Obama could kill fossil fuels overnight with a nuclear dash for thorium

Discussion in 'International Politics' started by ganesh177, Mar 14, 2011.

  1. ganesh177

    ganesh177 Regular Member

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    Obama could kill fossil fuels overnight with a nuclear dash for thorium

    If Barack Obama were to marshal America’s vast scientific and strategic resources behind a new Manhattan Project, he might reasonably hope to reinvent the global energy landscape and sketch an end to our dependence on fossil fuels within three to five years.


    [​IMG] Dr Rubbia says a tonne of the silvery metal produces as much energy as 200 tonnes of uranium, or 3,500,000 tonnes of coal






    [​IMG]
    By Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, International Business Editor 6:55PM BST 29 Aug 2010 360 Comments


    We could then stop arguing about wind mills, deepwater drilling, IPCC hockey sticks, or strategic reliance on the Kremlin. History will move on fast.

    Muddling on with the status quo is not a grown-up policy. The International Energy Agency says the world must invest $26 trillion (£16.7 trillion) over the next 20 years to avert an energy shock. The scramble for scarce fuel is already leading to friction between China, India, and the West.

    There is no certain bet in nuclear physics but work by Nobel laureate Carlo Rubbia at CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) on the use of thorium as a cheap, clean and safe alternative to uranium in reactors may be the magic bullet we have all been hoping for, though we have barely begun to crack the potential of solar power.

    Dr Rubbia says a tonne of the silvery metal – named after the Norse god of thunder, who also gave us Thor’s day or Thursday - produces as much energy as 200 tonnes of uranium, or 3,500,000 tonnes of coal. A mere fistful would light London for a week.

    Thorium burns the plutonium residue left by uranium reactors, acting as an eco-cleaner. "It’s the Big One," said Kirk Sorensen, a former NASA rocket engineer and now chief nuclear technologist at Teledyne Brown Engineering.


    "Once you start looking more closely, it blows your mind away. You can run civilisation on thorium for hundreds of thousands of years, and it’s essentially free. You don’t have to deal with uranium cartels," he said.
    Thorium is so common that miners treat it as a nuisance, a radioactive by-product if they try to dig up rare earth metals. The US and Australia are full of the stuff. So are the granite rocks of Cornwall. You do not need much: all is potentially usable as fuel, compared to just 0.7pc for uranium.
    After the Manhattan Project, US physicists in the late 1940s were tempted by thorium for use in civil reactors. It has a higher neutron yield per neutron absorbed. It does not require isotope separation, a big cost saving. But by then America needed the plutonium residue from uranium to build bombs.
    "They were really going after the weapons," said Professor Egil Lillestol, a world authority on the thorium fuel-cycle at CERN. "It is almost impossible make nuclear weapons out of thorium because it is too difficult to handle. It wouldn’t be worth trying." It emits too many high gamma rays.
    You might have thought that thorium reactors were the answer to every dream but when CERN went to the European Commission for development funds in 1999-2000, they were rebuffed.

    Brussels turned to its technical experts, who happened to be French because the French dominate the EU’s nuclear industry. "They didn’t want competition because they had made a huge investment in the old technology," he said.

    Another decade was lost. It was a sad triumph of vested interests over scientific progress. "We have very little time to waste because the world is running out of fossil fuels. Renewables can’t replace them. Nuclear fusion is not going work for a century, if ever," he said.
    The Norwegian group Aker Solutions has bought Dr Rubbia’s patent for an accelerator-driven sub-critical reactor, and is working on his design for a thorium version at its UK operation.

    Victoria Ashley, the project manager, said it could lead to a network of pint-sized 600MW reactors that are lodged underground, can supply small grids, and do not require a safety citadel. It will take £2bn to build the first one, and Aker needs £100mn for the next test phase.
    The UK has shown little appetite for what it regards as a "huge paradigm shift to a new technology". Too much work and sunk cost has already gone into the next generation of reactors, which have another 60 years of life.
    So Aker is looking for tie-ups with countries such as the US, Russia, or China. The Indians have their own projects - none yet built - dating from days when they switched to thorium because their weapons programme prompted a uranium ban.

    America should have fewer inhibitions than Europe in creating a leapfrog technology. The US allowed its nuclear industry to stagnate after Three Mile Island in 1979.

    Anti-nuclear neorosis is at last ebbing. The White House has approved $8bn in loan guarantees for new reactors, yet America has been strangely passive. Where is the superb confidence that put a man on the moon?
    A few US pioneers are exploring a truly radical shift to a liquid fuel based on molten-fluoride salts, an idea once pursued by US physicist Alvin Weinberg at Oak Ridge National Lab in Tennessee in the 1960s. The original documents were retrieved by Mr Sorensen.

    Moving away from solid fuel may overcome some of thorium’s "idiosyncracies". "You have to use the right machine. You don’t use diesel in a petrol car: you build a diesel engine," said Mr Sorensen.
    Thorium-fluoride reactors can operate at atmospheric temperature. "The plants would be much smaller and less expensive. You wouldn’t need those huge containment domes because there’s no pressurized water in the reactor. It’s close-fitting," he said.
    Nuclear power could become routine and unthreatening. But first there is the barrier of establishment prejudice.

    When Hungarian scientists led by Leo Szilard tried to alert Washington in late 1939 that the Nazis were working on an atomic bomb, they were brushed off with disbelief. Albert Einstein interceded through the Belgian queen mother, eventually getting a personal envoy into the Oval Office.
    Roosevelt initially fobbed him off. He listened more closely at a second meeting over breakfast the next day, then made up his mind within minutes. "This needs action," he told his military aide. It was the birth of the Manhattan Project. As a result, the US had an atomic weapon early enough to deter Stalin from going too far in Europe.
    The global energy crunch needs equal "action". If it works, Manhattan II could restore American optimism and strategic leadership at a stroke: if not, it is a boost for US science and surely a more fruitful way to pull the US out of perma-slump than scattershot stimulus.

    Even better, team up with China and do it together, for all our sakes.

    http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/...vernight-with-a-nuclear-dash-for-thorium.html
     
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  3. ganesh177

    ganesh177 Regular Member

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    Distribution of Thorium


    Present knowledge of the distribution of thorium resources is poor because of the relatively low-key exploration efforts arising out of insignificant demand.[47] There are two sets of estimates that define world thorium reserves, one set by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the other supported by reports from the OECD and the International Atomic Energy Agency (the IAEA). Under the USGS estimate, Australia and India have particularly large reserves of thorium. India and Australia are believed to possess about 300,000 tonnes each; i.e. each country possessing 25% of the world's thorium reserves.[48] However, in the OECD reports, estimates of Australian's Reasonably Assured Reserves (RAR) of thorium indicate only 19,000 tonnes and not 300,000 tonnes as indicated by USGS. The two sources vary wildly for countries such as Brazil, Turkey, and Australia. However, both reports appear to show some consistency with respect to India's thorium reserve figures, with 290,000 tonnes (USGS) and 319,000 tonnes (OECD/IAEA). Furthermore the IAEA report mentions that India possesses two thirds (67%) of global reserves of monazite, the primary thorium ore. The IAEA also states that recent reports have upgraded India's thorium deposits up from approximately 300,000 tonnes to 650,000 tonnes.[49] Therefore, the IAEA and OECD appear to conclude that Brazil and India may actually possess the lion's share of world's thorium deposits.
    The prevailing estimate of the economically available thorium reserves comes from the US Geological Survey, Mineral Commodity Summaries (1996–2010):
     
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  4. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    I think we have reason to celebrate.

    Nuclear negotiations — India has the upper hand

    India's tough stand on the Iran nuclear issue makes one thing clear: The country's nuclear status is such that, though foreign assistance may be desirable, it is certainly not indispensable. India has attained self-sufficiency, as the statements by experts indicate.


    A NOTEWORTHY aspect of India's approach in the ongoing nuclear talks with the US is that it has shown no signs of desperation. As expected, perhaps. There have been at least two indications that India is prepared to dig its heels in.
    First, it refused to put the fast breeder test reactor and the upcoming prototype fast breeder reactor under international safeguards, in keeping with its stand that putting under safeguards any nuclear facility that has no foreign inputs is tantamount to accepting the nuclear non-proliferation treaty, which is discriminatory.
    Second, it reacted with indignation when the US Ambassador said that if India does not vote against Iran at IAEA, the July 18 understanding between the two countries could be soured. (The `July 18 initiative' was essentially a step towards India getting uranium from the US and other nuclear suppliers.)
    These two instances could be interpreted as mere `posturing' at the negotiation table, but there is really no reason to believe that India would need to budge from its stand.
    Today, India's nuclear status is such that, though foreign assistance (technology and fuel) may be desirable, it is certainly not indispensable. The country has attained self-sufficiency, as the statements by experts indicate.
    For example, in an `information capsule', Dr A. N. Prasad, former Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, says: "The present assessed reserves of commercially exploitable grade uranium ore in India can, at best, support a nuclear power generation of 10,000 MW, if natural uranium is used in thermal reactors on an once-through basis.
    However, if the plutonium produced in the uranium fuel is recovered and recycled as fresh fuel in fast breeder reactors, the electricity generation could be increased to about 350,000 MW."
    In an interview to this correspondent in 2004, Dr Anil Kakodkar, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, had said: "A few 100,000 MW is no big deal" for India in the long term, though the country may not see huge capacity additions in the next 10-20 years. It is important to note that these numbers are based on the existing reserves of uranium (78,000 tonnes, enough to support 12,000 MW for half a century), not taking into account the plutonium produced by the uranium-based plants or the `thorium cycle' that India is working on.
    Uranium reserves could increase — in fact, at a recent press conference in Chennai, Mr S. K. Jain, Chairman and Managing Director, Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPCIL), said he was "confident" that more reserves of the mineral would be found.
    Mr Jain must have had at the back of his mind the recent discoveries of the mineral in Domiasiat, Wahkyn and Tyrnai regions of Meghalaya. Uranium Corporation of India Ltd says that it is "on the verge of opening new deposits" at Domiasiat, Lambapur-Peddagattu in Andhra Pradesh and Bagjata and Banduburang in Jharkhand.
    The uranium put into `pressurised heavy water reactors' (PHWR) — a technology India has mastered — can produce a huge inventory of plutonium, which can be used in fast-breeder reactors. These breeder reactors need just a third of uranium that the PHWRs do, so it is possible to conserve uranium for many decades.
    Work on the thorium cycle has begun in right earnest and, given India's learn-it-yourself track record, the R&D work would most likely lead to commercial operations. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre's proposal to start building the 300 MW experimental Advanced Heavy Water Reactor is awaiting approval from the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board.
    India has the world's highest thorium reserves — 360,000 tonnes — which can fuel nuclear projects for 2,500 years.
    So, why does India need the help of US, or any other country for its nuclear programme? One answer is, the fast breeder reactors are costlier to build. Therefore, if somebody is willing to give uranium, why not use it to build the cheaper PHWRs?
    Second, if India's nuclear programme gains full international acceptance, the country could participate in project opportunities in other countries. This was hinted at by Mr Jain at the recent press conference in Chennai.
    Neither of these implies a desperate need for international uranium. True, fast breeder reactors are costlier, but it is possible to exercise control over costs, at least to some extent, by measures such as standardisation and capacity scale-up.
    The US government knows this only too well. Therefore, it is not likely to push India too hard. Against this backdrop, it should be interested in watching India's behaviour at future negotiations.
    If India flinches, it means there are deeper strategic issues behind the nuclear talks — energy security is certainly not the only issue.

     
  5. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Use of Thorium reserve depends on Uranium


    Mumbai, June 19: India needs to establish a sufficiently large installed capacity of nuclear power by fast breeders if it has to sustain nuclear power generation for hundreds

    of years using its large reserve of thorium, a top scientist said.

    "The rate at which we can grow in installed capacity is dependent on the availability of uranium as it is used in pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR)

    and the spent fuel from these reactors has plutonium which is used in the fast breeder reactor (FBR)," Dr Srikumar Banerjee, Director, Bhabha Atomic Research

    Centre, said.

    Thorium itself is not a fuel, it is only a fertile material. It can be converted into Uranium-233 using excess neutrons available from the fast reactors.

    Thorium fuelled reactors cannot give high breeding ratio like that in fast reactors fuelled by plutonium, Banerjee said.

    "That is why we cannot grow with thorium but once we establish a large capacity with fast breeders we can sustain that capacity with thorium for several

    centuries," he said.

    Uranium is used in PHWR and the spent fuel from them has plutonium, which is used in the breeder reactor. India is building a 500 Prototype FBR in Tamil

    Nadu. The third-stage of the nuclear power programme envisioned by Homi Bhabha can be a reality only if an inventory of Uranium-233 is generated from thorium.

    The implementation of this scheme can, therefore, occur only in stages, he said.

    "Our immediate effort is to increase the capacity by setting up more nuclear power stations using uranium as fuel.

    The plutonium from spent fuel will provide plutonium for the growth of our FBR programme, which in turn, will allow building the inventory of Uranium-233

    from thorium at a faster rate.

    Country's Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) has been operating with record fuel burn up for over two decades.

    "We are now building a 500 MW prototype fast breeder reactor at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu and it is expected to be ready by 2010. India is also planning for

    two more FBRs at Kalpakkam and two others in some other location by 2020," he said.

    "If we can get adequate uranium for increasing the capacity of nuclear power production at a faster rate, we will be able to accelerate the pace of our

    second stage growth and initiate the third stage at an earlier date," Banerjee said.

    The growth of nuclear power generation capacity with fast reactors will be significantly determined by the doubling time.

    Explaining the concept of doubling time, Banerjee said, a fast breeder reactor consumes plutonium but at the same time produces more plutonium than what

    it consumes. Not only can it generate its own fuel but also it builds an inventory to support a new fast breeder reactor.

    The time period in which one reactor can produce enough fuel necessary for meeting the demand for a second reactor is known as the doubling time. There

    is an urgent need for decreasing this doubling time by development of new type of fast reactor fuel.

    Research efforts are under way both in BARC and IGCAR to achieve this goal.

    "As mentioned earlier, thorium based reactor does not allow a growth in the installed capacity but with the induction of Accelerator Driven Sub-critical

    System, capacity growth to a certain extent will become feasible," he said.

     
  6. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    Guess who owns hundreds of kilometers of beaches in andhra pradesh whose sand is rumored to be high contents of thorium....
     
  7. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    It doesnt matter who owns those beaches unltimate owner will be Government of India . It can take control of those resources anytime .
     
  8. ajtr

    ajtr Veteran Member Veteran Member

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    When fence(GOI) itself starts eating the crop then word 'control' loses its meaning.......2G case is prime example.
     
  9. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    I think huge resource of Thorium in India and Indian scientists working towards Thorium based reactors has prompted USA to get into nucler deals with us . They had a feeling that If Somehow scientists are able to make a large Thorium based reactor Indian nuclear market will be closed forever for them. Given large amount of thorium that we have we will have dominance in nuclear reactors market.
     
  10. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    This article is a little misleading 5 years is too short a time to develop a thorium based energy infrastructure, even our own thorium cycle is not expected to start around 2020 and this is after years of research.
     
  11. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Thorium: the miracle cure for a new nuclear backbone?


    “You can run a civilisation on thorium for hundreds of thousands of years, and it’s essentially free,” says Kirk Sorensen, former NASA engineer and one of today's forward looking nuclear technologists. This week we look at the progress that has been made in developing thorium-based nuclear reactors, global stores, and why China and India believe this ‘miracle metal’ could be the next best thing.
    [​IMG]
    By Heba Hashem, Middle East Correspondent
    Thorium versus Uranium
    A tonne of thorium - the slow-decaying, slightly radioactive metal - produces as much energy as 200 tonnes of uranium, or 3,500,000 tonnes of coal. Besides being much cheaper, thorium is three times more abundant than uranium, so much that miners treat it as a nuisance, being a radioactive by-product when digging up rare earth metal.
    Unlike uranium, thorium is a low-carbon metal, and although not fissionable, it can be used as a nuclear fuel through breeding to fissile uranium-233 (U-233). Thorium decays its own hazardous waste and can expel the plutonium left by uranium reactors. Also, thorium cannot melt down and does not produce reliable fuel for bombs.
    Both uranium and thorium are mined as ore and then detached from the rock, but thorium is four times more prevalent in Earth's crust than uranium.
    “Thorium has the potential to be the backbone of our energy future, and we need to move quickly towards it,” says Kirk Sorensen, a former NASA rocket engineer and now chief nuclear technologist at Teledyne Brown Engineering.
    Typical nuclear power stations use uranium as their fuel source, but thorium reactors can offer greater safety, vastly reduced waste and much higher fuel efficiency. While only 0.7% of uranium’s energy is extractable, energy from thorium is 100% extractable.
    “Once you start looking more closely, it blows your mind away. You can run a civilisation on thorium for hundreds of thousands of years, and it’s essentially free. You don’t have to deal with uranium cartels,” says Sorensen.
    What if thorium was used to power nuclear reactors?
    To replace coal we must consider material inputs, and for the renewables they are high –approximately 5 times the steel and concrete required per megawatt generated.
    Thorium energy can be used to replace petroleum fuels, desalinate water, and provide heating. Although not fissile itself, Th-232 will absorb slow neutrons to produce the fissile and long-lived U-233.
    According to the World Nuclear Association (WNA), the irradiated fuel can be unloaded from the reactor, the U-233 separated from the thorium, and fed back into another reactor as part of a closed fuel cycle.
    Alternatively, U-233 can be bred from thorium in a blanket, the U-233 separated, and then fed into the core.
    When it comes to the process of converting thorium to energy, the Liquid-Fluoride Thorium Reactor (LFTR) would prove ideal.
    This is because the LFTR uses liquid fluoride fuel to carry the uranium and thorium in a two-fluid arrangement designed to follow thorium’s natural conversion to protactinium, uranium, and then to energy.
    On the other hand, the more modern version of LFTR would couple the fluoride reactor to a closed-cycle gas turbine, and enable the extraction of energy from thorium at efficiency roughly 300 times greater than we currently get from uranium in existing reactors.
    “This radical improvement in efficiency means that the world energy needs would be supplied with about 6000 tonnes of thorium rather than the 65,000 tonnes of uranium, 5 billion tonnes of coal, 32 billion barrels of oil, and 3 trillion cubic meters of gas we use today”, explains Sorensen.
    While there are development and construction costs are not yet estimated; hypothetically speaking the underlying costs could be significantly less than current ones as the low-pressure operation and compact size would result in much cheaper construction costs.
    Moreover, small modular thorium reactors can be built as “drop-in” replacements for coal plants, minimizing the cost of transition.
    Economy leaders race to thorium
    The idea of using thorium in nuclear reactors was conceived in the fifties and was last researched in US in the early seventies at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee.
    More than three decades (in 2010) the Department of Energy approved $200,000 funding at Oak Ridge for analytical studies of the Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) using thorium and uranium.
    In Asia, both India and China are progressing towards achieving thorium-based nuclear energy.
    "They have tons of thorium and almost no uranium resources," Dan Ingersoll, senior program manager for nuclear technology programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory points out.
    In February this year, the Chinese Academy of Sciences announced it will finance a programme to develop a Thorium Fuelled Molten Salt Reactor (TFMSR).
    The Academy stated that the goal was to develop a new generation of nuclear energy systems and to achieve commercial use in 20 years or so.
    “We intend to complete the technological research needed for this system and to assert intellectual property rights to this technology,” an academy statement read, in regards to its Chinese TFMSR programme, headed by Dr Jiang Mianheng.
    Meanwhile, India's ambitious three-stage energy security plan will be exploiting the country's vast reserves of thorium- which could make India a leading global exporter of the more efficient alternative nuclear technology.
    Stage two in particular will involve using reprocessed plutonium to fuel “fast reactors” that breed more U-233 and plutonium from thorium and uranium.
    This will be followed by stage three, in which advanced heavy-water reactors will burn U-233 while converting India’s thorium reserves into further uranium within a sustainable “closed” cycle.
    The United Kingdom is also jumping on India’s thorium bandwagon, with five nuclear-research proposals being jointly funded by the U.K.’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) and by India’s Department of Atomic Energy of which EPSRC is investing £1.2m.
    It is worth noting that the most common source of thorium is monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral found in igneous and other rocks, although the richest concentrations are in placer deposits, concentrated by wave and current action with other heavy minerals.
    World monazite resources are estimated to be about 12 million tonnes, two-thirds of which are in heavy mineral sands deposits on the south and east coasts of India.
    Locating the world’s thorium reserves
    Thorium resources are plentiful everywhere, but Australia and the US are said to have the largest deposits.
    A single thorium site in Idaho could provide nearly all the world’s yearly demand for thorium, with its large vein deposit of thorium and rare earth metals.
    “But long before we even need that, there’s 3200 tonnes of thorium sitting in the desert of Nevada, neatly separated for us, that the US would probably give to the UK for free–if they paid the cost of shipping”, Sorensen points out.
    The 2009 IAEA-NEA "Red Book" states a figure of 3.6 million tonnes of total known thorium resources.
    According to 2007 figures, Australia alone had 489,000 tonnes of thorium resources; accounting for 19% of the world’s total, while the US had 400,000 tonnes. Next came Turkey, with 344,000 tonnes, followed by India - 319,000, Brazil- 302,000, and Venezuela- 300,000.
    In addition to India, the Czech Republic is also exploring LFTR similar to the reactors tested at Oak Ridge.
    "You don't have to be a superpower to do this," Sorensen said. "You could be a state to do this. If the state legislature of Ohio said, 'We want to become the thorium state,' it could. "A handful of engineers in the '50s did it”.
     
  12. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    First thorium utilisation reactor built


    Ahmedabad: The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) has developed the first of its kind nuclear reactor for thorium utilisation and its design is under review of the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB).
    “We have developed the first of its kind Advance Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) having 300 MW capacity for thorium utilisation, whose design is under review of AERB,” said NPCIL Director (Technical) S A Bhardwaj.
    Speaking at a symposium organised by IIT-Gandhinagar, Bhardwaj said that the construction work of AHWR is slated to begin in the 12th Five Year Plan. “Presently, we are trying to locate a suitable site for it,” he added.
    The move is significant for development of third stage technology for nuclear reactors, especially when availability of uranium-235 in India, a natural fuel for reactors, is just 0.7 per cent in the estimated 60,000 tonnes of natural uranium reserves in the country. The remaining 99.3 per cent is uranium-238.
    Thorium cannot be used directly as fuel in reactors, as it has to be first converted into a fuel through a process, which so far had been a major challenge for experts.
    “The engineering of thorium fuels has been very well established. Some small amount of reprocessing from thorium fuel has been done in a research through a small reactor called Kamini at Kalpakkam in Tamil Nadu, which uses uranium 233,” he said.
    India is estimated to have around 200,000 tonnes of thorium reserves, with its concentration being along the coastal belts of Tamil Nadu and Kerala.
    NPCIL, is expected to record a profit in excess of Rs 1,000 crore by this fiscal end, which the company aims to re-plough back to fund its nuclear power programmes.
    The company has proposed to commence construction of two Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) nuclear power plants of 700 MW units each in Haryana and Madhya Pradesh this year.
    "We are likely to start construction of two nuclear power plant units of 700 MW units each in Haryana and another two units each of similar capacities at Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh, this year," Bhardwaj said.
     
  13. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Thorium has always been a better fuel in terms of availability and efficiency. The radioactivity is also less from thorium than uranium. The problem has been making a practical thorium reactor many nations have failed for decades. India will be the first to utilize thorium in a reactor.
     
  14. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Thorium reactor can fill in gap of demand and supply of electricity in India and given huge reserve that we have in our country it will have huge financial impact as well. I personally feel Indian scientists are trying very hard to make it work . My best wishes to them .
     
  15. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    They have made it work and along with the FBR it will mean almost no energy problems for centuries or even milleniums.

    http://www.bellona.no/bellona.org/english_import_area/international/russia/npps/co-operation/31261
     
  16. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Now we need to work on increasing the capacity of those reactors. Once that's achieved we will have real revolution in our country. Cheap electricity will be great catalyst for development.
     

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