The Greatest Kings in Indian History

Discussion in 'Religion & Culture' started by Bhoja, Oct 8, 2011.

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Who is the Greatest King in Indian History?

  1. Chandragupta Maurya

    81 vote(s)
    35.5%
  2. Ashoka

    35 vote(s)
    15.4%
  3. Raja Chola

    24 vote(s)
    10.5%
  4. Akbar

    15 vote(s)
    6.6%
  5. Sri Krishna Devaraya

    13 vote(s)
    5.7%
  6. Chatrapati Shivaji

    33 vote(s)
    14.5%
  7. Tipu Sultan

    5 vote(s)
    2.2%
  8. Ranjith Singh

    6 vote(s)
    2.6%
  9. Samudra Gupta

    5 vote(s)
    2.2%
  10. Chandragupta Vikramaditya

    8 vote(s)
    3.5%
  11. Harsha

    1 vote(s)
    0.4%
  12. Kanishka

    2 vote(s)
    0.9%
  1. Kharavela

    Kharavela Regular Member

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    What about who defeated Greeks ?

    Mahameghavahan Aira Kharavela not only defeated Greek army thoroughly, he kicked their ass all the way from Mathura to Hindukush.

    Inscriptions at Hatigumpha shed some light on military might of Emperor Kharavela.
    Infantry was around 3 lakhs, Cavalry was to the tune of 1 lakh.

    Just imagine an Army of 4 lakh marching through during first century BCE.
     
  2. nirranj

    nirranj Regular Member

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    I have limited knowledge about him. But I will read about him to redeem myself! Thanks for pointing out. Who ever had defeated a foreign invader or took our values to a foreign land are a source of inspiration for me!
     
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  3. asingh10

    asingh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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  4. asingh10

    asingh10 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Speaking of Harsha, during his reign China had attacked India owning to some internal weaknesses, something that most Indians have probably not heard of. According to Nehru, China and India had never fought a war through 2,000 years of history, and therefore a war between the two neighbours was impossible. Mao, on the other hand, is cited by Mr. Kissinger as telling his commanders that India & China had in fact, fought "one-and-a-half" wars before 1962 : first one 1,300 years earlier during Harsha's reign when the Tang dynasty had sent troops to aid one Indian kingdom against its rival and a "half war" when Mongol ruler Timurlane sacked Delhi. Half because back then Mongolia and China were part of the same political entity.

    It's interesting that Mao wasn't aware of the more recent Sino-Sikh wars in 19th century under General Zorawar Singh Kahluria. Nor did he consider the wars with Kanishka (Kushan empire), or the wars with Indianized kingdoms of Uttarpatha(Central Asia), both of which happened before Harsha.

    [​IMG]
     
  5. Kharavela

    Kharavela Regular Member

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    Two corrections:

    1) Mahameghavahan Aira Kharavela was from Chedi (चेदी) dynasty. Mahameghavahan was his title meaning the Great One who uses clouds as his ride.

    2) Pushyamitra Shunga surrendered before Emperor Kharavela & returned "Kalinga Jin".

    In this Jungle, we are intolerant of #Presstitutes
     
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  6. Screambowl

    Screambowl Senior Member Senior Member

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    This is time to march and create buffer point somewhere close to Iran.

    Alexander started its adventure because Greek was facing invasions after invasions. So he took the army and went fighting till India. So that for the next 2000 years there is no threat erupts and if erupts , it is finished far away from Greek.
     
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  7. Indian Devil

    Indian Devil Regular Member

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    The greatest king of world history according to me is SamudraGupta
     
  8. Indian Devil

    Indian Devil Regular Member

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    The greatest king of world history according to me is SamudraGupta
     
  9. Kshatriya87

    Kshatriya87 Senior Member Senior Member

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    I respect all honorable kings. They all did their part. But King Shivaji makes me feel like worshipping him. He was the only wall standing in between the Mughals and Indians. He took the battle to them when the war was almost lost. All of India would have been a big chunk of Islamic land if not for him. He gave the Mughal kings sleepless nights and never gave them enough time to recover from the injuries.

    Not only defending India, but he also used to respect his citizens a lot. Especially his soldiers. And now look at the true Indian culture. Even when he was the King, he and all others respected and kept the word of his mother more. That is Indian culture. Not like these Mughals who killed and imprisoned their families just to secure the throne.
     
  10. k murali

    k murali Regular Member

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    Why C. N. Annadurai and Mu Karunabidhi are missing in tghis list of leading thinkers
     
  11. rockey 71

    rockey 71 Regular Member

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    Indian history? Should be SA history. Or History of Hindustan. India itself is a foreign term.
     
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  12. k murali

    k murali Regular Member

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    Not only foreign term it is the creation of foreigners.
     
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  13. archie

    archie Regular Member

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    Those two are the ones that started the end of tamil nadu.. and see the slave mentality... these are politicians not Monarchs or kings...
     
  14. Tactical Frog

    Tactical Frog Regular Member

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    I like Ashoka .. as a foreigner we hear too little of India' s long history. Ashoka is famous for his efforts to end the reign of violence on Earth , protect living animals and trees. He is part of mankind heritage.
     
  15. Bornubus

    Bornubus Senior Member Senior Member

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    Not at all,how can Ashoka be a greatest king of India.May be you are talking from a moral and human values POV.

    Ashoka brought all the ills and feminism in the indian monarchy that we couldn't recover it for thousands of years until Indvaders occupy this land.

    How can a ruler profess non violence,vegetarianism and look down on imperialism which is a prominent dharma of Kshtriya (ruler).All great rulers of India vehemently undertook military campaign and conducted Ashmedha ritual for ex Samudra Gupta.

    IMO Our greatest kings were Prithviraj Chauhan, Chandra Gupta Maurya, Samudra gupta, Ranjit Singh and Maharana Pratap.
     
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  16. VaghaDeva

    VaghaDeva The Wise Wolf

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    Perhaps you can encourage peacefulness but you cannot end violence also even though ashoka bitched out after kalinga and may have caused that fall of the empire due to his policies we still got to be the "heavenly kingdom" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tianzhu_(India)
     
  17. Panjab47

    Panjab47 सर्वाग्रेक्षत्रियाजट्टादेवकल्पादृढ़व्रता|੧੫| Banned

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    @VaghaDeva obviously Ksytrias will fight for fun but, in terms of attackign civilians etc you can stop that by destroying melechas & making everyone follow dharam.
     
  18. VaghaDeva

    VaghaDeva The Wise Wolf

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    best south indian kings
    [​IMG]

    Obviously Krishnadevaraya is the best king from the south. Without him the entire south would have been under the influence of the Delhi sultanate and would have been turned into a second UP because of him not a single city in dravida has a persianised name save for telangana

    http://www.eng.utah.edu/~banerjee/Ebooks/Vijayanagar.pdf



    Krishnadevaraya (IAST Kṛṣṇa Deva Rāya) was the greatest emperor of the Vijayanagara Empire who reigned from 1509–1530.[2]He is the third ruler of the Tuluva Dynasty. Presiding over the empire at its zenith, he is regarded as an icon by many Indians. Krishna Deva Raya earned the titles Kannada Rajya Rama Ramana (lit, "Lord of the Kannada empire"), Andhra Bhoja and Mooru Rayara Ganda (lit, "King of three Kings"). He became the dominant ruler of the peninsula of India by defeating the Sultans of Bijapur, Golconda, the Bahmani Sultanate and the Raja of Odisha. The great south Indian mathematician Nilakantha Somayaji also lived in the Empire of Krishnadevaraya.[3] He was the most powerful of all the Hindu rulers of India at that time.[4] Indeed, when the MughalBabur was taking stock of the potentates of north India, Krishnadevaraya was rated the most powerful and had the most extensive empire in the subcontinent.[5]

    Portuguese travellers Domingo Paes and Fernao Nuniz also visited the Vijayanagara Empire during his reign. Krishna Deva Raya benefited from the able prime minister Timmarusu, who was regarded by the emperor as a father figure and was responsible for his coronation. Krishna Deva Raya was the son of Tuluva Narasa Nayaka,[6] an army commander under Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya, who later took control of the empire to prevent its disintegration and became the founder of the Tuluva Dynasty, the third HinduDynasty to rule Vijayanagara. The emperor's coronation took place on the birthday of Hindu God Krishna. He built a beautiful suburb near Vijayanagara called Nagalapura.The king was of medium height, had a cheerful disposition, and was reputed to be respectful to foreign visitors, ruthless in maintaining the law, and prone to fits of anger. He maintained himself to a high level of physical fitness through daily exercises. Travelogues indicate that the king was not only an able administrator, but also an excellent general, leading from the front in battle and even attending to the wounded. The Telugu poet Mukku Timmana Nandi Thimmana praised him as the destroyer of the Turks.[7]



    Contents

    Foreign affairs[edit]
    The rule of Krishna Deva Raya marks a period of much military success in Vijayanagara history. On occasion, the king was known to change battle plans abruptly and turn a losing battle into victory. The first decade of his rule was one of long sieges, bloody conquests and victories. He reorganized the army and recruited his troopers from several south Indian communities like Kabbili, Morasa and Tulu in order to make his cavalry efficient in the encounters against the Turks.[8] His main enemies were the Bahamani Sultans (who, though divided into five small kingdoms, remained a constant threat), the Gajapatis of Odisha, who had been involved in constant conflict since the rule of Saluva Narasimha Deva Rayaand the Portuguese, a rising maritime power which controlled much of the sea trade. The feudal chiefs of Ummattur, Reddys of Kondavidu andVelamas of Bhuvanagiri who rebelled against Vijayanagar rule were conquered and subdued.

    Success in Deccan[edit]
    The annual affair of the raid and plunder of Vijayanagar towns and villages by the Deccan sultans came to an end during the Raya's rule. He defeated the last remnant of Bahmani Sultanate power which led to the collapse of the Bahmani Sultanate.[9] In 1509 Krishnadevaraya's armies clashed with the Sultan of Bijapur at Diwani and the Sultan Mahmud was severely injured and defeated. Yusuf Adil Khan was killed and the Raichur Doab was annexed. Taking advantage of the victory and the disunity of the Bahamani Sultans, the Raya invaded Bidar, Gulbarga and Bijapur and earned the title "establisher of the Yavana kingdom" when he released Sultan Mahmud and made him de facto ruler. The title advertised the boast that he was now the political arbiter of all the Deccan.[10] The Sultan of Golconda Sultan Quli Qutb Shah was defeated by Timmarusu who was the prime minister of Sri Krishnadevaraya.

    War with Feudatories[edit]
    He subdued local rulers and Velamas of Bhuvanagiri who were the feudatory of Gajapati kings of Odisha, and seized lands up to the Krishna river. Ganga Raja, the Ummattur chief, fought Krishna Deva Raya on the banks of the Kaveri and was defeated. The chief later drowned in the Kaveri in 1512. The region was made a part of the Srirangapatna province. In 1516-1517, he pushed beyond the Godavari river.

    War with Kalinga[edit]
    The Surya Vamsi Gajapatis of Odisha ruled a vast land comprising Andhra region, most of Telangana region, the whole of Odisha, parts of present West Bengal, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh. Krishna Deva Raya's success at Ummatur provided the necessary impetus to carry his campaign into the Telangana region which was in control of Gajapati Prathapa Rudra Dev. The Vijayanagar army laid siege to the Udayagiri fort in 1512. The campaign lasted for a year before the Gajapati army disintegrated due to starvation. Krishna Deva Raya offered prayers at Tirupati thereafter along with his wives Tirumala Devi and Chinnamma Devi. The Gajapati army was then met at Kondaviduraju where the armies of Vijayanagara, after establishing a siege for a few months and heavy with initial defeats began to retreat, until Timmarusu upon discovering a secret entrance to the unguarded eastern gate of the fort launched a night attack culminating with the capture of the fort and the imprisonment of the greatest swordsman of his time, Prince Virabhadra, the son of Gajapati Emperor of Kalinga-Utkal,Gajapati Prataprudra Deva. Saluva Timmarasa took over as governor of Kondavidu thereafter. The Vijayanagar army then accosted the Gajapati army at Kondapalli area and laid another siege. Krishnadevaraya then planned for an invasion of mainland Kalinga-Utkal but the Gajapati Emperor, Prataparudra, privy of this plan had built up a strategy to rout the Vijayanagara army and along with it its king, Krishnadevaraya. The confrontation was to happen at the fort of Kalinganagar. But the wily Timmarasu secured the information by bribing a Telugu deserter, formerly under the service of the mighty Prataprudra deva. Prataprudra was driven to Cuttack, the capital of the Gajapati empire and eventually surrendered to Vijaynagar, giving his daughter Princess Annapurna Devi in marriage to Sri Krishna Deva Raya. As per treaty Krishna river became boundary of Vijaynagar and Odisha Kingdom.

    Krishna Deva Raya established friendly relations with the Portuguese, who set up the Portuguese Dominion of India in Goa in 1510. The Emperor obtained guns and Arabian horses from the Portuguese merchants. He also utilized Portuguese expertise in improving water supply to Vijayanagara City.

    Final conflict[edit]


    The complicated alliances of the empire and the five Deccan sultanates meant that he was continually at war, in one of these campaigns, he defeated Golconda and captured its commander Madurul-Mulk, crushed Bijapur and its Sultan Ismail Adil Shah and restored Bahmani sultanate to Muhammad Shah.

    The highlight of his conquests occurred on 19 May 1520 where he secured the fortress of Raichur from Ismail Adil Shah of Bijapur after a difficult siege during which 16,000 Vijayanagar soldiers were killed. The exploits of the chief military commander, Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayudu, during the battle of Raichur were suitably rewarded by the grateful emperor. During the campaign against Raichur, it is said that 703,000 foot soldiers, 32,600 cavalry and 551 elephants were used (See The battle of Raichur). Finally, in his last battle, he razed to the ground the fortress of Gulburga, the early capital of the Bahmani sultanate. His empire extended over the whole of South India.

    In 1524 he made his son Tirumala Raya the Yuvaraja though the crown prince did not survive for long. He was poisoned to death. Suspecting the involvement of Timmarasu, Krishna Deva Raya had his trusted commander and adviser blinded. At the same time, Krishnadevaraya was preparing for an attack on Belgaum that was in the Adil Shah’s possession; Krishnadevaraya took seriously ill. He died soon after in 1529.

    Before his death, he nominated his brother, Achyuta Deva Raya as his successor. The rule of Krishnadevaraya was a glorious chapter in the history of Vijayanagara Empire. Even the ruins at Hampi tell the glorious tale of that mighty empire.

    Internal affairs[edit]
    During his reign he kept a strict control over his ministers who were severely punished for any misdeeds.[11] He abolished some of the obnoxious taxes such as the marriage fee.[11] To increase the revenue he brought new lands under cultivation by ordering deforestation of some areas.[11] A large-scale work to obtain water for irrigation around Vijayanagar was also undertaken by him.[12] He was tolerant of all religions and showed respect towards Islam and Christianity.[13] Foreign travelers such as Paes, Nunez and Barbosa who visited Vijayanagar speak highly of the efficiency of administration and prosperity of the people during his reign.[11] In spite of his preoccupations with the defense and reorganization of the territories conquered by him, he founded a new town called Nagalapur. Paes summarises the king's attitude to matters of law and order by the sentence, "The king maintains the law by killing." Offences against property (designed to maintain stability) and for murder ranged from cutting of a foot and hand for theft and beheading for murder (except for those occurring as a result of duel). Paes could not estimate the size of Vijayanagar as his view was obscured by the hills but estimated the city to be at least as large as Rome. Furthermore, he considered Vijayanagar to be "the best provided city in the world" with a population of not less than a half a million. The empire was divided into a number of provinces often under members of the royal family and into further subdivisions. The administrative languages of the Empire were Kannada and Telugu.[14] Telugu was a popular literary medium, reaching its peak under the patronage of Krishnadevaraya.

    Sewe I remarks that Krishna Deva Raya was not only a monarch de jure, but he was also a de facto sovereign with extensive powers and strong personal influence. With the active cooperation of Prime Minister Timmarasu he administered the Kingdom well, maintained peace in the land and increased the prosperity of the people

    The administration of the empire was carried on along the lines indicated in his Amuktamalyada. He was the opinion that the King should always rule with an eye towards Dharma. His concern for the welfare of the people is amply proved by his extensive annual tours all over the empire, during which he studied everything personally and tried to redress the grievances of the people and to punish the evil doers. With regard to the promotion of the economic progress of his people, Krishnadevaraya says:" The extent of the kingdom is the means for the acquisition of wealth.[15] Therefore even if the land is limited in extent, excavate tanks and canals and increase the prosperity of the poor by leasing him the land for low ari and koru, so that you may obtain wealth as well as religious merit."[15]

    The Portuguese Chronicler Domingo Paes praises Krishna Deva Raya as, “the most feared and perfect King… a great ruler and a man of much justice”. Though a follower ofVaishnavism he showed respect to all sects, and petty religious prejudices never influenced him, either in granting gifts or in his choice of companions and officers. According to Barbosa, “The King allows such freedom that every man may come and go, live according to his own creed, without suffering any annoyance”.

    Art and literature[edit]
    [​IMG]
    Vitthala temple with musical pillars, Hoysala style multigonal base Hampi
    The rule of Krishna Deva Raya was an age of prolific literature in many languages, although it is also known as a golden age of Telugu literature. Many Telugu, Sanskrit, Kannada and Tamil poets enjoyed the patronage of the emperor. Emperor Krishna Deva Raya was fluent in many languages. There remains a debate whether he was a Telugu, Kannadiga[16] or Tuluva by lineage.[17] His mastery and love of Telugu language and literature, preference to Telugu nobles in his court, preponderance of Telugu speaking commanders and warriors in his army owe much to his mother's influence.

    The poet Muku Timmana praised him as a great general and stated: "O Krishnaraya, you Man-Lion. You destroyed the Turks from far away with just your great name`s power. Oh Lord of the elephant king, just from seeing you the multitude of elephants ran away in horror.[7]

    Kannada literature[edit]
    He patronised Kannada poets Mallanarya who wrote Veera-saivamruta, Bhava-chinta-ratna and Satyendra Chola-kathe, Chatu Vittal-anatha who wrote Bhagavata, Timmanna Kavi who wrote a eulogy of his king in Krishna Raya Bharata.[18][19] Vyasatirtha, the great saint from Mysore belonging to the Madhwaorder of Udupi was his Rajaguru.[20] Krishna Deva Rayana Dinachari in Kannada is a recently discovered work.[21] The record highlights the contemporary society during Krishna Deva Raya's time in his personal diary. However it is not yet clear if the record was written by the king himself.

    Telugu literature[edit]
    Government of India issued a stamp to commemorate Sri Krishna Deva Raya. Krishna Deva Raya’s reign is considered the golden age of Telugu literature. Eight poets known asAstadiggajalu (eight elephants in the eight cardinal points such as North, South etc.) were part of his court (known as Bhuvana-vijayamu). According to the Vaishnavite religion there are eight elephants in eight corners in space and hold the earth in its place. Similarly these eight poets were the eight pillars of his literary assembly. Who constitutedAshtadiggajas is not certain. But, it is popularly believed to include these : Allasani Peddana, Nandi Thimmana, Madayyagari Mallana, Dhurjati, Ayyala-raju Rama-Bhadrudu,Pingali Surana, Ramaraja Bhushanudu and Tenali Rama Krishna.

    Among these eight poets Allasani Peddana is considered to be the greatest and is given the title of Andhra Kavita Pitamaha (the father of Telugu poetry). Manu-charitramu which was patronised to Sri Krishna Devaraya is his popular prabandha work. Nandi Timmana wrote Paari-jaata-apaharan-amu. Madayya-gari Mallana wrote Raja-sekhara Charitramu.Dhurjati wrote Kalahasti Mahatyamu and Ayyal-raju Rama-bhadrudu wrote Rama-abhyuday-amu. Pingali Surana wrote the still remarkable Raghava-pandaveeyamu, a dual work with double meaning built into the text, describing both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Bhattumurty alias Rama-raja-bhushanudu wrote Kavyalankara-sangrahamu, Vasu-charitramu, and Harischandra-nalopakhyanamu. Among these works the last one is a dual work which tells simultaneously the story of King Harishchandra and Nala andDamayanti. Tenali Ramakrishna first wrote Udbhataradhya Charitramu, a Shaivite work and later wrote Vaishnava devotional texts Pandu-ranga Mahatmyamu, and Ghatikachala Mahatmyamu. The period of the Empire is known as “Prabandha Period,” because of the quality of the prabandha literature produced during this time. Tenali Ramakrishna remains one of the most popular folk figures in India today, a quick-witted courtier ready even to outwit the all-powerful emperor. Among Dhurjati's works, a set of poems rather a collection of 100 poems called the "srikalahastheeshwara satakamu" (satakamu means set of 100 poems) is the most famous.

    Amuktamalyada[edit]
    Visit to Andhra Vishnu Temple[edit]
    Once the Vijayanagara emperor Sri Krishnadevaraya was travelling via Vijayawada during his Kalinga campaign (c. 1516). He had conquered Vijayawada, kondapalli fort and the surrounding areas. He came to know about the holy temple of Śrī Āndhra Viṣhṇu and visited Srikakulam village for a few days. He performed the Ekadasi Vratam during that time. It is here that Lord Śrī Āndhra Viṣhṇu in all his glory appeared to the emperor in an early morning dream ("neela mEGhamu DAlu Deelu sEyaga jAlu….").[22] WithinĀmuktamālyada itself it was mentioned that on a Harivāsara, Sri Krishnadevaraya had the Darsana of Śrī Āndhra Maha Viṣhṇu. Harivāsara is the time between the last 4muhurtas of Ekadasi and the first 4 muhurtas of Dwadasi, i.e., 6 hours and 24 minutes. This incident of visiting the temple must be between Ahobilam Śaasanam (dated December 1515) and Simhāchalam Śaasanam (dated 30 March 1515). Maybe January 1516, he might have visited the temple on the Dvadasi day. Beyond this no other valid references are available for exact date of visit.[23]

    Sri Krishnadevaraya himself recounts the circumstances of this work's composition as,

    Sometime ago, I was determined to conquer the Kalinga territory. On the way, I camped for a few days with my army at Vijayawada. Then I went to visit Andhra Vishnu, who lives in Srikakula. Observing the fast of the Vishnu's Day (Dvadasi), in the fourth and last watch of that God's night (Harivaasaram), Andhra Vishnu came to me in my dream. His body was a radiant black, blacker than the rain cloud. His eyes wise and sparkling, put the lotus to shame. He was clothed in the best golden silk, finer still than the down on his eagle's wings. The red sunrise is pale compared to ruby on his chest.[24]

    Lord Śrī Viṣhṇu's instruction to commence work in Telugu[edit]
    Lord Śrī Viṣhṇu told him to compose the story of his wedding with Andal at Srirangam ("rangamandayina penDili seppumu.."). From 14th poem of this work we can see that the, Lord also ordered the emperor to tell the story in Telugu and referred himself as King of Telugus (Telugu Vallabhunḍa) and refers Sri Krishnadevaraya as Kannada King (Kannaḍa Rāya). (...nEnu delugu raayanDa, kannaDa raaya!, yakkodunangappu....). The Lord reasoned "telugadElayanna, dESambu telugu. yEnu telugu vallaBhunDa. telugo kanDa.…. yerugavE bAsADi, dESa BhAShalandu telugu lessa!" The emperor obliged and composed Amuktamalyada which is one of the most famous poetic works in the entire Telugu literature.[25]

    “ తెలుఁగ దేల యెన్న దేశంబు దెలుఁగేను
    తెలుఁగు వల్లభుండఁ తెలుఁగొకండ
    యెల్ల నృపులు గొలువ నెరుఁగవే బాసాడి
    దేశభాషలందుఁ తెలుఁగు లెస్స ”
    — శ్రీ ఆంధ్ర విష్ణు
    “ telugadElayanna, dESambu telugEnu
    telugu vallaBhunDa telugokanDa
    yella nRpulu golva nerugavE bAsADi
    dESa BhAShalandu telugu lessa ”
    — Śrī Viṣhṇu's reason on why Āmuktamālyada should be written in telugu by Sri Krishnadevaraya
    Meaning: "If you ask, 'Why Telugu?' It is because this is Telugu country and I am a Telugu king. Telugu is one of a kind. After speaking with all the kings that serve you, didn’t you realize-amongst all the regional languages, Telugu is the best!"[26]

    Content[edit]
    Sri Krishna Deva Raya's Āmuktamālyada beautifully describes the pangs of separation (viraha) suffered by Sri Andal (incarnation of Mother Goddess Sri Mahalakshmi venerated as Sri Bhoomi Devi, the Goddess of Earth and the divine consort of Almighty Sriman Narayana) Andal (one of the twelve bhakti-era alwars) for her lover Lord Vishnu. He describes Andal’s physical beauty in thirty verses in keśādi-pādam style, starting with her hair and extending down her body to her feet. As elsewhere in Indian poetry - seeSringara - the sensual pleasure of union extends beyond the physical level and becomes a path to, and a metaphor for, spirituality and ultimate union with the divine.

    One of the main characters is Periyalvar, the father of Andal. Lord Vishnu in the form of Sri Mannaru Swami of Sri Villiputtur commands Periyalwar to teach a king of the Pandyadynasty the path of knowledge to moksha. Amuktamalyada is also known by the name Vishnu-chitteeyam, a reference to Vishnu-chittudu, the Telugu name of Vishnuchittar aka Periyalwar. Several other short stories are included in Amuktamalyada in the course of the main story of Godadevi, including the story of a brahma-rakshasa and an untouchable devotee (Maladasari Katha). The Sanskrit name Amuktamalyada means the one who gives a garland that has been put on and taken off. Krishna Deva Raya was also well-versed in Sanskrit, Tamil and Kannada. Jambavati Kalyanamu is his Sanskrit work.[27]

    Tamil literature[edit]
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    Tamil inscription of Krishnadevaraya, Severappoondi
    Krishna Deva Raya patronised the Tamil poet Haridasa and Tamil literature soon began to flourish as the years passed by.[28]

    Sanskrit literature[edit]
    In Sanskrit, Vyasatirtha wrote Bhedo-jjivana, Tat-parya-chandrika, Nyaya-mrita (a work directed against Advaita philosophy) and Tarka-tandava. Krishna Deva Raya himself an accomplished scholar wrote Madalasa Charita, Satyavadu Parinaya and Rasamanjari andJambavati Kalyana.[29][30][31]

    Religion and culture[edit]


    Krishna Deva Raya respected all sects of Hinduism and lavished on the Tirumala Venkateswara Temple numerous objects of priceless value, ranging from diamond studded crowns to golden swords. Additionally, he is known to have commissioned the making of statues of himself and his two wives at the temple complex.These statues are still visible at the temple at the exit. He also contributed in building parts of Srisailam temple complex.



    Krishna Deva Raya was formally initiated into the Vaishnava Sampradaya by Vyasatirtha.[32] He patronised poets and scholars inKannada, Telugu, Tamil and Sanskrit.

    Sri Vyasatirtha was his Kula-Guru.


    and rajendra chola because he established the biggest naval emipre in Indian history
    Rajendra Chola I

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    Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor who is considered one of the greatest rulers and military generals of India. He succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I in 1014 CE. During his reign, he extended the influence of the Chola empire to the banks of the river Ganga in North India and across the Indian ocean to the West, making the Chola Empire as one of the most powerful empires of India.[5][6] Rajendra’s conquests included the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and he successfully invaded the territories of Srivijaya in Malaysia, Southern Thailand and Indonesia in South East Asia.[5][7] The Cholas exacted tribute from Thailand and the Khmer kingdom of Cambodia. He defeated Mahipala, the Pala king of Bengal and Bihar, and to commemorate his victory he built a new capital city called Gangaikonda Cholapuram.[8][9]



    Contents
    [hide]


    Early life and ascension[edit]
    Rajendra Chola I was the son of Rajaraja Chola and Thiripuvana Madeviyar, princess of Kodumbalur. He was born on Thiruvathirai in the Tamil month of Aadi. He was originally called Maduranthagan. He spent most of his childhood in Palayarai and was brought up by his aunt Kundavai and great-grandmother Sembian Madevi. He was made the co-regent in 1012 CE.[10] Rajendra formally ascended the Chola throne in 1014 CE. In 1018 CE, he installed his eldest son Rajadhiraja Chola I as the crown prince.[10]

    Military conquests[edit]
    Early campaigns[edit]
    Rajendra led Chola campaigns from 1002 CE. These include the conquest of the Rashtrakutas and the campaigns against theWestern Chalukyas. He conquered the Chalukyan territories of Yedatore (a large part of the Raichur district between the Krishna and the Tungabhadra), Banavasi in the north-west of Mysore and capital Manyakheta. Rajendra erected a Siva temple at Bhatkal. In 1004 CE, he captured Talakad and overthrew the Western Ganga dynasty which had ruled over Mysore for almost 1000 years.[11] He also conquered Kollipakkai, located to the north of Hyderabad in present-day Andhra Pradesh. An excerpt from an inscription inTamil from Kolar states:

    In the 8th year of the reign of Kopparakesarivanmar sri Rajendra Sola Deva, who, while the goddess of Fortune, having become constant, increased, and while the goddess of the great Earth, the goddess of victory in battle and the matchless goddess of Fame, having become his great queens, rejoiced-that in his extended lifetime, conquered with his great war-like army Idaiturai-nadu, Vanavasi shut in by a fence of continuous forests; Kollipakkai, whose walls were surrounded by sulli trees; Mannaikkadakkam whose fortification was unapproachable.[12]

    Conquest of Sri Lanka[edit]
    Main article: Chola occupation of Sri Lanka (993-1077)
    [​IMG]
    Inscription dated to 1100 CE Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka
    Raja Raja Chola I conquered the northern half of Sri Lanka during his reign. Rajendra invaded Ceylon in 1017 CE and annexed the entire island.[13] As a result of the campaign, Rajendra captured the regal jewels of the Pandyas, which Parantaka I tried to capture and the crown of the Sinhala king. The Sinhala king Mahinda V was taken prisoner and transported to the Chola country.

    Pandyas and Cheras[edit]
    In 1018 CE, Rajendra marched across the Pandya and Chera kingdoms referred in the Tamil Copper-plate inscriptions. The territories were already conquered during the reign of Raja Raja I.[10]Rajendra appointed one of his sons as viceroy with the title Jatavarman Sundara Chola-Pandya withMadurai as the headquarters.

    Chalukyan conflict[edit]
    In 1015 CE, Jayasimha II became the king of Western Chalukyas. He tried to recover the losses suffered by his predecessor Satyashraya, who fled his capital and was later restored to the throne by Raja Raja I as a tribute paying subordinate. Initially, Jayasimha II was successful as Rajendra was busy with his campaigns in Sri Lanka.[14] In 1021 CE, after the demise of the Eastern Chalukyan king Vimaladitya of Vengi, Jayasimha supported the claim of Vijayaditya VII to the throne against the claims of Rajaraja Narendra. Rajaraja Narendra was the son of Vimaladitya and Chola princess Kundavai.[14] Rajendra helped his nephew Rajaraja defeat Vijayaditya.[15] His armies defeated Vijayadiya in Vengi and Jayasimha in the battle of Maski.[14]

    [​IMG]
    Gangaikonda Cholapuram was built by Rajendra Chola to celebrate his success in the Ganges Expedition
    [​IMG]
    Brihadeeswarar temple inscription reading "Gangaikondacholan"
    Expedition to the Ganges[edit]
    Main article: Chola expedition to North India
    In 1019 CE, Rajendra’s forces marched through Kalinga towards the river Ganga. The Chola army eventually reached the Pala kingdom of Bengal where they defeated Mahipala. The Chola army also defeated the last ruler of the Kamboja Pala dynasty Dharmapala of Dandabhukti.[16][17]The Chola army went on to raid East Bengal and defeated Govindachandra of the Chandra dynasty and invaded Bastar region.[18][19] The territories held the status of tribute paying subordinates and trade partners with the Chola Kingdom, an arrangement that lasted till the times of Kulothunga III.[20] He constructed a new capital at Gangaikondacholapuram and built theBrihadeeswarar Temple similar to the Brihadeeswarar Temple at Thanjavur.

    [​IMG]
    Rajendra Chola's Territories c. 1030 CE
    South East Asian expedition[edit]
    Main article: Chola invasion of Srivijaya
    Main article: South-East Asia campaign of Rajendra Chola I
    Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman was the son of Mara Vijayatungavarman of the Sailendra dynasty who ruled the Srivijaya kingdom nearPalembang in Sumatra. The Sailendra dynasty had good relations with the Chola Empire during the reign of Rajaraja Chola I. Mara Vijayatungavarman built a Chudamani Vihara at Nagapattinam. The Khmer king Suryavarman I requested aid from Rajendra against theTambralinga kingdom.[21][22] After learning of Suryavarman's alliance with Rajendra Chola, the Tambralinga king requested aid from the Srivijaya king Sangrama Vijayatungavarman.[21][23] This eventually led to the Chola expedition against the Srivijiya Empire. This alliance somewhat also had a religious nuance, since both the Chola Empire and the Khmer empire are Hindu Shivaist, while Tambralinga kingdom and Sri Vijaya were Mahayana Buddhist.

    In 1025 CE, the Chola navy crossed the Indian ocean and attacked the Srivijaya kingdom of Sangrama Vijayatunggavarman. Several places in Malaysia and Indonesia were invaded by Rajendra Chola I.[24] Kadaram, the capital was sacked and Pannai in present-day Sumatra in western Indonesia and Malaiyur in theMalayan peninsula were attacked. Rajendra also invaded the Tambralinga Kingdom in Southern Thailand and the Langkasuka Kingdom in modern Malaysia and South Thailand.[9][25][26] The Chola invasion marked the demise of the Srivijaya Empire.[27][28] The victory dealt a blow to Sri Vijayas maritime might and monopoly.[29] After this the Chola Empire conquered large portions of the Sri Vijaya Empire including its ports of Ligor, Kedah and Tumasik.[29][30] The Chola invasion furthered the expansion of Tamil merchant associations such as the Manigramam, Ayyavole and Ainnurruvar into Southeast Asia.[31][32][33][34] For the next century, Tamil trading companies from southern India dominatedSoutheast Asia.[27][28] The expedition of Rajendra Chola I is mentioned in the corrupted form as Raja Chulan in the medieval Malay chronicle Sejarah Melaya and Malaysianprinces have names ending with Cholan or Chulan such as the Raja of Perak called Raja Chulan.[35][36][37][38][39] One record of Rajendra Chola describes him as the King of the country of Lamuri in north Sumatra in Indonesia.[40] The war ended with a victory for the Chola dynasty and major losses for the Sri Vijaya Empire and the Tambralingakingdom.[21][23]

    Work and legacy[edit]
    See also: List of Chola Temples in Bangalore

    Rajendra Chola built a vast artificial lake, sixteen miles long and three miles wide which was one of the largest man-made lakes in India.[41]The fortified capital of Rajendra Chola was of impressive grandeur and Ottakoothar states, On seeing Gangapuri, all fourteen worlds encircled by the billowing ocean are overwhelmed with joy.[41][42] The extent of the empire was the widest in India and the military and naval prestige was at its highest.[43]

    After his successful campaign to Ganges he got the title Gangaikonda Chola (The Chola who took the Ganges). And after his successful Southeast Asian campaign he got the title "Kadaram Kondan"(He who took Kedah in Malaysia).[44] He founded a new capital city calledGangaikonda Cholapuram and built a Shiva temple similar to the Thanjavur Brihadisvara temple built by his father Rajaraja Chola. He expanded the Pathirakali Amman Temple and Koneswaram temple of Trincomalee.[41] He inherited the title Mummudi Cholan (Chola with three crowns) from his father with Mummudi, a title used by Tamil kings who ruled the three kingdoms of Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras.[45] To commemorate his conquests, Rajendra assumed other titles such as Mudigonda Cholan and Irattapadikonda Cholan.

    The Malay language Hikayat Iskandar Zulkarnain was written about Alexander the Great as Dhul-Qarnayn and the ancestry of several Southeast Asian royal families is traced from Iskandar Zulkarnain,[46] through Raja Rajendra Chola (Raja Suran, Raja Chola) in the Malay Annals,[47][48][49] such as the Sumatra Minangkabau royalty.[50]

    Personal life and family[edit]
    Rajendra Chola had many consorts including Tribuvana or Vanavan Mahadeviar, Mukkokilan, Panchavan Mahadevi, Arindhavan Madevi and Viramadevi who committed sati on Rajendra’s death. The Siddanta Saravali of Trilochana Sivacharya who was a contemporary of Kulothunga III states that Rajendra was a poet and he composed hymns in praise of Lord Shiva. Rajendra had three sons namely Rajadhiraja Chola,Rajendra Chola II and Virarajendra Chola, who followed him on the Chola throne in succession. He had two daughters Pranaar Arul Mozhi Nangai and Ammanga Devi. His campaigns were led by general Senapati Narakkan Sri Krishnan Raman.[51][52]
     
    Last edited: Mar 24, 2016
  19. VaghaDeva

    VaghaDeva The Wise Wolf

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    Narasimhavarman I

    Narasimhavarman I (Tamil: முதலாம் நரசிம்மவர்மன்.) was a Tamil king of the Pallava dynasty who ruled South India from 630–668 AD. He shared his father Mahendravarman I's love of art and completed the work started by Mahendravarman inMamallapuram.

    He avenged his father's defeat at the hands of the Chalukya king, Pulakeshin II in the year 642 AD . Narasimhavarman was also known as Mamallan (great wrestler), and Mamallapuram (Mahabalipuram) was named after him.

    It was during his reign, in 640 AD, that the Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang visited Kanchipuram.[1]

    Narasimhavarman I was a devotee of Shiva. The great Nayanar saints like Appar, Siruthondar and Tirugnanasambandar lived during his reign.

    Narasimhavarman I was succeeded by his son Mahendravarman II in the year 668 AD.



    Contents
    [hide]


    Military Conquests[edit]
    Narasimhavarman I is claimed to be one of the 12 Indian kings who never lost on the battlefield to their enemies, the others beingAjatashatru, Chandragupta Maurya, Karikala Chola, cheran senguttuvan, great nayanmar saint kochengannan of chola dynasty, chola king Rajasuyam vaetta perunarkilli (575 BC), who successfully completed military Rajasuyam sacrifice, pandyan nedunchezhian of the Sangam age, Samudragupta,Great Pallava nayanmar saint Rajasimha, Rajaraja Chola I, his great warrior sonRajendra Chola.

    War with the Chalukyas[edit]
    Pulakeshin II, a deccan king, had previously raided various northern Pallava provinces and forts. However, he was unable to capture the Pallava capital of Kanchipuram.[2] This led to a long conflict between the Chalukyas and the Pallavas.

    Pulakeshin II again attempted to seize the Pallava capital and undertook another expedition several years later. However, the Pallava reign had moved on to Narasimhavarman I by then. Narasimhavarman defeated the Chalukyas in several battles, including one at Manimangalam 20 miles to the east of Kanchipuram. The king states that he could see the back of his dreaded enemy as he tore apart his army. Encouraged by this victory, Narasimhavarman led his army along with his general Paranjothi and invaded Vatapi, successfully defeating[1] and killing the Chalukya king Pulakeshin II in 642 CE. The city was never a capital again.[3]

    He returned victorious to Kanchipuram, and was given the title Vatapikondan (one who conquered Vatapi).[4]

    His general Paranjothi (a Vikrama Kesari, also known as paradurgamarddana) was known very well for his devotion to Lord Siva and as one of the 63 Nayanmar saints, is said to have indeed personally destroyed the city of Vatapi under the command of Narasimhavarman I. Sekkizhaar's work 12th tirumurai credits this siruttondar of having destroyed the evil kali as manifested by the deccan enemy of pallavas. He is also known as 'Siruthonttar', a dutiful warrior and a practicing medic who had "mastered several treatises in medicine". This vikramakesari had at the insistence of Lord Sivan sacrificed his child without any qualms. There was a confusion as to whether the Ganesha at a temple in Chengattankudy could have been a result of this invasion but this seems not to be true because the temple and association of Lord Ganesha with the same are well described insthalapuranam or the literature discussing the importance of the place. The Ganesha seems to be installed several thousands of years ago in a previous epoch. Many grants refer to this event as: "kilisayoneriva vimattita vathapi" or the one who destroyed Vatapi, the same way Sage Agastya had killed a demon by that name long ago.(**)

    Influence on Sri Lankan politics[edit]
    The Sinhalese prince Manavarma lived at the court of Narasimhavarman and had helped him crush his enemy Pulakeshin II. In return, Narasimhavarman supplied Manavarma twice with an army to invade Sri Lanka. The second attack was successful. Manavarma occupied Sri Lanka, over which he is supposed to have ruled from A. D. 691 to 726. TheKasakudi copper plates refer to Narasimhavarman's conquest of Sri Lanka. The Mahavamsa also confirms these facts.

    Narasimhavarman in Literature[edit]
    Kalki Krishnamurthy's work, Sivagamiyin Sabadham, is based on Narasimhavarman's early years and his fights with the Chalukyas. Kalki Krishnamurthy's Parthiban kanavu is based on the later years of Narasimhavarman's rule.
     
  20. saty

    saty Tihar Jail Banned

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    Ashoka himself an imperialistic,he ruled Afg to Burma and even spread Buddhism as a religion to connect far away people&lands..... ... After 300 years Xianity ..... After 700 years islam did the same thing.Buddhism immensely effected entire CONTINENT of Asia In/directly or 60% world population IS just a MAGIC.

    2.You misunderstood Ashoka ideals he professed non violence & vegetarianism not IMPOSED. He didn't punished/killed if you ate non-veg food, as far as non-violence to maintain 'Rule of law' or 'Dharma' it is mandatory.

    Ex: Our present king Modi is also Vegetarian, advises people to eat veg&non-violence methods ...... how many takers? a few but as a King his duty is profess........ follow or not that is your wish.
     

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