Russian aviation development

Discussion in 'Military Aviation' started by LETHALFORCE, Feb 28, 2009.

  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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  3. vishal_lionheart

    vishal_lionheart Regular Member

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    Tupolev (Russian: Туполев ['tupoljef]) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Moscow. Officially known as Public Stock Company Tupolev, it is the successor of the famed Tupolev OKB or Tupolev Design Bureau (OKB-156, design office prefix Tu) headed by the renowned Soviet aerospace engineer A.N. Tupolev. The company celebrated its 80th anniversary on October 22, 2002. The Russian government is planning to merge Tupolev with Mikoyan, Ilyushin, Irkut, Sukhoi, and Yakovlev as a new company named United Aircraft Corporation.

    Introduction

    The capabilities of PSC Tupolev include development, manufacturing and overhaul for both civil and military aerospace products such as aircraft and weapons systems. It is also active in missile and naval aviation technologies. More than 18,000 Tupolev aircraft were produced for the USSR and the Eastern Bloc.
    upolev OKB was founded by Andrei Nikolayevich Tupolev in 1922. Its facilities are tailored for aeronautics research and aircraft design only, manufacturing is handled by other firms. It undertook research on all-metal airplanes in the 1920s.


    Tupolev ANT-20 Maxim Gorky, the largest airplane of the 1930s, was used for Stalinist propaganda.
    Among its notable results during the period was the heavy bomber, where Tupolev's design approach defined for many years the trends of heavy aircraft development, civil and military.
    In World War II, the twin-engined, all-metal Tu-2 was one of the best front-line bombers of the Soviets. Several variants of it were produced in large numbers from 1942. During the war it used wooden rear fuselages due to a shortage of metal.
    In 1945, three Boeing B-29 Superfortresses landed in Soviet territory after missions over Japan. They were quickly copied by the design bureau and formed the basis of the first Soviet intercontinental strategic bomber, the Tu-4, which first flew in 1947 and was produced in substantial numbers.
    This was followed by the development of the jet-powered Tu-16 bomber, based on an enlarged version of the B-29/Tu-4 fuselage, which used a sweptback wing for good subsonic performance.
    As turbojets were not fuel efficient enough to provide truly intercontinental range, the Soviets elected to design a new bomber, the Tu-20, more commonly referred to as the Tu-95. It, too, was based on the fuselage and structural design of the Tu-4, but with four colossal Kuznetsov NK-12 turboprop engines providing a unique combination of jet-like speed and long range. It became the definitive Soviet intercontinental bomber, with intercontinental range and jet-like performance. In many respects the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing B-52 Stratofortress, it served as a strategic bomber and in many alternate roles, including reconnaissance and anti-submarine warfare.
    The Tu-16 was developed into the civil Tu-104, which was for some time the only jet-powered airliner flying following the temporary grounding of the De Havilland Comet. The Tu-95 became the basis of the unique Tu-114 medium-to-long-range airliner, the fastest turboprop aircraft ever. One common feature found in many large subsonic Tupolev jet aircraft is large pods extending rearward from the trailing edge of the wings, holding the aircraft's landing gear. These allow the aircraft to have landing gears made up of many large low-pressure tires, which are invaluable for use on the poor quality runways that were common in the Soviet Union at the time. For example the Tu-154 airliner, the Soviet equivalent of the Boeing 727, has 14 tyres, the same number as Boeing's far larger 777-200.
    Even before the first flights of the Tu-16 and Tu-20/Tu-95, Tupolev was working on supersonic bombers, culminating in the unsuccessful Tu-98. Although that aircraft never entered service, it became the basis for the prototype Tu-102 (later developed into the Tu-28 interceptor) and the Tu-105, which evolved into the supersonic Tu-22 bomber in the mid-1960s. Intended as a counterpart to the Convair B-58 Hustler, the Tu-22 proved rather less capable, although ironically it remained in service far longer than the American aircraft. Meanwhile the "K" Department was formed in the Design Bureau, with the task of designing unmanned aircraft such as the Tu-139 and the Tu-143 unmanned reconnaissance aircraft.


    Tu-144 supersonic airliner

    The 1960s saw the ascendance of A. N. Tupolev's son, A. A. Tupolev. His role includes the development of the world's first supersonic airliner, the Tu-144, the popular Tu-154 airliner and the Tupolev Tu-22M strategic bomber. All these developments enabled the Soviet Union to achieve strategic military and civil aviation parity with the West.
    In the 1970s, Tupolev concentrated its efforts on improving the performance of the Tu-22M bombers, whose variants included maritime versions. It is the presence of these bombers in quantity that brought about the SALT I and SALT II treaties. Also the efficiency and performance of the Tu-154 was improved, culminating in the efficient Tu-154M.
    In the 1980s the design bureau developed the supersonic Tu-160 strategic bomber. Features include variable-geometry wings.
     
  4. vishal_lionheart

    vishal_lionheart Regular Member

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  5. vishal_lionheart

    vishal_lionheart Regular Member

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    TU 114

    The Tupolev Tu-114 Rossiya (Russian: Tyполев Тy-114 Poccия) (NATO reporting name Cleat) is a turboprop powered long-range airliner designed by the Tupolev design bureau and built in the USSR from May 1955.[1] The aircraft was the largest and fastest passenger plane at that time (until the advent of the Vickers VC10) and also had the longest range (10,900 km). It remains one of the fastest turboprop passenger planes of any era.
    Due to its wing and powerplant design, the Tu-114 was able to travel at speeds typical of modern jetliners (880 km/h). Able to accommodate 224 passengers, a more usual number in Aeroflot service was 170 provided with sleeping berths and a dining lounge. In 14 years of civilian service, the Tu-114 was noted for its very high level of safety and reliability, and carried over six million passengers before being replaced by the jet-powered Il-62.

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a7/Aeroflot_Tupolev_Tu-114.jpg/300px-Aeroflot_Tupolev_Tu-114.jpg

    http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQDegfhumXdetndm4j4A8jGy0yMIY1qEUhzOvxHUgaZggiqzis&t=1&usg=__sQmLxpsymZVgIU5RgYd3865hfLg=
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  6. vishal_lionheart

    vishal_lionheart Regular Member

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    TU 124

    The Tupolev Tu-124 (NATO reporting name: Cookpot) was a Soviet short range twinjet airliner of 56 passenger capacity. It was one of the world's first turbofan-powered airliners, and the first airliner designed 'from the ground up' for use with turbofans.

    http://t2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:...yvLKLA&t=1&usg=__P1og5pM4mfXWFN4iZxB19k0k4zU=

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    http://t1.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:...LqUFlo&t=1&usg=__d6cynKQQ-wjqgvc75Fn3qDR6I4g=
     
  7. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Wings of Russia

    Soviet Civil Aviation (1,2,3,4,5/5):









     
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  8. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Wings of Russia

    Soviet Fighter Aircraft (1,2,3,4,5/5):









     
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  9. badguy2000

    badguy2000 Respected Member Senior Member

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    Russua airforce is just corpse .
     
  10. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Soviet Bomber Aircraft (1,2,3,4,5/5):









     
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  11. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    It could be. What surprises me, however, is that China still has to make unlicensed and reverse-engineered copies of Russian aircraft and aircraft components.
     
  12. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Soviet Helicopter/Rotary-Wing Aircraft (1,2,3,4,5/5):









     
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  13. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Soviet Amphibious Aircraft (1,2,3,4,5/5):









     
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  14. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Soviet Ground Effect Aircraft (1,2,3,4,5/5):









     
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  15. Armand2REP

    Armand2REP CHINI EXPERT Veteran Member

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    Kind of like PLAAF with all those outdated junkers. They didn't retire MiG-19 clones until last year. [​IMG]
     
  16. civfanatic

    civfanatic Retired Moderator

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    This is hilarious coming from a country that still operates MiG-19 clones.

    Also, if Russian Air Force is a corpse, and China both buys and produces cheaply copied versions of Russian aircraft, what exactly does that make the PLAAF??
     
  17. vishal_lionheart

    vishal_lionheart Regular Member

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    The Tupolev Tu-134 (NATO codename: 'Crusty') is a Soviet twin-engined airliner, similar to the American Douglas DC-9 and also the French Sud Aviation Caravelle. One of the most widely used aircraft in the former Warsaw Pact countries, its number in active service is decreasing because of noise restrictions. The model has seen long-term service with some 42 countries, with some European airlines having made very intense use of the 134 (as many as 12 takeoffs and landings per plane daily). In addition to regular passenger service, it has also been used in various airforce, army and navy support roles; for pilot and navigator training; and for aviation research and test projects. In recent years, a number of planes have been converted for use as VIP transportation. A total of 852 Tu-134s were built (of all versions, including research/test bed examples) with Aeroflot as the largest user; by 1995, the Tu-134 had carried 360 million passengers for that airline.
    Short range jet aircraft TU 134 became one of the most successful projects in passenger aircraft building. TU 134 a/c entered history of Russian civil aviation as the most popular aircraft. TU 134 – is the first native passenger airliner which was certified to English standards of airworthiness.

    Totally 852 a/c were produced in various versions: TU 134, TU 134A, TU 134B, TU 134 UB L, TU 134Sh. Versions appeared with decreased crew size, increased passenger capacity, improved economic indices, etc. Furthermore basing on TU 134 a/c flying laboratory was designed to develop new prototypes of aircraft and space equipment.


    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...g/300px-MAGAS_Kosmos_Tupolev_Tu-134_Misko.jpg

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...34_CCCP-65600.jpg/220px-TU-134_CCCP-65600.jpg

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...65600_(1).jpg/220px-TU-134_CCCP-65600_(1).jpg

    http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikiped...65600_(3).jpg/220px-TU-134_CCCP-65600_(3).jpg


    Characteristics of the aircraft (Data for the model TU 134А)
    Passenger capacity - 76
    Fuselage diameter - 2,9 m
    Aircraft length - 37,1 m
    Wing span - 29,0 m
    Aircraft height - 9,02 m
    Maximal Take off weight - 47,6 t
    Payload - 8,2 t
    Cruise speed - 850 – 900 km/h
    Flight range - 2000 km
    First flight - 1963
     
  18. VersusAllOdds

    VersusAllOdds Regular Member

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    Ha! Can you please name one single airforce as capable as the Russian, apart from USAF obviously?
    And please, don't name your own, you'll just ruin your credibility further...
     
  19. Armand2REP

    Armand2REP CHINI EXPERT Veteran Member

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    Even though half of the VVS is grounded, every operational aircraft would be considered modern by PLAAF standards which outnumbers their modern aircraft by twice.
     
  20. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

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    Well civfanatic, anything that's worse than a corpse is a decomposing cadaver.
     

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