India ‘Has Lost’ Superbug War : Antibiotic Resistance in India

Discussion in 'Science and Technology' started by Singh, Nov 12, 2013.

  1. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011
    India ‘Has Lost’ Superbug War


    India has lost the war against the toughest forms of antibiotic resistance, largely because of poor sanitation, unregulated use of antibiotics and an absence of drug resistance monitoring, according to the man who discovered a type of drug resistance in bacteria in New Delhi.

    “All these factors add to why it’s going to be so difficult to deal with or even tackle [resistance], you won’t solve it, it’s over,” said Tim Walsh, professor of medical microbiology at Cardiff University in Wales.

    In 2010, Mr. Walsh discovered an enzyme that made disease-causing bacteria resistant to antibiotics. He named the enzyme “New Delhi Metallo 1” (NDM-1) and claims he was banned from working in India after the discovery.

    Bacteria carrying the NDM-1 enzyme are highly resistant to the most powerful group of antibiotics, known as carbopenems, making infections caused by them extremely difficult to treat.

    They can also transfer their resilience to other bacteria, including those that cause infections. “The rapidity and frequency of that transfer is something that we have never seen before in antibiotic resistance,” Mr. Walsh said.

    He estimates that up to 200 million Indians carry NDM-1 on the benign bacteria in their intestines. But a lack of research and scarcity of data make it difficult to gauge in terms of its transfer to disease causing bacteria.

    “We’ve failed to understand how NDM-1 spreads in the community,” Mr. Walsh said, adding that there is also very little understanding about the risks associated with being infected by a bacteria carrying NDM-1.

    “We’ve failed to understand what dominant clones are in hospital and we’ve failed to understand the risk post surgical infections,” he said.

    In almost three years since he published his research in the Lancet medical journal, Mr. Walsh says that India has failed to respond to the “urgent” need to regulate the sale and use of antibiotics, track the incidence of resistance or improve sanitation.

    Antibiotics are for sale without prescription in pharmacies in India and there are no national guidelines for clinicians on their use in hospitals. Bacterial diseases develop resistance to treatment with antibiotics when the drugs are wrongly used to treat viral infections or when a full course of drugs isn’t completed.

    Resistance makes infectious diseases more difficult or impossible to treat. Even simple urinary tract infections when caused by an NDM-1 carrying bacteria cannot be eradicated with antibiotics, Mr. Walsh said.

    When he published his findings in 2010 Walsh says his name “became mud” in political and scientific circles in India.

    “I named the gene after the capital of India which they [the government] weren’t too thrilled about,” he said. It is normal scientific practice to name genes after the cities in which they are found, he added.

    “We were banned from India and India had a massive clamp down on sending [biological] strains out,” Mr. Walsh said. “Indians were banned from working with me, or anybody in Europe the whole thing was a systematic campaign to control research into antibiotic resistance in India.”

    Neither the Ministry of Health nor the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization responded to requests for comment.

    Mr. Walsh says he received hate mail and was accused of working for the British secret service after he published further research in 2011 showing that NDM-1 existed in samples of tap water and pools of water in New Delhi streets.

    The scientist is now working on samples from Pakistan in order to study the impact of NDM-1 on bacteria. “In Pakistan the people want to work with us, and unlike India are completely transparent and open about their health problems,” he said.

    He added that the countries had vastly different economic capabilities for tackling the problem of resistance. “Whilst Pakistan can’t do anything about it economically, India can… But it chooses to do nothing,” he said.

    India ‘Has Lost’ Superbug War - India Real Time - WSJ
     
    chase and maomao like this.
  2.  
  3. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011
    Rs 30 crore drive to fight antibiotic-resistant germs

    NEW DELHI: With rising resistance of first and second generation antibiotic resistance in common bugs, the health ministry has approved a Rs 30-crore surveillance plan that includes setting up of 30 laboratories. The project will be undertaken initially in Delhi and then expanded to other states in a phased manner. The surveillance programme will include training of microbiologists, lab technicians, clinicians, pharmacists and others.

    Indiscriminate use of antibiotics has resulted in many pathogens turning unresponsive to first and second generation drugs. Stemming from this need is the establishment of the national programme on containment of anti-microbial resistance.


    According to a senior health ministry official, "Under this programme a network of 30 quality assured laboratories for anti-microbial resistance surveillance would be established. Each laboratory will be provided Rs 15-20 lakh for equipment, reagents and manpower per year."

    India's antibiotic policy drafted in 2011 in the wake of reports on enzyme metallo-beta lactamase 1 — first detected in a Swedish patient of Indian origin — has not been implemented. There have since been numerous reports on drug resistance, including claims by a Mumbai doctor of total drug resistance in TB bacteria that did not eventually pass scrutiny by the Indian health establishment and the World Health Organisation (WHO).

    The National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC) will monitor and review the programme. It will also establish the "national hospital infection control guidelines" that will be disseminated to hospitals for implementation.

    An awareness programme for dissemination of information about rational use of antibiotics has also been planned.

    According to the WHO, fragmented health services and lack of access to quality-assured medicines at an affordable price often leads patients to take incomplete courses of treatment or to resort to sub-standard medicines, which create ideal conditions for the selection of resistant organisms.

    While poor provider knowledge and a lack of standard treatment guidelines are key contributors to improper antimicrobial prescription practices, the problem stems from a complex interplay of factors to educate heathcare workers and general population.


    Rs 30 crore drive to fight antibiotic-resistant germs - Times Of India
     
    maomao likes this.
  4. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011
    Antibiotic resistance on the rise in India


    New Delhi: All antibiotics, tuberculosis drugs and other habit-forming medicines may soon have a label, warning users against over the counter medication, according to the latest draft notification by the Health Ministry.

    According to Public Health Foundation of India (PHFI), India records 70 thousand new multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases every year. India has already switched to using the second line drug Artemisinin for Malaria widely and nearly 5 per cent of all HIV/AIDS cases are drug resistant according to the WHO.

    There is also the larger burden of drug resistant bacterial infections, especially hospital infections. Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP) Director Dr Ramanan Laxminarayan said, "The fact is that we are soon approaching a stage where you as an individual will know someone who died of a drug resistant infection. Ten years ago we didn't really have much issues with carbo penum resistance in gram negatives and now we have in this class of bacteria called entrobacteria we have very common carbo penum resistance."


    Despite that, the government's proposed national antibiotic policy to curb drug resistance was shelved in October 2011. With that, measures like banning over-the-counter sale of third generation antibiotics and colour coding the antibiotics, were also shelved.

    Dr Laxminarayan added, "What we need is a policy that recognizes that some antibiotics should be provided easily to people OTC because not everyone has an access to a doctor. However more expensive antibiotics which are more powerful like carbo penums which are sold freely in Delhi those need to be restricted. If we focus only on the class I and class II metros, this is where much of the over use is happening, we don't need to go to rural areas to deal with our antibiotic problem."
    Second line drugs for HIV/AIDS are six times costlier and second line drugs for tuberculosis are a 100 times costlier than their first line drugs.

    Antibiotic resistance on the rise in India
     
    maomao likes this.
  5. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011


    Your Antibiotic is Sick: Bacteria are defying the most powerful medicines of all time. Is India ready for a world without antibiotics?


    The patient is going into shock. His blood pressure is falling. Antibiotics don't seem to work. "Dr Sumit Ray sprinted to the intensive care unit in response to the urgent call. He had dreaded this moment ever since the 22-year-old car crash victim was admitted to Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Delhi: His blood culture, done on admission, had detected bacteria specimens resistant to a range of antibiotics. Over the last five days, his head injury had healed but a spiking fever had appeared, suggesting infection. Through the glass wall, Ray, vice-chairman of critical care at the hospital, could see the ashen pallor that made the patient's face blend with the sheet. "He's sliding into a septic crisis. Soon, the infection will turn unstoppable," he sighed.
    Who can tell what germ is hiding in one's body, awaiting its chance to create havoc? A nagging fever that spikes to 103 degree celsius. Painful rashes that turn into pus-filled pockets. Black, bloody or tarry stool that just won't clear up. Swollen glands that look angry and enlarged. You know your antibiotic is not working if within 24-48 hours your body gives tell-tale signals of germs outsmarting drugs. If you don't pay heed, they will invade your bloodstream, driving you into a life-threatening crisis. Sounds like a science fiction nightmare but it's more real than you might think.


    Armed with antibiotics, 'miracle' drugs of the modern era, doctors today know practically no limits to the range of patients they can help. All that progress is suddenly being challenged by invisible legions of malevolent bacteria, one millionth of a milli-metre in size. Hospitals are turning into hotbeds of infection. And the drug development pipeline for new antibiotics is running dry the world over. India is in a particularly tight spot. Union Health Minister Ghulam Nabi Azad has faced fierce questioning during the current Budget Session of Parliament on the rising tide of antibiotic resistance (ABR) in the country. An urgent question hangs over the future: What if antibiotics do not work anymore?
    The World Health Organization (who) has raised alarm on the "serious, growing, and global threat" since 2010. At the 2013 World Economic Forum (WEF) at Davos in January, who Director General Margaret Chan warned that bacteria are becoming so resistant to common antibiotics that it could mean "the end of modern medicine as we know it". With ABR snuffing out 100,000 lives in America, 80,000 in China and 25,000 in Europe a year on average, wef considers it "one of the chief threats to human health" that the world is "mostly unprepared to cope with".

    Smart guys of evolution


    Alexander Fleming had cautioned even on the day he received the Nobel Prize for discovering penicillin in 1945 that antibiotics would lead to a bacterial backlash. In the history of life, bacteria are the smartest: They double in numbers every 20 minutes, with each bacterium creating 16 third-generation progeny in an hour. Every generation passes on to the next the genes essential for survival in a hostile atmosphere. "Antibiotics are tiny molecules that enter into bacteria cells to destroy them," says Sarala Balachandran, chief scientist with the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). "To protect themselves, bacteria mutate their genetic make-up." They multiply rapidly, passing on resistant genes to new generations. It's the Darwinian principle of natural selection. "If you don't finish a course of antibiotics, not all bacteria die and you are likely to get the resistant strains."
    Dimple Kumar, 20, of Patna nearly paid with her life for that one irresponsible habit: Not completing courses. It did not matter until she got blisters at her waist from tying salwars too tight, which caused an infection. For six months, doctors kept raising the antibiotic doses, but the infection continued to spread deep inside her tissues. She landed up in a hospital with pus-filled sores, swelling, high fever and falling blood pressure. After four surgeries in four weeks, a last resort antibiotic finally worked on her. "I was lucky. I could have died," she says.

    50 per cent antibiotics are overused and misused by physicians and patients globally.

    70 per cent ICU patients surveyed in India carry bacteria immune to multiple antibiotics.

    30 per centinfants die in India each year from germs that do not respond to antibiotics.

    95 per cent rise in pneumonia, blood and wound infections in last 10 years in India; can’t be cured by last-resort drugs.

    The hidden epidemic



    It was a deadly bacterial gene with a tongue-twisting name, New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase (NDM-1), that brought ABR first to public attention in 2010. Chennai microbiologist Karthikeyan Kumarasamy caused a medical uproar when, along with British researchers, he first reported in Lancet Infectious Diseases that NDM-1 infections were found in patients returning from India after medical treatment. NDM-1 makes a bacteria resistant to all known antibiotic-even carbapenem, known as the last resort. That unleashed a veritable war of words. The naming of the bug after Delhi was seen as an insult and the report was rubbished as an "alarmist" and "motivated" attack on India's booming medical tourism industry. "It's a growing menace," says Kumarasamy. "The Government should initiate a national survey and then institute an antibiotic policy. But nobody is listening."
    The hidden epidemic is upon us, says health economist Ramanan Laxminarayan, director of the Washington-based Center for Disease Dynamics, Economics & Policy (CDDEP). He has been preparing economic models of ABR for the last 16 years. "You must have noticed doctors now give longer courses and that antibiotics are becoming more expensive. That shows ABR is rising," he says. He entered the new field of "resistance economics" in 1996, fascinated by the stories he heard from his teachers. "Say, how the excessive use of penicillin on Vietnamese sex workers by US military troops to prevent gonorrhea made it totally resistant." But it was not until 10 years later that he started meeting people with ABR from simple injuries. "It has grown exponentially in the last 5-6 years. We are on a steep curve."

    A sign of the time: One million infants die in the first four weeks of life every year in India. Over 190,000 deaths occur due to bacteria in the blood. And 30 per cent of babies die of ABR, reports cddep. "Neonates stay in the sterile and safe atmosphere of the mother's womb and are hence very vulnerable to infections when exposed to the general population," says Laxminarayan. The most common source is the insanitary care of the umbilical cord. "With rising rates of drug-resistant bacteria in hospitals, they also pick up such germs. If such bacteria enter the blood, the chances of death are extremely high."

    Killer germs multiply



    Alarming snapshots are coming to the fore from across India: Neonates dying of ABR in the first four weeks of life; TB patients in metros not responding to any known antibiotics; rising ABR infections in hospitals; killer germs in tap water and drains in big cities; antibiotic contamination of rivers from pharma waste; use of antibiotics on livestock and crops that increases risk of resistance in humans; people without any history of disease showing inexplicable resistance to antibiotics in surveys.
    Meera Syal, 60, had gone to her local hospital in west Delhi last year for a routine check-up after an asthma attack. She just had a mild wheezing, but the doctor insisted on hospital admission to check her airways. The next morning, however, the family found her on ventilator. She had pneumonia, they were told, and would be fine in a few days. Instead, over the next few days, her temperature spiked, leading to a seizure. She never recovered. She had picked up a deadly, drug-resistant form of pneumonia bacteria from the ventilator. "It's a rising menace in Indian hospitals and the consequences are critical," says Dr Randeep Guleria, professor, department of medicine at AIIMS, Delhi.

    "This is an emergency no less than global warming, and calls for immediate redress," says microbiologist Dr Chand Wattal of Ganga Ram Hospital. Wattal and his colleagues studied 77,618 patients since 2002. The results show an alarming rise in ABR: Bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae, which damages human lungs, stopped reacting to last-resort drugs carbapenems-from 2.4 per cent to 52 per cent in a decade.

    Too casual about it


    Click here to Enlarge
    "Our attitude to antibiotics is too casual," says Dr K.S. Reddy, director of Public Health Foundation of India in Delhi. "They are cheap, easily available and can be picked up without prescription." Doctors grumble that patients stop coming to them if they don't prescribe antibiotics. A 2010 who survey reveals 53 per cent of Delhiites self-prescribe antibiotics; one in four skips the course once they feel better; and 18 per cent physicians prescribe antibiotics for common cold. The hard evidence came from Dr Anita Kotwani, pharmacologist with V.P. Chest Institute, Delhi University. Her 2011 study found that antibiotics form 39-43 per cent of drugs being sold in the city. Also, very powerful drugs, meant for hospital use, were being routinely dispensed, even for common infections. No wonder antibiotic consumption in India has gone up between 6 and 7 per cent annually since 2005. The fallout is worrying: In December 2012, for instance, amoxicillin-a standard formula for common cold in India-lost its efficacy, according to journal Lancet.
    Wattal blames the lack of focus on ABR in medical curricula: "Most doctors prescribe antibiotics in a knee-jerk reaction to any infection, which may not even be needed." Doctors have to take responsibility, feels Dr Raja Dhar, chest physician at Fortis Hospital in Kolkata. The reason most patients develop resistance is injudicious use of antibiotics, incorrect regimens, inappropriate addition-deletion of drugs, lack of compliance with medications, he says. "And doctors play a crucial role in shaping patient mindsets."

    Bad bugs, no drugs



    New antibiotics can help stave off the catastrophe. But since 1987, no major antibiotic has been discovered. "The science of antibiotics is complex," says D.G. Shah, secretary-general of the Indian Pharmaceutical Alliance. One needs to find different ways of hitting the bacteria. Such research is expensive and time-consuming. "It's not profitable for global big pharma as antibiotics are for short-term use," he says. "Blockbuster drugs for chronic illnesses that people take every day for as long as they live are more profitable." At the root of the crisis is a "patent cliff", a term coined for the sheer number of major drugs coming off patent between 2010 and 2014. Patents protect the rights of original makers of a branded drug for 20 years to sell it exclusively. Once it expires, others can make and sell cheaper versions. "Loss of revenues is the biggest challenge to R&D innovation."
    Are there measures we can take to make sure that the gains of modern medicine are not squandered? India needs an antibiotic policy and a national registry, inclusion of ABR in medical courses, monitoring of pharmacies so that antibiotics cannot be sold without prescription and ensuring infection-control protocols in hospitals. We are in a dangerous zone where life can end in any unexpected way: A nick from a shaving razor, a scrape from a fall, a rash from the swimming pool or a routine root canal. As Margaret Chan writes in the 2013 w.e.f report, "We're at the dawn of a post-antibiotic age."


    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]
    [​IMG]

    Read more at: Your Antibiotic is Sick: Bacteria are defying the most powerful medicines of all time. Is India ready for a world without antibiotics? : Cover Story - India Today
     
    W.G.Ewald, Known_Unknown and maomao like this.
  6. drkrn

    drkrn Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Apr 15, 2010
    Messages:
    2,455
    Likes Received:
    898
    Location:
    visakhapatnam
    a very good article indeed.but small corrections almost all infections i have seen till now are resistant to multiple drugs.not 70%

    its truly a hidden epidemic.on part of government to ban a scientist who revealed something bad,yet important is only a face saving move by killing peoples voice.the govt's if acted tough will directly dent the profits of pharmaceuticals,hence no such things are done
     
  7. The Messiah

    The Messiah Bow Before Me! Elite Member

    Joined:
    Aug 25, 2010
    Messages:
    10,788
    Likes Received:
    4,552
    Serves people right for taking antibiotics when its not needed.

    worst is when people take it for cold without realising that cold is viral and antibiotics only kills bacteria and not viruses :scared2:
     
  8. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

    Joined:
    Sep 28, 2011
    Messages:
    14,140
    Likes Received:
    8,528
    Location:
    North Carolina, USA
    Isn't a physician required to prescribe antibiotics? I mean, people don't just take them.
     
  9. Bangalorean

    Bangalorean Stars and Ambassadors Stars and Ambassadors

    Joined:
    Nov 28, 2010
    Messages:
    6,207
    Likes Received:
    6,497
    Not all antibiotics are "schedule H drugs". Some can be purchased over the counter. And we do have people who try self-medication.

    However, only a small minority does that. The real issue is that physicians in India prescribe antibiotics for the most frivolous reasons. They prescribe antibiotics almost as if it were a placebo. Doctors in India are seeing sense now, but they have done a lot of damage with this over-prescription of antibiotics.
     
    Tolaha and W.G.Ewald like this.
  10. kseeker

    kseeker Retired

    Joined:
    Jul 24, 2013
    Messages:
    2,515
    Likes Received:
    2,111
    Location:
    Bharatvarsh
    Superbugs could erase a century of medical advances, experts warn - The Times of India

    Drug-resistant "superbugs" represent one of the gravest threats in the history of medicine, leading experts have warned.

    Routine operations could become deadly "in the very near future" as bacteria evolve to resist the drugs we use to combat them. This process could erase a century of medical advances, say government doctors in a special editorial in The Lancet health journal.

    Although the looming threat of antibiotic, or anti-microbial, resistance has been known about for years, the new warning reflects growing concern that the NHS and other national health systems, already under pressure from ageing populations, will struggle to cope with the rising cost of caring for people in the "post-antibiotic era".

    In a stark reflection of the seriousness of the threat, England's deputy chief medical officer, Professor John Watson, said: "I am concerned that in 20 years, if I go into hospital for a hip replacement, I could get an infection leading to major complications and possible death, simply because antibiotics no longer work as they do now."

    About 35 million antibiotics are prescribed by GPs in England every year. The more the drugs circulate, the more bacteria are able to evolve to resist them. In the past, drug development kept pace with evolving microbes, with a constant production line of new classes of antibiotics. But the drugs have ceased to be profitable and a new class has not been created since 1987.

    Writing in The Lancet, experts, including England's chief medical officer, Dame Sally Davies, warn that death rates from bacterial infections "might return to those of the early 20th century". They write: "Rarely has modern medicine faced such a grave threat. Without antibiotics, treatments from minor surgery to major transplants could become impossible, and health-care costs are likely to spiral as we resort to newer, more expensive antibiotics and sustain longer hospital admissions."

    Strategies to combat the rise in resistance include cutting the amount of antibiotics prescribed, improving hospital hygiene and incentivising the pharmaceutical industry to work on novel antibiotics and antibiotic alternatives.

    However, a leading GP told The Independent on Sunday that the time had come for the general public to take responsibility. "The change needs to come in patient expectation. We need public education: that not every ill needs a pill," said Dr Peter Swinyard, chairman of the Family Doctor Association.

    "We try hard not to prescribe, but it's difficult in practice. The patient will be dissatisfied with your consultation, and is likely to vote with their feet, register somewhere else or go to the walk-in centre and get antibiotics from the nurse.

    "But if we go into a post-antibiotic phase, we may find that people with pneumonia will not be treatable with an antibiotic, and will die, whereas at the moment they would live.

    "People need to realise the link. If you treat little Johnny's ear infection with antibiotics, his mummy may end up dying of pneumonia. It's stark and it's, of course, not direct, but on a population-wide level, that's the kind of link we're talking about."

    There are no reliable estimates of what resistance could cost health systems in the future, but the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control believes that 1.5bn (£1.2bn) a year is already being spent on health problems associated with antibiotic resistance in Europe.

    Joanna Coast, professor of health economics at the University of Birmingham, said that the problem of resistance had the potential to "affect how entire health systems work".

    Professor Coast added: "We don't know how big this is going to be. It's like the problems with planning for global warming. We know what the costs are now but we don't know what the costs will be into the future.

    "Much of what we do in modern health system relies on us having antibiotics. We need them for prophylaxis for surgery, for people having chemotherapy for cancer. The worry is that it might make big changes to how we run our health system."

    Antibiotics are also used in vast quantities in agriculture, fisheries and by vets, the resulting environmental exposure adding to bacterial resistance, with further consequences for human health.

    Experts say that to meet demand without increasing resistance, drug companies will need to find new ways of financing antibiotic development that are not linked to expectations of large volume sales. Global health authorities such as the World Health Organisation have also warned that global drives to reduce antibiotic use must not harm access to life-saving drugs in poorer countries.

    Writing in The Lancet, Professor Otto Cars of Uppsala University in Sweden, and one of the world's leading experts on antibiotic resistance, said: "Antibiotic resistance is a complex ecological problem which doesn't just affect people, but is also intimately connected with agriculture and the environment.

    "We need to move on from 'blaming and shaming' among the many stakeholders who have all contributed to the problem, towards concrete political action and commitment to address this threat."
     
  11. BangersAndMash

    BangersAndMash Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 24, 2011
    Messages:
    748
    Likes Received:
    539
    Location:
    England
    I think it's fair to say GPs all around the world give out antibiotics like candy and even though they know and we read about infections becoming resistant to antibiotics, many GPs still continue to give them out like sweets. :scared2:
     
  12. drkrn

    drkrn Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Apr 15, 2010
    Messages:
    2,455
    Likes Received:
    898
    Location:
    visakhapatnam
    the problem is common indians think doctor is not good if not prescribed antibiotics even for common cold.

    i would be glad if one non medical indian in this forum says he wont use antibiotics without doctors prescription or expects doctors to give antibiotics for his illness

    problem is with general public.you know why,because we tend to compare it with our neighbours/friends who gets drugs a,b,c for a disease and you wont get one you call the doctor bad
     
  13. BangersAndMash

    BangersAndMash Regular Member

    Joined:
    Apr 24, 2011
    Messages:
    748
    Likes Received:
    539
    Location:
    England
    I think what you say is a universal problem, it's not just Indians.
     
    Free Karma likes this.
  14. drkrn

    drkrn Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Apr 15, 2010
    Messages:
    2,455
    Likes Received:
    898
    Location:
    visakhapatnam
  15. Tolaha

    Tolaha Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Nov 28, 2009
    Messages:
    2,158
    Likes Received:
    1,404
    Location:
    Bengaluru
    I don't think its just those people who take antibiotics when not needed are at risk. Other than during operations, I must have taken antibiotics just twice in my life. Even when the doctor prescribes it, I let him know that I wont be taking those antibiotics. Maybe you too do the same. Even then, we both are still at the same risk as the rest are when it comes to these superbugs. It's the bugs that are resistant to antibiotics and nothing to do with our body not having stronger immunity, as far as I have understood this issue!
     
  16. Razor

    Razor CIDs from Tamilnadu Senior Member

    Joined:
    Feb 7, 2011
    Messages:
    5,347
    Likes Received:
    4,488
    Location:
    ഭരതം (Bharatham)
    I understand what you say.
    But I think it also has something to do with each individual, else how would you explain the doctor prescribing a higher dose of antibiotics after a certain dosage stops having effects on you.
    PS: I have nearly no knowledge about the medicinal field. :)
     
  17. Tolaha

    Tolaha Senior Member Senior Member

    Joined:
    Nov 28, 2009
    Messages:
    2,158
    Likes Received:
    1,404
    Location:
    Bengaluru
    A body loosing it's immunity is something to do with each individual. But this issue is less to do with immunity. During surgeries, antibiotics are used to prevent bacterial infections. But due to rampant usage of antibiotics, there are strains of bacteria that have developed immunity against them. Thereby, any operation to an otherwise healthy individual, in an environment that contains these bacteria, can prove to be deadly, as far I have understood it.

    Understandable, not everyone can be like me, i.e, expert in aeronautics, astronomy.... medicine.... etc
     
    Razor likes this.
  18. Razor

    Razor CIDs from Tamilnadu Senior Member

    Joined:
    Feb 7, 2011
    Messages:
    5,347
    Likes Received:
    4,488
    Location:
    ഭരതം (Bharatham)
    Black silicon could germ-proof the world – study

    http://rt.com/news/germ-killing-nano-surface-silicon-388/
     
    Singh likes this.
  19. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011
    If you dont take antibiotics but people around you do, then the germs that will hit you will be antibiotic resistant too.

    Antibiotics are necessary but they should be used in a manner which prevents resistance.

    One technique is to use multiple antibiotic types together, its more difficult for bacteria to evolve resistance to different classes at once.

    Another way is to restrict use of a particular class for a few decades, bacteria tends to lose resistance because of their quick evolution cycle.

    Every year at least 200,000 adults die because of antibiotic resistance in the Western World.






    Sent from my iPhone using Tapatalk 2
     
  20. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011
  21. Singh

    Singh Phat Cat Administrator

    Joined:
    Feb 23, 2009
    Messages:
    20,305
    Likes Received:
    8,270
    Location:
    011
    Major breakthrough in the fight against antibiotic resistance announced

    UK’s pioneering Helperby Therapeutics and Cadila in ground-breaking joint antibiotic drug resistance research and development agreement

    UK-based drug discovery company Helperby Therapeutics has announced a major breakthrough in the fight against resistance with the discovery of patented ‘resistance breaker’ compounds. Announcing the discovery as it inks its first licensing deal with Indian pharmaceutical giant Cadila Pharmaceuticals, Professor Anthony Coates, Chief Scientific Officer, Helperby said, “The emergence and spread of drug-resistant pathogens has accelerated whilst the pipeline for new anti-microbial drugs has all but run dry - this exciting and timely partnership with Cadila offers us all hope.”

    The announcement comes as the World Health Organisation’s Director General, Margaret Chan warns that a post-antibiotic era means, in effect, an end to modern medicine as we know it noting “Things as common as strep throat or a child’s scratched knee could once again kill.”

    Helperby, a spin-out of the UK’s University of London St George’s, has been working for the past 12 years on ways to tackle antibiotic resistance and has discovered a new series of potent, fast-acting drugs which rescue old antibiotics. Instead of targeting multiplying bacteria, the research team focused on non-multiplying, dormant bacteria. Developing antibiotics that specifically target these root-like bacteria has never been done before - in fact conventional methods of screening have consistently missed these promising candidate drugs.

    The lead compound, HT61, has proven effective at phase II where, combined with an existing antibiotic it boosted the effect of the old antibiotic. HT61 depolarises the bacterial cell membrane boosting the anti-Staphylococcal effect of an old antibiotic for the decolonisation of the nose prior to hospitalisation. This demonstrated that it is feasible to boost the effect of old antibiotics in humans – in essence a rejuvenated range of existing antibiotics. HT61 also renders a number of old antibiotics active against highly resistant bacteria- hence the name Antibiotic Resistance Breaker.

    Cadila will take the compound through phase III, approvals and into commercialisation. Helperby will supply Cadila with Antibiotic Resistance Breakers whilst Cadila will develop the combinations with old antibiotics. It is now actively considering a presence in the UK with a corresponding programme for UK microbiologists as part of the collaboration. The licensing agreement will allow Cadila Pharmaceuticals to bring the first product to market in around 18months.

    Travelling with the UK’s Trade Delegation to India led by David Cameron, Prime Minister, UK, the deal value was undisclosed but could contribute to Helperby scaling up in the UK to a potential £500m operation, creating between 500-1000 by 2019.

    Prime Minister Cameron said “The life sciences industry is the jewel in the crown for the UK economy, consistently growing and achieving new breakthroughs. Today’s deal between Helperby and Cadila Pharmaceuticals on antibiotic resistance research is another great example of UK-India collaboration helping both our countries to succeed in the global race. And it’s not just a step forward for medical research it also has the potential to create up to 1,000 highly skilled jobs in the UK by 2019.”

    Dr Rajiv I Modi, Chairman and Managing Director, Cadila added, “This discovery will open new avenues against resistant organisms and is timely in view of global concerns about rapidly growing bacterial resistance against current antibiotics. Cadila Pharmaceutical’s collaboration with Helperby can help the mankind win the battle against the microbes and hopefully save millions of lives in coming years.”


    Major breakthrough in the fight against antibiotic resistance announced - Express Pharma Online

    Cadila is awesome.
     

Share This Page