India contributions to the World (unsung ones)

Discussion in 'Defence & Strategic Issues' started by brain_dead, Jan 2, 2011.

  1. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

    Dec 30, 2010
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    Born in 476 CE in Kusumpur ( Bihar ), Aryabhatt's intellectual brilliance remapped the boundaries of mathematics and astronomy. In 499 CE, at the age of 23, he wrote a text on astronomy and an unparallel treatise on mathematics called "Aryabhatiyam." He formulated the process of calculating the motion of planets and the time of eclipses. Aryabhatt was the first to proclaim that the earth is round, it rotates on its axis, orbits the sun and is suspended in space - 1000 years before Copernicus published his heliocentric theory. He is also acknowledged for calculating p (Pi) to four decimal places: 3.1416 and the sine table in trigonometry. Centuries later, in 825 CE, the Arab mathematician, Mohammed Ibna Musa credited the value of Pi to the Indians, "This value has been given by the Hindus." And above all, his most spectacular contribution was the concept of zero without which modern computer technology would have been non-existent. Aryabhatt was a colossus in the field of mathematics.



    Renowned astrologer and astronomer who was honored with a special decoration and status as one of the nine gems in the court of King Vikramaditya in Avanti ( Ujjain ). Varahamihir's book "panchsiddhant" holds a prominent place in the realm of astronomy. He notes that the moon and planets are lustrous not because of their own light but due to sunlight. In the "Bruhad Samhita" and "Bruhad Jatak," he has revealed his discoveries in the domains of geography, constellation, science, botany and animal science. In his treatise on botanical science, Varamihir presents cures for various diseases afflicting plants and trees. The rishi-scientist survives through his unique contributions to the science of astrology and astronomy.

    He was an extraordinary wizard of science born in the nondescript village of Baluka in Madhya Pradesh . His dedicated research for twelve years produced maiden discoveries and inventions in the faculties of chemistry and metallurgy. Textual masterpieces like "Ras Ratnakar," "Rashrudaya" and "Rasendramangal" are his renowned contributions to the science of chemistry. Where the medieval alchemists of England failed, Nagarjuna had discovered the alchemy of transmuting base metals into gold. As the author of medical books like "Arogyamanjari" and "Yogasar," he also made significant contributions to the field of curative medicine. Because of his profound scholarliness and versatile knowledge, he was appointed as Chancellor of the famous University of Nalanda . Nagarjuna's milestone discoveries impress and astonish the scientists of today.
  3. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

    Dec 30, 2010
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    A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, Acharya Sushrut details the first ever surgery procedures in "Sushrut Samhita," a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe, Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, cathers and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the "Sushrut Samhita," he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. Acharya Sushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

    Celebrated as the founder of the Sankhya philosophy, Acharya Kapila is believed to have been born in 3000 BCE to the illustrious sage Kardama and Devahuti. He gifted the world with the Sankhya School of Thought. His pioneering work threw light on the nature and principles of the ultimate Soul (Purusha), primal matter (Prakruti) and creation. His concept of transformation of energy and profound commentaries on atma, non-atma and the subtle elements of the cosmos places him in an elite class of master achievers - incomparable to the discoveries of other cosmologists. On his assertion that Prakruti, with the inspiration of Purusha, is the mother of cosmic creation and all energies, he contributed a new chapter in the science of cosmology. Because of his extrasensory observations and revelations on the secrets of creation, he is recognized and saluted as the Father of Cosmology.

    Acharya Bharadwaj had a hermitage in the holy city of Prayag and was an ardent apostle of Ayurveda and mechanical sciences. He authored the "Yantra Sarvasva" which includes astonishing and outstanding discoveries in aviation science, space science and flying machines. He has described three categories of flying machines: 1.) One that flies on earth from one place to another. 2.) One that travels from one planet to another. 3.) And One that travels from one universe to another. His designs and descriptions have impressed and amazed aviation engineers of today. His brilliance in aviation technology is further reflected through techniques described by him:
    1.) Profound Secret: The technique to make a flying machine invisible through the application of sunlight and wind force.
    2.) Living Secret: The technique to make an invisible space machine visible through the application of electrical force.
    3.) Secret of Eavesdropping: The technique to listen to a conversation in another plane.
    4.) Visual Secrets: The technique to see what's happening inside another plane.
    Through his innovative and brilliant discoveries, Acharya Bharadwaj has been recognized as the pioneer of aviation technology.
  4. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

    Dec 30, 2010
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    As the founder of "Vaisheshik Darshan"- one of six principal philosophies of India - Acharya Kanad was a genius in philosophy. He is believed to have been born in Prabhas Kshetra near Dwaraka in Gujarat . He was the pioneer expounder of realism, law of causation and the atomic theory. He has classified all the objects of creation into nine elements, namely: earth, water, light, wind, ether, time, space, mind and soul. He says, "Every object of creation is made of atoms which in turn connect with each other to form molecules." His statement ushered in the Atomic Theory for the first time ever in the world, nearly 2500 years before John Dalton. Kanad has also described the dimension and motion of atoms and their chemical reactions with each other. The eminent historian, T.N. Colebrook, has said, "Compared to the scientists of Europe, Kanad and other Indian scientists were the global masters of this field."

    Born in the obscure village of Vijjadit (Jalgaon) in Maharastra, Bhaskaracharya's work in Algebra, Arithmetic and Geometry catapulted him to fame and immortality. His renowned mathematical works called "Lilavati" and "Bijaganita" are considered to be unparalled and a memorial to his profound intelligence. Its translation in several languages of the world bear testimony to its eminence. In his treatise "Siddhanta Shiromani" he writes on planetary positions, eclipses, cosmography, mathematical techniques and astronomical equipment. In the "Surya Siddhanta" he makes a note on the force of gravity: "Objects fall on earth due to a force of attraction by the earth. Therefore, the earth, planets, constellations, moon, and sun are held in orbit due to this attraction." Bhaskaracharya was the first to discover gravity, 500 years before Sir Isaac Newton. He was the champion among mathematicians of ancient and medieval India. His works fired the imagination of Persian and European scholars, who through research on his works earned fame and popularity.

    Acharya Charak has been crowned as the Father of Medicine. His renowned work, the "Charak Samhita," is considered as an encyclopedia of Ayurveda. His principles, diagnoses, and cures retain their potency and truth even after a couple of millennia. When the science of anatomy was confused with different theories in Europe, Acharya Charak revealed through his innate genius and enquiries the facts on human anatomy, embryology, pharmacology, blood circulation and diseases like diabetes, tuberculosis, heart disease, etc. In the "Charak Samhita" he has described the medicinal qualities and functions of 100,000 herbal plants. He has emphasized the influence of diet and activity on mind and body. He has proved the correlation of spirituality and physical health contributed greatly to diagnostic and curative sciences. He has also prescribed and ethical charter for medical practitioners two centuries prior to the Hippocratic oath. Through his genius and intuition, Acharya Charak made landmark contributions to Ayurveda. He forever remains etched in the annals of history as one of the greatest and noblest of rishi-scientists.
  5. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

    Dec 30, 2010
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    The Science of Yoga is one of several unique contributions of Bharat to the world. It seeks to discover and realize the ultimate Reality through yogic practices. Acharya Patanjali , the founder, hailed from the district of Gonda (Ganara) in Uttar Pradesh . He prescribed the control of prana (life breath) as the means to control the body, mind and soul. This subsequently rewards one with good health and inner happiness. Acharya Patanjali 's 84 yogic postures effectively enhance the efficiency of the respiratory, circulatory, nervous, digestive and endocrine systems and many other organs of the body. Yoga has eight limbs where Acharya Patanjali shows the attainment of the ultimate bliss of God in samadhi through the disciplines of: yam, niyam, asan, pranayam, pratyahar, dhyan and dharna. The Science of Yoga has gained popularity because of its scientific approach and benefits. Yoga also holds the honored place as one of six philosophies in the Bharatiya philosophical system. Acharya Patanjali will forever be remembered and revered as a pioneer in the science of self-discipline, happiness and self-realization.

    Amazing Facts about Bharat and Bharatiyas!

    1. Bharat is the world's largest, oldest, continuous civilization.

    2. Bharat never invaded any country in her last 10000 years of history.

    3. Bharat is the world's largest democracy.

    4. Varanasi, also known as Benares, was called "the ancient city" when Lord Buddha visited it in 500 B.C.E, and is the oldest, continuously inhabited city in the world today.

    5. Bharat invented the Number System. Zero was invented by Aryabhatta.

    6. The World's first university was established in Takshashila in 700BC. More than 10,500 students from all over the world studied more than 60 subjects. The University of Nalanda built in the 4th century BC was one of the greatest achievements of ancient Bharat in the field of education.

    7. Sanskrit is the mother of all the European languages. Sanskrit is the most suitable language for computer software - a report in Forbes magazine, July 1987.

    8. Ayurveda is the earliest school of medicine known to humans. Charaka, the father of medicine consolidated Ayurveda 2500 years ago. Today Ayurveda is fast regaining its rightful place in our civilization.

    9. Although modern images of Bharat often show poverty and lack of development, Bharat was the richest country on earth until the time of British invasion in the early 17th Century. Christopher Columbus was attracted by Bharat's wealth.

    10. The art of Navigation was born in the river Sindhu 6000 years ago. The very word Navigation is derived from the Sanskrit word NAVGATIH. The word navy is also derived from Sanskrit 'Nou'.

    11. Bhaskaracharya calculated the time taken by the earth to orbit the sun hundreds of years before the astronomer Smart. Time taken by earth to orbit the sun: (5th century) 365.258756484 days.

    12. The value of pi was first calculated by Budhayana, and he explained the concept of what is known as the Pythagorean Theorem. He discovered this in the 6th century long before the European mathematicians.

    13. Algebra, trigonometry and calculus came from Bharat. Quadratic equations were by Sridharacharya in the 11th century. The largest numbers the Greeks and the Romans used were 106 whereas Hindus used numbers as big as 10**53(10 to the power of 53) with specific names as early as 5000 BCE during the Vedic period. Even today, the largest used number is Tera 10**12(10 to the power of 12).

    14. IEEE has proved what has been a century old suspicion in the world scientific community that the pioneer of wireless communication was Prof. Jagdish Bose and not Marconi.

    15. The earliest reservoir and dam for irrigation was built in Saurashtra.

    16. According to Saka King Rudradaman I of 150 CE a beautiful lake called Sudarshana was constructed on the hills of Raivataka during Chandragupta Maurya's time.

    17. Chess (Shataranja or AshtaPada) was invented in Bharat.

    18. Sushruta is the father of surgery. 2600 years ago he and health scientists of his time conducted complicated surgeries like cesareans, cataract, artificial limbs, fractures, urinary stones and even plastic surgery and brain surgery. Usage of anesthesia was well known in ancient Bharat. Over 125 surgical equipment were used. Deep knowledge of anatomy, physiology, etiology, embryology, digestion, metabolism, genetics and immunity is also found in many texts.

    19. When many cultures were only nomadic forest dwellers over 5000 years ago, Bharatiya established Harappan culture in Sindhu Valley (Indus Valley Civilization).

    20. The four religions born in Bharat, Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism, are followed by 25% of the world's population.

    21. The place value system, the decimal system was developed in Bharat in 100 BC.

    22. Bharat is one of the few countries in the World, which gained independence without violence.

    23. Bharat has the second largest pool of Scientists and Engineers in the World.
  6. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

    Sep 29, 2010
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    yes i know all those :)
    but no matter what people from other countries wont accept that what they found today we found out thousands of years ago
  7. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

    Dec 30, 2010
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    Achievements of the Ancients
    (From Books of Dr. P.V. Vartak, Pune, INDIA)

    Medical Sciences
    Knowledge--------------------------------------Ancient Reference -------------------------------------- Modern Reference

    Plastic Surgery
    (Repair of nose ---------------------------------------Sushruta ------------------------------------------ A German Surgeon
    by the skin flap on forehead)--------------------(4000 - 2000 B.C.)--------------------------------------(1968 A.D.)

    Artificial Limb----------------------------------------Rigved (1-116-15)---------------------------------------20th Century

    Chromosomes-------------------------------------Gunavidhi (Mahabharat)----------------------------------1860-1910 A.D.
    -------------------------------------------------------------(5500 BCE)

    Number of Chromosomes (23)--------------------Mahabharat-5500 BCE------------------------------------1890A.D.

    Combination of Male and Female -------------------Shrimad Bhagwat ------------------------------------- 20th Century
    chromosomes in zygote-----------------------------------(4000 B.C.)

    Analysis of Ears---------------------------------------------Rigved------------------------------------------Labyrinth-McNally
    ---------------------------------------------------------- Eitereya Upanishad------------------------------------------- 1925
    ------------------------------------------------------------ (6000 BCE)

    Beginning of the Foetal Heart-------------------------- Eitereya Up.-----------------------------------------Robinson, 1972
    in the second month of pregnancy------------------Shrimad Bhagwat

    Parthenogenesis------------------------------------------ Mahabharat-------------------------------------------20th Century

    Test Tube Babies
    a) from the ovum only ----------------------------------Mahabharat--------------------------------------- Not possible yet

    b) from the sperm only -------------------------------- Mahabharat ---------------------------------- Not possible yet
    c) from both ovum and sperm------------------------ Mahabharat----------------------------------------- Steptoe, 1979

    Elongation of Life in --------------------------------- Shrimad Bhagwat----- ------------------------------------ Not yet
    Space Travel

    Cell Division (in 3 layers)------------------------------Shrimad Bhagwat--------------------------------------20th Century

    Embryology ---------------------------------------------Eitereya Upanishad ----------------------------------19th Century
    ---------------------------------------------------------------(6000 BCE)

    Micro-organisms------------------------------------------ Mahabharat-------------------------------------- 18th Century

    A material producing a disease -------------------------- S-Bhagwat (1-5-33)------------------------- Haneman,18thCent.
    can prevent or cure the disease
    in minute quantity

    Developing Embryo in Vitro. ----------------------------- Mahabharat --------------------------------- 20th Century

    Life in trees and plants ------------------------------- Mahabharat -------------------------- Bose,19thcent.

    16 Functions of the Brain ------------------------- Eitereya Upanishad ------------------------------ 19-20th Cent.

    Definition of Sleep ------------------------------ Prashna-Upanishad ----------------------------- 20th Century
    ----------------------------------------Patanjali Yogsootra

    to be continued....
    Last edited: Jan 2, 2011
  8. brain_dead

    brain_dead Regular Member

    Dec 30, 2010
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    Physical Sciences

    Knowledge ------------------------------------Ancient Reference------------------------------------------Modern Reference

    Velocity of Light ---------------------------------Rigved ------------------------------------------------------ 19th Century
    ---------------------------------------------------Sayan Bhashya ------------------------------------------------------(1400 A.D)

    Trans-Saturnean Planets ------------------------- Mahabharat (5500 B.C) ----------------------------- 17-19th Century

    Space Travel to another --------------------------- Shrimad Bhagwat ------------------------------------- Under Trials
    solar system ------------------------------------- (4000 B.C)

    Gravitational Force ----------------------------------- Prashnopanishad ------------------------------ 17th Century
    ----------------------------------------------- (6000 B.C)
    ------------------------------------------- Shankaracharya
    ----------------------------------------------- (500 B.C)

    Ultraviolet Band --------------------------------------- Sudhumravarna --------------------------------
    ---------------------------------------- (Mundakopanishad - M.U)

    Infra-red Band ------------------------------------------ Sulohita (M.U) --------------------------------- ---

    Tachyons faster than light ------------------------------------- Manojava (M.U) ------------------- Sudarshan, 1968

    Nuclear Energy ---------------------------------------- Spullingini (M.U) ---------------------------- 20th Cent.

    Black Holes ------------------------------------------- Vishvaruchi (M.U) -------------------------- 20th Century

    Monsoon at Summer Solstice ---------------------------------- Rigved (23720 B.C) ----------------------------- ---

    Entry in South America by ------------------------------------Valmiki Ramayan ------------------------------------ ---
    Aero planes -------------------------------------------- (7300 B.C)

    Phosphorescent Trident at -------------------------------------- V.Ramayan ------------------------- 1960 A.D.
    the Bay of Pisco, Peru,

    Aero planes ------------------------------------------------- Rigved ------------------------------- ---
    ------------------------------------------------------ Ramayan
    ------------------------------------------Samarangan Sutradhara
    --------------------------------------------------- (1050 A.D.)

    Robot -------------------------------- Samarangan Sootradhara ----------------------------------------- ---

    Atom (Divisible) ------------------------------------ Shrimad Bhagwat --------------------------------- Dalton
    -------------------------------------------- (4000 B.C.) ---------------------------------- 1800 A.D.

    Subatomic Particles (Electron, ------------------------------ Shrimad Bhagwat(4000 BC) ------------------------- Thomas,
    Proton, Neutron and other) ----------------------------------- (Param-Mahan) ----------- Chadwick (20th Cent.)

    Genesis of Universe ------------------------------------- Rigved (>10000 B.C.) ------------------- Gamaow,
    ---------------------------------------------------(Nasadeeya Sootra)

    Atom Bomb ---------------------------- Mahabharat (5500 B.C) ------------------------------- 1945 A.D.

    Sound Energy used to powder ------------------ Mahabharat (Vajrastra) -----------------------------Gavreau, 1964

    Mercury as energy source for ----------------------- Samrangan Sutradhara ------------------------- Indian Express,
    aero planes ------------------------------------------------------------------ 20-10-1979 A.D

    North Pole ----------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan ----------------------------- Piery, 1909 A.D
    Antarctica ------------------------------ Valmiki Ramayan ---------------------------- Piery, 1950 A.D
    Premordial matter from ------------------------- Rigved (>10000 B.C.) --------------------------- 20th Century
    which the universe emanated -------------------------- (Ambha)

    Formations of premordial -------------------------- Rigved (>10000 B.C) ----------------------- Gammow, 1950
    matter ----------------------------------- (Ambha-Nasadeeya)

    Natural Cycle of Water ------------------------------ Rigved (>10000 B.C) ----------------- -------19th Cent.
    -------------------------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan

    Electricity (DC) ------------------------- Mitra/Varuna-Teja/Agasti-------------------------------- 18th Cent.

    Water Analysis by ------------------------- Agasti (Prana+Udana) -------------------------- 19th Cent.
    electricity (H2 + O)

    Electroplating ------------------------------------- Agasti ---------------------------- 19th Cent.

    Vega becoming Pole Star --------------------------- Mahabharat (Vanaparva) -------------------------- ---

    Seven Colors in sunrays ----------------------------- Rigved (8-72-16) ------------------------------ ---

    Black Spots on the Sun ----------------------------Valmiki Ramayan ------------------------------------- ---

    Temporary Bridge on Sea -------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan ----------------------------------- ---

    Equinox's and Solstice's -------------------------------- Rigved (10-18-1) -------------------------------------- ---

    Meteors ---------------------------------- "Ulka" AtharvaVed (19-9) ------------------------------------ ---

    Pythagoras Theorem ---------------------------- Sulbha Sootra (800 BC) --------------------- Pythagoras, 500

    Comet (at Mula) ----------------------------------- Valmiki Ramayan -------------------------------- ---

    Mars in Aldebaren ---------------------------------------- V.Ramayan --------------- not occurred in
    "Breathing" of a Star ------------------------------------Rigved (Nasadeeya) ---------------Gamov, 1950

    Gravity and Heat Production ------------------------------- Rigved (Nasadeeya) ----------------- Gamov, 1950
    in a Star

    Order of origin of space, ---------------------------------- Rigved, Upanishads ------------------------------ ---
    gases, heat, water and earth

    Life on Earth --------------------------------------- Mahabharat, Puranas ---------------------- Salem, Jogesh
    ------------------------------------------------- 1.7 X 10^10 years ------------------- Pati-10^10 years

    Layers of Atmosphere accor- ------------------------------V.Ramayan (Kish.8) ----------------------------- ---
    ding to specific gravity

    Microscope ------------------------------------------- Mahabharat (5500 BC) --------------------- 16th Century
    Last edited: Jan 2, 2011
  9. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

    Sep 29, 2010
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    The diversity of appearances is an illusion.
    There is on earth no diversity.
    He gets death after death
    Who perceives here seeming diversity.
    As a unity only is It to be looked upon -
    this indemonstrable, enduring Being.
    [Brihadaranyaka 4.4.19-20]

    This whole world the illusion maker projects out of this [Brahman].
    And in it by illusion the other is confined.
    Now, one should know that Nature is illusion,
    And that the Mighty Lord is the illusion maker.
    [Svetasvatara 4.9-10]

    concept of simulation of reality..
    whole world we see and feel is actually an illusion.
  10. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

    Sep 29, 2010
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    Sage Agasti's Electric Cell. and electroplating
    Below is a Sanskrit description given by Sage Agasti in his book Agniyan on subject avionics.

    Sansthapye Mrunmaye patre "Tamrapatram" Susankritam
    Chadayet Shighigrivenadrarbhihi kasthapansubhihi
    Dastaloshtho nidhatavyaha paradachhaditstataha
    Sanyogat jayate tejo mitravarun sandyitam
    anen jalbhagosti pranodaneshu vayushu
    evan shatana kumbhana sanyogaha karyakrutsmrutaha

    The transcription given below is done at and is not exact...however anyone who understands Devnagari Script can read this.

    संस्था प्ये मृन्मये पत्रे "तम्रपात्र्न" सुसांकरतम
    च्छाड्येत शिखी ग्रिवेनड्रारभिही कस्थापन्सुभिही
    दस्तलोष्तो निधताव्याहा पारडच्छादितस्ताटाहा
    संयोगात जयते तेजो मित्रावरून संद्यिटम
    अणेन जलभगोस्ती प्रणोदनेशू वायूषू
    एवं शतना कुंभना संयोगहा कार्यक्ृटसमृताहा

    संस्था प्ये (Take ) मृन्मये (soil) पत्रे ( patra= container) "तम्रपात्र्न" ( cleaned copper plate) सुसांकरतम
    च्छाड्येत (covere with ) शिखी ( Morchud = Copper sulphate) ग्रिवेनड्रारभिही कस्थापन्सुभिही ( saw dust , kasthapansu..).
    दस्तलोष्तो ( Zink plate covered with ) निधताव्याहा पारडच्छादितस्ताटाहा (Mercury)
    संयोगात (this combination generate) जयते तेजो मित्रावरून (electricity) द्यिटम
    अणेन जलभगोस्ती प्रणोदनेशू वायूषू ( it can break water, Jalbhanga, into pran (oxygen ) and udan (hydrogen ) vayu (gas)
    एवं शतना कुंभना संयोगहा कार्यक्ृटसमृताहा ( one needs 100, Shata , such containers ) to do this work.

    Isn't above a proof of Sage Agasti's Knowledge about generating electricity from chemical reaction and using it for breaking water molecule in to hydrogen and oxygen.

    Sage agasti has also written that using this "Mitravarun Tej" i.e. electricity, one can put a layer of Gold or Silver ( by taking it's "Yavkshar" (Nitrate) ) on Copper.

    The above information is from book Swayambhu of Dr. P. V. Vartak
  11. warriorextreme

    warriorextreme Senior Member Senior Member

    Sep 29, 2010
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    In a statement on rigveda given by Sayanacharya at (Vijayanagara empire, 14 th Century AD), he says

    tatha ca smaryate yojananam sahasre dve dve sate dve ca yojane ekena nimisardhena kramamana
    तथा च स्मर्यते-योजनाना सहस्ट्रे द्वे-द्वे शते द्वे च योजने | एकेनं निमशारधेन क्रम मान नामोस्तुटे


    Thus it is remembered: [O Sun] you who traverse 2,202 yojanas in half a nimesa.

    Here yojana is about 9 miles as in the Arthasaastra (and Mahabharat Adiparva). The
    measures of time are thus defined in the Puranas:

    1 Day-Night = 30 Muhurta = 24 Hours
    1 Muhurta = 30 Kala = 24/30 Hours
    1 Kala = 30 Kastha = 24/900 hours = 1.6 minute
    1 Kastha = 15 Nimesha = (1.6/15) min = 3.2 seconds
    1 Nimesh = 3.2/15 = 0.21333... second

    A Nimesh is therefore equal to 16/75 seconds. (0.21333)
    If you calculate the value is,

    (2202*9 miles)/((16/75)/2 sec) = 185793.75 miles/sec

    Which is nothing but speed of light (Scientific value is 187372 miles)

    At that time the only known source of light was sun. So the credit was given to SUN.

    This information is highlighted by Prof. Subhash Kak, Delaune Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering and Professor of Asian Studies and Cognitive Science at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge. and is also in book Vastav Ramayan by Dr. P. V. Vartak.

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