Indian army today (2011) and tomorrow (2020)

Discussion in 'Indian Army' started by rajkoumar, Jan 26, 2011.

  1. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    INDIAN ARMY MODERNISATION NEED MAJOR PUSH


    By Brig (Retd) Gurmeet Kanwal

    New Delhi. Military strength is a pre-requisite for peace and stability on the Indian Sub-continent. India’s socio-economic development, and that of its neighbours, can continue unhindered only in a secure environment. No nation can afford to be complacent about and to take unmanageable risks with its security. In the rapidly changing geo-strategic environment, comprehensive national strength hinges around modern armed forces that strive constantly to keep pace with the ongoing technological revolution. The changing nature of warfare, the existential threat from India’s nuclear-armed military adversaries and new threats like terrorism spawned by radical extremism, require a quantum jump in the Indian Army’s operational capabilities.

    Despite all the tensions confronting it, India has maintained its coherence and its GDP is now growing at an annual rate in excess of eight per cent, except for the dip suffered during the financial crisis. Growth at such a rapid rate would not have been possible but for the sustained vigilance maintained by the Indian armed forces and their many sacrifices in the service of the nation over the last six decades. The Indian Army has fulfilled its multifarious roles with admirable valour and in a spirit of sacrifice and selfless devotion to duty.

    Modernisation Dilemma

    With personnel strength of approximately 1.1 million soldiers, the Indian Army has performed remarkably well to keep the nation together through thick and thin for over six decades since independence. It is a first-rate a Army with large-scale operational commitments on border management and in counter-insurgency operations. However, many of the Army’s weapons and equipment are obsolescent and need to be modernised.

    In order to successfully defeat future threats and challenges, the Army has to modernise its weapons and equipment and upgrade its combat potential by an order of magnitude. The shape and size of the Indian Army’s force structure a few decades hence merits detailed deliberation and quick decisions as capabilities take several decades to create, test and experiment with till they finally mature. It has been well said that there are no prizes for the runners up in war. War is a gruesome affair and, as Napoleon put it so eloquently about two centuries ago, “God is on the side of the battalions with the bigger cannon.” To afford the “bigger cannon” there is a need to make adequate budgetary provisions. The present defence budget, which is pegged at less than 2.0 per cent of India’s GDP, is grossly inadequate to support genuine modernisation as against the replacement of obsolete equipment.

    Lt Gen J P Singh, Deputy Chief of the Army Staff, said in a recent interview with the CLAWS Journal, “The critical capabilities that are being enhanced to meet challenges across the spectrum, include battlefield transparency, battlefield management systems, night-fighting capability, enhanced firepower, including terminally guided munitions, integrated manoeuvre capability to include self-propelled artillery, quick reaction surface-to-air missiles, the latest assault engineer equipment, tactical control systems, integral combat aviation support and network centricity.”

    While the army has drawn up elaborate plans for modernisation and qualitative upgradation of its capabilities, the pace of modernisation has been rather slow due to the lack of adequate funding support. India’s defence budget is pegged at less than 2.0 per cent of the GDP at present.

    Notably, according to Defence Minister A K Antony, "New procurements have commenced… but we are still lagging by 15 years.”

    Unless immediate measures are taken to speed up the pace of modernisation, the present quantitative military gap with China will soon become a qualitative gap as well. Also, the slender conventional edge that the Indian Army enjoys over the Pakistan army will be eroded further as Pakistan is spending considerably large sums of money on its military modernisation under the garb of fighting radical extremism.

    Armour Modernisation

    Pakistan has acquired 320 T-80 UD tanks and is on course to add Al Khalid tanks that it has co-developed with China to its armour fleet. The Indian armour fleet is also being modernised gradually. The indigenously developed Arjun MBT has entered serial production to equip two regiments. 310 T-90S MBTs have been imported from Russia. In December 2007, a contract was signed for an additional 347 T-90 tanks to be assembled in India.

    A programme has been launched to modernise the T-72 M1 Ajeya MBTs that have been the mainstay of the Army’s Strike Corps and their armoured divisions since the 1980s. The programme will upgrade the night fighting capabilities and fire control system of the tank. Approximately 1,700 T-72 M1s have been manufactured under license at the Heavy Vehicle Factory (HVF), Avadi. The BMP-1 and, to a lesser extent, the BMP-2 infantry combat vehicles, which have been the mainstay of the mechanised infantry battalions for long, are now ageing and replacements need to be found soon. The replacement vehicles must be capable of being successfully employed for internals security duties and counter-insurgency operations in addition to their primary role in conventional conflict.

    Artillery and Air Defence: Lagging behind

    Despite the lessons learnt during the Kargil conflict of 1999, where artillery firepower had paved the way for victory, modernisation of the artillery continues to lag behind. The last major acquisition of towed gun-howitzers was that of about 400 pieces of 39-calibre 155 mm FH-77B howitzers from Bofors of Sweden in the mid-1980s. The artillery needs large numbers of 155mm/ 39-calibre light weight howitzers for the mountains and 155mm/52-calibre long-range howitzers for the plains, as well as for self-propelled guns for the desert terrain. The acquisition plan for these has suffered one setback after another. The artillery also must acquire large quantities of precision guided munitions (PGMs) for more accurate targeting in future battles.

    A contract for the acquisition of two regiments of the 12-tube, 300 mm Smerch multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL) system with 90 km range was signed with Russia’s Rosoboronexport in early-2006. The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile (Mach 2.8 to 3.0), with a precision strike capability, very high kill energy and maximum range of 290 km, was inducted into the army in July 2007. These terrain hugging missiles are virtually immune to counter measures due to their high speed and very low radar cross section. It is also time to now consider the induction of unmanned combat air vehicles (UCAVs) armed with air-to-surface missiles into service for air-to-ground precision attacks.

    The Corps of Army Air Defence is also faced with problems of obsolescence. The vintage L-70 40 mm AD gun system, the four-barrelled ZSU-23-4 Schilka (SP) AD gun system, the SAM-6 (Kvadrat) and the SAM-8 OSA-AK need to be replaced by more responsive modern AD systems that are capable of defeating current and future threats. The indigenously developed Akash surface-to-air missile has not yet been inducted into service. The short-range and medium-range SAM acquisition programmes are also stagnating.

    Infantry and Other Combat Arms

    The modernisation plans of India’s cutting edge infantry battalions, aimed at enhancing their capability for surveillance and target acquisition at night and boosting their firepower for precise retaliation against infiltrating columns and terrorists holed up in built-up areas, are moving forward but at a slow pace. These include the acquisition of shoulder-fired missiles, hand-held battlefield surveillance radars (BFSRs), and hand-held thermal imaging devices (HHTIs) for observation at night. Stand-alone infra-red, seismic and acoustic sensors need to be acquired in large numbers to enable infantrymen to dominate the Line of Control (LoC) with Pakistan and detect infiltration of Pakistan-sponsored terrorists.

    Similarly, the operational capabilities of army aviation, engineers, signal communications, reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition (RSTA) branches need to be substantially enhanced so that the overall combat potential of the army can be improved by an order of magnitude. Modern strategic and tactical level command and control systems need to be acquired on priority basis for better synergies during conventional and sub-conventional conflict. Plans for the acquisition of a Tactical Communications System (TCS) and a Battlefield Management System (BMS) are not making much headway. Despite being the largest user of space, the army does not have a dedicated military satellite to bank on.

    Other Modernisation Imperatives

    The army must reduce its deployment timings by upgrading the logistics infrastructure for mobilisation so that it can facilitate the execution of its Cold Start doctrine. A modern intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (the ‘sensors’) system is required to reduce the number of troops needed to man the borders. The army needs to enhance its capabilities for carrying offensive operations into the territories of India’s military adversaries so as to deter them from waging war. Firepower assets (the ‘shooters’) – artillery, missiles, rocket launchers, unmanned combat air vehicles, attack helicopters, ground strike aircraft – must be increased substantially, particularly precision strike capabilities.

    Command and control systems should be automated and synchronised with the sensors and shooters to exploit the synergies provided by network centric effects based operations. Rapid reaction and air assault capabilities need to be developed to intervene militarily in India’s strategic neighbourhood whenever the national interest so requires. The army’s internal security, counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism capabilities also need to be modernised as most of the emerging challenges will lie in the domain of sub-conventional conflict and operations other than war. The time has come to seriously consider a ‘third force’ for internal security duties. Doctrinal concepts, organisations structures and training methodologies must keep pace with technological advancements. The army must train its personnel for certainty and educate them for uncertainty.

    Re-structuring and modernising the Indian army will require political courage, military astuteness, a non-parochial approach and a singularity of purpose. Only a future-ready army can march into the coming decades with confidence, well prepared to tackle the new challenges looming over the horizon. The Government of India must appoint a bipartisan National Military Commission to go into the whole gamut of re-structuring and modernisation. The commission should comprise eminent political leaders, armed forces veterans, civilian administrators, diplomats and scholars who are capable of dispassionate reasoning and are familiar with the current military discourse. It should be given no more than six months to complete its work so that the re-structuring exercise can begin early and be completed by 2020-25.

    Finally, the Indian Army of the future must be light, lethal and wired; ready to fight and win India’s future wars jointly with the Navy and the Air Force over the full spectrum of conflict, from sub-conventional conflict and operations other than war to all out conventional war; so as to ensure regional stability and internal security. The nation must get a modern force that can fight and win India’s future battles with the least number of casualties and minimum collateral damage through surgical strikes. It should be a force capable of carrying the battle into enemy territory. It is the time the bogey of the Panipat Syndrome is laid to rest.

    Only then will the nation get a peaceful environment for socio-economic development. The aim should be to ensure peace through conventional deterrence so that India can achieve all round prosperity and join the ranks of the world’s developed nations.
     
    Last edited: Jan 26, 2011
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  3. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    Hello friends, i invite u all to share ur knowledge in this thread to see a clear future of Modernised Indian army of Tomarrow.

    What all need a army to win internel and external challenges like terrorism and war in near future and future.

    First part : INTELLIGENCE, COMMUNICATION, RECONAISSANCE, SURVEILLANCE, TARGET ACUQISITION

    Second Part : SPPED DECISION MAKING, SPEED EXCECUTING, TRANSPORT, LOGISTIC

    Third part : RECONAISSANCE & SURVEILLANCE (by airforce plane AEW&C)
    ATTACK HELICOPTERS
    ARTILLERYS
    INFANTRY FIGHTING VECHICALS
    ARMOURED PERSONEL CARRIER
    TANKS
    SPECIAL FORCES
    INFANTRY DIVISIONS

    Fourth part : LOGISTIC SUPPORT, MEDICAL SUPPORT, TECHNICAL SUPPORT

    The third part differs due to size of challenges. May be like kargil we may not use attack helicopters, tanks,
    IFVs.
     
  4. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS

    SUFACE TO AIR
    AKASH SAM


    What are all other air defense systems available for INDIAN ARMY at present in service and suitable in future?
     
  5. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    RECONNAISSANCE & SURVEILLANCE
    BRDM2 --------- 255
    FERRET -------- 100

    TANKS
    ARJUN ----- 124
    T90 ----- 620
    T72mi ---- 1950
    T55 ----- 550

    INFANTRY FIGHTING VEHICAL
    BMP2 ----- 1000+
    BMP1 ------ 700
    FV432 ------ 80
    OT64SKOT - 157

    ANTI TANK
    NAMICA ------ 43

    ANTI AIRCRAFT
    TUNGUSKA mi ------------- 108
    ZSU23 4M SHILKA --------- 100

    ARTILLERY
    Howitzer - 410
    M.46 - 180
    M.46 (field gun) - 450
    SK58 (multi rocket launcher) - 38
    MBRL - 80
    PINAKA - 150
    BOFORS L/70 - AAA - 800

    CMT - 198
     
  6. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    What is actuel strength of our INDIAN ARMY without counting paramilitiary, airforce, navy and reserve force?
     
  7. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    Last edited: Jan 26, 2011
  8. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    Hi KUNAL BISWAS i goen throuth ur thread it's simply super job what u did. my salut to u man.

    but the use of my thread is to fallow the actuel upgrades, procurements and develpments for modernisation to discuss on selections and talk other options and opinions. as u say i share what i learn to learn more.
     
  9. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    RECONNAISSANCE & SURVEILLANCE:

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAI_Searcher
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAI_Heron
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DRDO_Nishant
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IAI_Phalcon
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DRDO_AEW&CS

    Also India have a small Spy satellite network, which enable us to setup C4ISR (command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance)..

    Their are manned Aircrafts with Recon pods too..


    ATTACK HELICOPTERS:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mi-35
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HAL_Light_Combat_Helicopter


    ARTILLERYS:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/130_mm_towed_field_gun_M1954_(M-46)
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FH-77
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BM-21
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pinaka_Multi_Barrel_Rocket_Launcher
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BM-30


    INFANTRY FIGHTING VECHICALS/ APC
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BMP-2


    TANKS
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arjun_MBT
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-90
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T-72

    SPECIAL FORCES/ INFANTRY DIVISIONS
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indian_Army


    Its difficult to to talk abt all updates in one thread, Their are dedicated separate threads for specific issues..

    Subscribe them, they are all here in DFI..
     
  10. rajkoumar

    rajkoumar Regular Member

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    Thank you gentleman for informations u posted here. my source of information is also wikipedia.
     
  11. Aldrich1

    Aldrich1 New Member

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    I had a great time to read out this article.your post is really awesome i get some informative point in it.
     
  12. Tshering22

    Tshering22 Sikkimese Saber Senior Member

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    Do we still keep T-55s?:confused2:

    I thought they were retired years ago and sent for the scrapyard. TBH we need around 600-800 Arjuns (both variants) and replace all T-72s and T-55s with T-90s. To have minimum different platforms is the best because it is of priority to keep the maintenance costs low.

    Pakistan has limited their tank fleet to MBT-2000 (Al Khalid) and Al-Zarrar (hybrid between Ukrainian T-85 and Chinese some Type). We should also make the platforms are minimally different as possible. Arjuns in both variations will be more like owning Leopard 2s which are fine tanks and Arjun after being discussed on more than 80 pages here, has won the battle.

    I really hope that Armoured division limits itself to these 2 heavy battle tanks.

    In IFV section, it is time we replace stuff with Anders based stuff or even consider making our own rather than importing all over again. After Arjun, making IFV shouldn't take time, except for getting them into mass production.

    In Artillery, we need to get those damn guns faster because this is annoying. The M-777 and other guns are being bid for and again and again scrapped due to some stupid political issue the perpetrator of which has died long time back. Also, we need more rocket artillery and the numbers we have are absolutely tiny compared to what PLA has. AND YES, there are some things like MBRLs which we need in quantity and fast and Pinaka (both 40 km and 120 km) is needed especially in NE (Kargil was mountainous and Pinakas did excellent there).
     
    Last edited: Feb 4, 2011
  13. Kunal Biswas

    Kunal Biswas Member of the Year 2011 Moderator

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    T-55 are our light tanks, unlike T-72 & T-90S these modified T-55 can operate over high altitudes, Until they are replaced by Anders in near future..

    Arjun is better deign than LEO A4, Protection is better, but not Karna MBT..

    I hope they came up with some gud deign, last time i saw on livefest it looks like from 70s..

    I wont tak abt arty, we all know what Gov should do..
     
  14. hinsword

    hinsword New Member

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    have read the contents long back.feel to put some thoughts on motivation of young indians to join indian army.Need to arm the

    forces with modern equipments,training and opportunity to prove.Blame it on the politicos,babus and complacent top brass of armed

    forces.The helplessness of GOI to respond to threats from pakis and chinis due to lack of will and preparation.How a hotchpoch

    response compells us to lose well trained NSG commandos,officers, common men to mumbai attack at our heart,We respond by

    exchanging papers to be thrown in trash and feed the killers to motivate pakis.We exchange killers and justify our timid

    attitude.There is total lack of trust in our value system and everybody is out to make money.Definitely these are bad times for us as

    a society.To motivate the true patriot indian youngsters need to modernise the forces and reinvent ,invest in education

    system,some media blitzkirg and perks for short service commission without compromising quality,people join forces only out of

    compulsion of lack of other openings.There may be millions who feel like me and hope for a rebound of glorious days of 1971.We

    miss Durga(indira gandhi).
     
    Kunal Biswas likes this.

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