LD)
    • Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)
    • COMINT & ESM Integration Capability
    • Customer furnished payloads
    Datalinks

    • Direct Line-of-Sight (LOS) data link
    • UAV airborne data relay for beyond LOS missions
    • Ground-based data relay for beyond LOS missions

    Performance
    Endurance 20 hr.
    Range 300 km
    Altitude 23,000 ft

    Weights
    Max. take-off weight 436 kg
    Max. payload weight 120 kg
    Dimensions
    Overall length 5.85 m
    Wingspan 8.55 m






    Source:
    Indian navy stands up second UAV squadron
     
    Last edited by a moderator: May 10, 2015
  10. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    This thread is not abt News but started with a Article whose heading is obvious with my posts here..
     
  11. sandeepdg

    sandeepdg Senior Member Senior Member

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    Kunal, I think the best development for IN would be if they go through with the MQ4C. Other than the UAVs that India is itself developing, another great addition would be drones armed with either 2 Harpoon missiles or two lightweight torpedoes. But the size of that UAV needs to be more than the Heron. Then these drone can hunt in packs with the Heron UAVs or the MQ4C or the Indian UAVs under development, the searcher UAV designate the targets and the hunter drones take them out. They can be used for short range protection of the future CBGs whereas long range protection will be provided by the P8-Is. I think this idea can be explored.
     
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  12. ace009

    ace009 Freakin' Fighter fan Elite Member

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    I think the best use of those drones can be from a LHD/ LPD for overseas deployment (say anti-Piracy patrols). A naval version of the MQ-9 reaper (called the Mariner) was designed by General Atomics - it's on order from US Border and Coastguards - IN can get some of those. When combined with the MQ-4C, the Mariner can take out pirate vessels, motherships etc. The drones can also be based on the west coast of India.
     
  13. Neil

    Neil Senior Member Senior Member

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    why is the global hawk also called as euro hawk...??its developed solely by US right...?
     
  14. Neil

    Neil Senior Member Senior Member

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  15. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    European Global hawk, Similar exterior but different guidance and other factors..

     
    Last edited: Oct 25, 2011
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  16. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    [h=2] Upgraded ASW aircraft Tu-142ME was delivered to Indian Navy [/h][​IMG]

    Long-range ASW aircraft Tu-142ME was handed over to India after overhaul and modernization by JSC TAVIA. In 2010 another Tu-142ME will be also capitally repaired, upgraded, and delivered to Indian Navy, reported ITAR-TASS referring to the company's press service.

    The press release did not mention how many aircrafts have already been repaired and modernized.

    According to World Arms Trade Analysis Center, it was planned to sign the contract on modernization of 8 long-range ASW aircrafts Tu-142ME for Indian Navy in 2005. Perhaps, the contract was signed later. The program has been in uncertain state for some time due to involvement of Israel which offered to upgrade Tu-142ME aircrafts under triangular agreement with Russia. Moreover, there were reports that the contract had been frozen.

    In 1986 eight ASW aircrafts Tu-142MK were delivered to India under nomenclature of Tu-142ME which were built by Taganrog Aircraft Factory. Those planes were equipped with Korshun-K search-and-track ASW system which included magnetometer MMS-106 Ladoga and hydrology reconnaissance equipment Nerchinsk. All of those aircrafts are in need of capital repairs and to be upgraded with new onboard equipment, modernized jet-prop engines, and new weapons. According to initial plan, all 8 planes were supposed to pass modernization within 6 years and be ready in 2010-2011. After capital repairs the service life of each aircraft becomes 16 years longer.

    Upgraded Tu-142ME is capable to provide patrolling and security of territorial waters; conduct communications surveillance; search, track, and engage newest silent submarines on surface and under water, moving at full or slow speed or laying on the seabed day and night and in any weather conditions. While armed with guided missiles, Tu-142ME is capable to deliver strikes upon surface ships, land and coastal targets.

    Max flight range of Tu-142ME is 12,000 km, max flight speed (weight of 138 tons, altitude of 7,000 meters) is 855 kph, cruising speed is 735 kph, flight duration is 9 hours. Max combat load (6 BrahMos cruise missiles, as was proposed to Indian Navy) makes 9.6 tons, standard combat load (8 Kh-35 antiship missiles) is 4.4 tons. Typical search-and-attack version of the aircraft is equipped with up to 140 radio sonobuoys.

    Upgraded ASW aircraft Tu-142ME was delivered to Indian Navy


    [h=1]Russian Unveils new Tu-142 Upgrade Capable of Firing the Brahmos[/h]
    India and Russia ponder ASW variations on venerable 'Bear'
    Piotr Butowski


    Russia's Taganrogskaya Aviatsiya (Tavia) company has unveiled a model of an upgraded variant of the Tupolev Tu-142 'Bear-F' maritime patrol aircraft, armed with eight air-launched Kh-35E sea-skimming anti-ship missiles under the wings, at the Gidroaviasalon 2004 show at Gelendzhik, Russia.

    The model, referred to as the Tu-142MSD in an export version offered to India, is a variant of the Tu-142MN that is planned to be procured for the Russian Navy. While the latter is planned to be fitted with a Novella mission system, the former should receive the Sea Dragon system, which itself is an export variant of Novella.

    The Russian Navy has around 20 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) Tu-142M and Tu-142MZ aircraft, plus a dozen Tu-142MR radio-relay aircraft for communication with submerged submarines. India purchased eight Tu-142ME ('Bear-F' mod 3) aircraft in 1986.

    The modernised Tu-142MSD should be able to perform ASW as well as littoral patrol operations, search and rescue, and overland surveillance, reconnaissance and target acquisition operations.

    Tavia proposes to implement the upgrade alongside a structural airframe overhaul that will lengthen the type's operational life by a decade from 22 to 32 years, providing a lifetime for the Indian-owned aircraft to 2018 and for the youngest Russian-owned Tu-142 to 2026.

    The Russian Navy will probably receive the basic upgrade variant as described above, while India intends to order a more advanced missile carrier configuration armed with eight subsonic Kh-35E anti-ship sea-skimming missiles or six Yakhont M supersonic missiles.


    These weapons are mounted on underwing pylons. The aircraft is equipped with a missile programming and launching system. The range of the aircraft carrying the missiles is reduced from 12,000km to 9,500km (with eight Kh-35E missiles) or to 7,500km (with six Yakhont M missiles). The Indian Navy is expected to use an indigenously developed variant of the Yakhont, the PJ 10 Brahmos and the air-launched version will be called Brahmos A.


    For more information go to:
    United States Code: Title 17,107. Limitations on exclusive rights: Fair use | LII / Legal Information Institute
     
  17. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    [​IMG]
     
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  18. bhramos

    bhramos Elite Member Elite Member

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    can these P-8I or Tu-142M be converted to Long Range Bombers for Carpet Bombing, like we did with AN-12 back in 1965 War!!!!
     
  19. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    What is the use of Carpet Bombing ?
     
  20. bhramos

    bhramos Elite Member Elite Member

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    may atleast bombing purpose, carrying 10-20 Brahmos missiles or any other!!!!!!!!
     
  21. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Don`t know about PJ-10, But Harpoon for sure, Now how many is up-to IN specs of the aircraft..
     

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