Sniping russian style

Discussion in 'Europe and Russia' started by JBH22, Mar 11, 2011.

  1. JBH22

    JBH22 Senior Member Senior Member

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    Weapons and Applied ballistics

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    In connection with vozlagaemymi tasks at hand a modern sniper rifle should ensure the defeat of live targets at ranges up to 900 meters, with high probability (80%) hit the first shot at goal in the lap distance to 600 meters and in the chest - up to 400 meters. It is desirable that the disposal of snipers in addition to the sniper rifle general purpose (eg SVD) have combat rifle with accuracy when close to the sporting arms (eg SV-98). Such a rifle with a special live ammunition, while ensuring high accuracy should be designated for special tasks. In cases where the firing is carried out at short distances (150-200 meters), especially in urban environments, it is advisable to use the silent sniper rifles (such as ARIA, and VSC-94). Sniper "besshumki" are particularly good because they allow "hunters" get away from the position unnoticed after the destruction of enemy targets. However, a small range of aimed fire greatly limits their application. Range of guaranteed destruction leading figures (the most frequent type of target for a sniper), from both rifles - 100-150 meters. That is to approach the enemy positions it at a distance, but it is not always possible. At the same close range quite suitable caliber rifle with a telescopic sight.
    SVD for all the virtues is not the highest accuracy. Therefore, when kontrsnayperskih operations is preferable to use a weapon of high quality (MC-116, SW-98) and ammunition - a must! - Sniper or target. If you are forced to use only the IRS, try to put her sights higher multiplicity - eg CAP-1 or "Hyperon" - this will increase the efficiency of fire and the probability of hitting the target with the first shot.
    Developing a sniper operation must be carefully taken into account the possibility of their weapons and ammunition. In particular, the width of the dispersion (ie the distance between the centers of the most remote from the mid-point of contact holes) in the cartridge with a bullet LPS at a distance of 300 meters is approximately 32 cm, and a sniper cartridge - 16-20 cm in size of a standard head-target 20x30 cm this difference is important. Look at the table and compare with the average size of the main goals: the head - 25x30 cm, breast shape - 50x50 cm, waist figure - 100x50 cm, Rostov figure - see 170h50
    Efficacy of high-caliber rifle SALT-96 - a moot point, since the special sniper 12.7 mm rounds are manufactured in small batches, and the dispersal of the usual machine-gun bullets of this caliber is too big for a sniper shooting. However, when processing stationary sniper positions (bunkers, pillboxes, reinforced broneschitkami skulpmaketov) large-caliber rifle can be very useful. Even during the Second World War, Soviet snipers to hit hard targets and firing at the embrasures used 14.5-mm antitank guns.
    It must be remembered that the rifle should always be zeroed, then do not have to doubt the accuracy of its weapons. Required to regularly check sighting their weapons on the main ranges of effective fire, even if none of the rifle fails to fire: it happens that leveling goes astray in the process of storing weapons. Ranging is carried out only with the type of patrons who will enjoy even further: different types of bullets have different ballistics, and therefore different flight paths.
    Need to carefully examine the table average excess of trajectories over the line of sight and learn it by heart. In a combat situation you always use this particular table, especially when transferring fire from one target to another and when shooting without changing remote handwheel (the method of "direct shot"). Such a table for easy use of it in a combat situation is pasted on the butt or arms Tabs on the left sleeve clothing.
    Before entering the operation should always be dry cleaned with the barrel and chamber. If the barrel will be oil or moisture, then the bullets will go higher, but the shot will be smoke and a bright flash - it unmasks position.
    With heavy rain and fog as the bullets go higher, so move down to the point of sight.
    When working on particularly important goals is absolutely necessary to remember that the optimal sniping - one shot in two minutes, because the trunk should not heat up more than 45 degrees. If in the course of the battle has to wage an intense fire, it is worth considering that when warming up the barrel the bullet will go lower.
    If you use a rifle with bolt action, then unload the shutter can not be sent back too much: it shatters the gate and quickly wears out striker. After the shot, if there is no need to continue shooting, leaving the shutter open, it will not give a powder gases "sweat" in the trunk and allow the barrel to cool faster.
    To rifle not blikoval in the sun and less heat in hot weather, it is winded shaggy camouflage tape, a piece of maskseti GLC or conventional cloth tape. Among other things, it will protect the trunk from accidental knocks.
    Should regularly check the strength of attachment of the optical sight: there are no side-roll, do not rotate freely or too handwheels. Quality of the fit sighting mechanism and mount drums checked as follows: suggest a central square (the point of hemp) in a landmark, and, alternately pressing on the drums, watching the sight reticle. If the polygon by clicking on drums shifts, so the impact mechanism has big gaps and will inevitably shift reticle for each shot.
    Individual scopes have some free running propellers. To determine its sights firmly fix bracket (for example, in the grip), suggest the central square at some point and turn the knob a few units in the side and back. If the radar has a free running propellers, then the angle will not match the original position, not reaching it. To compensate for the free play of screws, you need all the turns handwheels to end up in the same direction, for example, clockwise. Then, if you need to turn the knob counter-clockwise, then shifting it by two to three divisions next, and then, returning to the desired risk, has finally set the sight clockwise rotation.
    Always necessary to make treatment with the weapon as much as possible comfortable: on the butt can hang a rubber recoil pad on the SE-25 on the fore-end if desired can be attached folding bipod from RPG-7. Ordinary rubber band from the Expander, Dual sliding noose draped over the trunk, and the ends tied to any vertical object (a tree trunk, pole, etc.) will not load in ambush hand weight weapons.
    Rifle to protect him from falling into the dirt, dust and other extraneous things. If you have to work in conditions of high dust (eg in the desert or the mountains), then put the barrel on a regular condom, after the first shot, he will burn without interfering with a bullet.
    Weapons require careful to be treated, so it must be regularly cleaned, and most importantly - do not give anybody shoot it.
    Sometimes the situation can change rapidly, the goals may appear on a large area with a spread in range and quickly disappear. In such circumstances, each time the distance and the more set in his sights is simply unrealistic. In anticipation of such a situation (as a rule, it occurs when you attack the enemy) to adjust a rifle at a maximum range of its lane of responsibility (eg meters to 400), to remember in this area range conspicuous landmark, and further guided by shooting him. Now we can estimate by eye how much more objective or benchmark is closer to the value of "swing" in the vertical aiming point. To do this, a very good idea of ​​the trajectory of a bullet to the distance at which the rifle was zeroed. Check the battle rifle in the field can be quite simple: provide guidance and make it a series of shots - the difference is determined by ricocheting bullets. However, one should bear in mind that to get involved in such a precarious shooting should not be: it is only used in very urgent cases, when there is a need to hit a target with the first shot. Sighting need to escape the noise and to battle it with the spare position.
    With high-speed shooting at small distances (up to 300 meters) is used as a rule, straight shot, that is, shot, in which the trajectory of the bullet does not rise above the target height. In particular, in terms of range of fire is rarely more than 200-250 meters, therefore, setting sights 2, we can not make adjustments to the vertical: up to 200 meters height of the trajectory is less than 5 cm, so the bullet will fall at a mark at a distance of 200 up to 250 meters aiming point should be taken higher by 10-11 cm

    Commandos on a note: The Basics of sniper craft

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    Observation

    Need to learn the skills of observation, do it intensely and systematically, taking each time a small sector of study. You should not wander aimlessly looking around the surveillance zone - is a common mistake.
    Look to everything that happens on someone else's territory, with suspicion. It is desirable to mentally travel back to the position of the enemy and to think about what he might do in similar circumstances.
    Survey the terrain in a given sector, you can divide it into sections, which are equal to the field of view optical sights, binoculars or periscope. Need to work slowly and carefully, overlapping fields of view.
    If the observation has doubts concerning any subject, you need to see everything around him, because most intense part of the vision lies not in the center and at the edge of a field of view of the eye. This is especially true with the observation at dawn and dusk.
    The slow movement is also easier to detect, if not look at the object directly: one must look above, below or slightly to the side of the object - then use the sharpest part of the eye.
    If possible, try not to observe with binoculars, and use the periscope: it will protect from detection by enemy sniper and the bullets.
    If monitoring is conducted through an optical sight in reduced visibility (early dusk, mist, etc.), you should use the filter - it is included in the IRS, yellow-orange glass significantly improves visual acuity and contributes to a clearer perception of the retinal boundaries of the contour subject.
    Often, the sniper must shoot the targets that appear suddenly. In these circumstances, there is no time to determine the distances, so the most probable lines and directions in advance choose conspicuous landmarks. On them in the future and should lead count and determine the location of targets and the distance to them.

    Disguise

    There is no universal camouflage suitable for concealment in different environments, so you need to constantly diversify and to invent new means of camouflage, depending on the task and the conditions for its implementation. The main rules masking:
    Commandos on a note: The Basics of sniper craft

    - All activities must be preceded by a thorough reconnaissance and evaluation of a camouflage against;
    - Choosing camouflage gear, you want to fit it carefully, keeping the smallest detail, you can ask the friend to check whether any unmasking some spots;
    - Taking a position at a local object, use it as a shelter only from the side, but in any case not from the top;
    - Do not choose sites for the firing position near notable landmarks: they will be inspected by an opponent in the first place;
    - In any case have to take a position so that the rear was masking the background;
    - You can use the shadow of local objects, but we must remember that during the day the shadow changes its position;
    - Well disguises vegetation (grass, twigs, etc.), but we must bear in mind that it retains its natural color only 2-3 days, then the leaves dry up and will issue a position;
    - For painting the face and hands, you can use the juice of herbs mixed with milk "type of milkweed plants - all warming up in a groove butt SVD and then applied to the skin, but you have to be careful in the choice of herbs, not to suck poisonous plants that may cause itching and even burn;
    - When leaving the position of all the evidence must be carefully disposed of;
    - If possible, you should take measures to eliminate the unmasking of the shots: when equipped with position in the field can make a "haulout" for a rare bush or to stick to three or four meters away from a few branches. When fired smoke remain behind, and the outbreak will not be visible, when firing from the building's position should be in the depths of space - in this case, the flash and sound of the shot almost went out;
    - That's the easiest way to make the field position for shooting prone: device disguised parapet to cut about eight pieces of sod measuring about 20 by 30 cm, while lower, "earthy", part of the sod is cut pyramid at an angle of 45 degrees, then from these bricks laid out herb parapet at the enemy, after work, if there is a need to hide the location shooting, the turf is laid in place and lightly watered;
    - At the position of the winter, it must be remembered that the vapor from breathing easily unmasks the location, so you only breathe through a scarf or mask. The snow is not shot up in the shot, you can sprinkle the snow in front of "maturation" of water jars;
    - Moving around the countryside, we must make maximum use of vegetation and any kind of shelter.
    - Entry into the firing position, you can not take it right: you first need to crawl, standing nearby and looking around carefully on the sides - a position can be mined or there may wait for an ambush;
    - Always stay in the lowlands, never go to public places and on the horizon, as far as possible to bypass all the places where snipers can observe the enemy observers;
    - The movement to minimize, quick movement of your arm or leg is very dangerous, but in some cases, while maintaining complete stillness, you can be invisible, being almost on the mind;
    - Need to master the art of walking to force came from the hips, not on his knee at the beginning of land necessary to put the ends of the fingers and the front part of the foot, usually produces noise heel, especially where there are rocks, branches, etc.
    - In wet weather and a light mist shot is particularly strong position gives the sniper (but wet weather is possible improved visibility);
    - If possible, work best in conjunction with a machine-gunner: he drown bursts your shots and will cover in case of sudden withdrawal.

    Commandos on a note: The Basics of sniper craft

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    Vision

    We must always remember that your eyes - the main tool for the sniper. Ideally, the vision must be perfect, but in principle it is permissible for a reduction of its severity, but with mandatory use of glasses or contact lenses.
    In order for larger loads to maintain good eyesight, the eyes need support. Here are simple exercises for the prevention of view (from the experience of the shooters, athletes).
    1. Tightly shut eyes for 3-5 seconds, then hold your eyes open for 3-5 seconds, repeat 8-10 times (it strengthens muscles and improves circulation century eyes).
    2. Massage the closed eyes of a finger in a circular motion for one minute (it relaxes the eye muscles and improves blood circulation).
    3. Pull arm forward and look at the tip of your finger, then slowly zoom finger without taking off his sight, until he begins to see double, repeat 6-8 times (it strengthens the oblique muscles of the eyes and makes a visual work).
    After strong pressure on the eye lotion may be applied from the weak brewing tea or a decoction of sage: soaked in warm pads are applied to the eyes and hold on until it cools.


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  3. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Dragunov sniper rifle

    Dragunov sniper rifle

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    Current production SVD with synthetic furniture.

    The Dragunov sniper rifle (formally Russian: Снайперская винтовка Драгунова, Snayperskaya Vintovka Dragunova (SVD), literally "Dragunov's sniper rifle") is a semi-automatic sniper rifle chambered in 7.62x54mmR and developed in the Soviet Union.
    It was selected as the winner of a contest that included three competing designs: the first was a rifle designed by Sergei Simonov (known as the SSV-58), the second design, a prototype designated 2B-W10 by Alexander Konstantinov, and the third rifle, the SVD-137, a design submitted by Yevgeny Dragunov. Extensive field testing of the rifles conducted in a wide range of environmental conditions resulted in Dragunov’s proposal being accepted into service in 1963. An initial pre-production batch consisting of 200 rifles was assembled for evaluation purposes, and from 1964 serial production was carried out by Izhmash.
    Since then, the Dragunov has become the standard squad support weapon of several countries, including those of the former Warsaw Pact. Licensed production of the rifle was established in China (Type 79 and Type 85) and Iran (as a direct copy of the Chinese Type 79).

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  4. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    VSS Vintorez

    VSS Vintorez

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    VSS 'Vintorez' silenced sniper rifle

    The VSS (Russian: Винтовка Снайперская Специальная, Vintovka Snayperskaya Spetsialnaya or "Special Sniper Rifle"), also called the Vintorez ("thread cutter"[1]), is a silent sniper rifle developed in the late 1980s by TsNIITochMash and manufactured by the Tula Arsenal. It is issued primarily to Spetsnaz units for undercover or clandestine operations, a role made evident by its ability to be stripped down for transport in a specially fitted briefcase.

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  5. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Dragunov SVU

    Dragunov SVU

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    The SVU

    The Dragunov SVU (Russian: Снайперская винтовка укороченная, Snayperskaya Vintovka Ukorochennaya, Short Sniper Rifle) is a bullpup configuration of the SVD sniper rifle. The SVU was developed to meet the needs of the security forces of the Russian Ministry of Internal Affairs, such as OMON. The SVU was first seen in usage in the First Chechen War. Originally, the plan was to just slightly modernize the aging SVD, but they eventually realised that the configuration of the weapon would have to be completely altered, leading to the creation of the SVU.
    A muzzle brake was added which could absorb up to 40% of the recoil energy and an elastic butt stock with lamellar spring was non-rigidly attached to the receiver. The acoustics of the rifle were also improved by adding a sound suppressor. The other main improvements made to the SVU over the SVD include replacement of butt stock, pistol grip, trigger and the mounting for the sight, and shortening the barrel by 100mm achieved perfect balance for the weapon.

    Around 1991 the Russians developed a slight variant of the SVU, the SVU-A. Whereas the SVU is semi-automatic, the SVU-A (the a stands for automatic ) is a fully automatic rifle. In this rifle the center of gravity was increased by the addition of a forward extended bipod mounted on the receiver. Developing 20 and 30 round magazines increased the capacity of the magazine so that it could be used effectively in full automatic mode, and better optics were incorporated into the SVU-A to replace the previous units which were left almost untouched since the SVD.

    Though it has folding iron sights, the SVU is almost always used with the PSO-1 scope with illuminated reticle but other Russian scopes can also be mounted. The PSO-1 reticle is almost unique in the world of sniper scopes, in that its rangefinders are in the lower left, chevrons for bullet drop compensation are found in the middle, and stadia marks for windage to the left and right of the center reticule. The reticle is also illuminated by radioactive tritium instead of a small battery-powered lamp. The SVU also comes with an adjustable bipod. It has an integral flash hider and suppressor. A bayonet may be fitted under the forestock. Although the effective range of the weapon is only 400m (most modern sniper rifles have an effective range of 1000m), the fire rate of 30 rounds/min in automatic mode make up for this. However, the rate of fire in standard sniper mode is only around 5 rounds/min.

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  6. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Izhmash Dragunov Tigr ( SVD )

    Izhmash Dragunov Tigr ( SVD ), (1,2,3/3)





     
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  7. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    IZHMASH Presentation: SVD

    IZHMASH Presentation: SVD

     
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  8. JBH22

    JBH22 Senior Member Senior Member

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    SV-98 and OSV-96

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