Impact of Nuclear Programme in East Turkestan

Discussion in 'China' started by LETHALFORCE, Feb 28, 2012.


    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Feb 16, 2009
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    China’s nuclear programme in East Turkestan and its impact today (64)

    The Lop Nor testing site, located in East Turkestan, was used for a total of 46 individual nuclear detonations over three decades (1964 – 1996). Since the termination of the tests in 1996 – marked by Beijing’s signature of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty – the environmental and health impact of the radioactive contamination in the area has not yet been addressed.

    To raise this urgent need, László Tőkés MEP, in cooperation with Kristiina Ojuland MEP and Vytautas Landsbergis MEP, will convene a conference, ‘50 Years After Test 596: China’s Nuclear Programme in East Turkestan and Its Impact Today’ at the European Parliament in Brussels from 9.30–12.30 on 29 February 2012 in collaboration with the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO, and the World Uyghur Congress (WUC, ).
    The international conference promises rare information on China’s nuclear policies, the scope of its nuclear weapons tests in East Turkestan, and the consequences of radioactive exposure for people and environment with a particular focus on the disproportionate effects on the Uyghur population. A multi-faceted programme will cover elements of China’s programmes for scientific development as well as social and health policies, which have acquired international significance due to their wide-reaching effects. Expert panellists with a research background in nuclear security will provide an unadorned insight into the legacy of long-standing birth defects, cancer and death, which the local Uyghur community is facing as a consequence.
    The conference will provide a constructive discussion on ways to secure meaningful recognition and compensation for the survivors of the Communist Party’s nuclear testing programme conducted in Lop Nor, East Turkestan over three decades, frequently neglected by the international community.

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Feb 16, 2009
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    Health problems from China nuclear test program aired in Brussels « Space van Adriana

    Health problems from China nuclear test program aired in Brussels

    Health problems from China nuclear test program aired in Brussels

    February 23rd, 2012

    Millions of people were subjected to China’s open-air nuclear testing in the Uyghur region, East Turkestan, China.

    Yet nobody outside China knows the exact health impacts for this ethnic-minority, being forced to live under this permanent nuclear-cloud.

    On February 29 2012, the European Parliament is holding a conference in Brussels to highlight this human-rights issue.

    The Lop Nor testing site, located in East Turkestan (also known as the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region), was used for a total of 46 individual nuclear detonations over three decades (1964–1996).

    These were the largest ongoing series of tests ever to be carried out in a populated area. Since the open-air testing ended in 1996, the health and environmental impact of radioactive contamination on the Uyghur-population is little-known to outsiders — Lop Nor remains largely inaccessable to them…

    László Tőkés MEP, in cooperation with Kristiina Ojuland MEP and Vytautas Landsbergis MEP, will convene a conference, ‘50 Years After Test 596: China’s Nuclear Programme in East Turkestan and Its Impact Today’ at the European Parliament in Brussels on 29 February 2012 in collaboration with the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization (UNPO), the World Uyghur Congress (WUC), and the Belgian Uyghur Association.

    “With this conference, my colleagues and I wish to draw attention to the neglected topic of nuclear testing in East Turkestan, China, and make a call for a meaningful recognition of the civilian victims of the tests,” said László Tőkés MEP.

    Multiple Nobel Peace Prize nominee and WUC President, Rebiya Kadeer, noted that “the Uyghurs have long suffered from the health and environmental effects nuclear testing in Lop Nor…it is time to address the devastating impact of radioactive exposure that have affected probably millions of people.”

    While Beijing celebrates its nuclear capability, Marino Busdachin, UNPO General Secretary, warned that “a ‘Wall of Secrecy’ prevents experts from discovering the true effects of the Lop Nor tests and their real and devastating human cost in what amounts to a systematic violation of citizens rights”.

    Among those contributing to the conference will be Enver Tohti (Uyghur and Independent Medical Researcher), Vincent Metten (International Campaign for Tibet), Dominique Lalanne (Nuclear Physicist and Chair of Abolition 2000 Europe), Robert Knoth and Antoinette de Jong (Authors of “Certificate no. 000358, Nuclear Devastation in Kazakhstan, Ukraine, Belarus, the Urals and Siberia”). Under discussion will be possible compensation models and the scope for inclusion of the issue in future Human Rights Dialogues.

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Feb 16, 2009
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    � Facts and Figures: Lop Nor and the Nuclear Race | Xinjiang: Far West China

    Lop Nor and the Nuclear Race

    It wasn’t until late last year that I became interested in the Lop Nor region of the Xinjiang province, probably about the time when I wrote the article about our proud new addition to the area: the world’s largest fertilizer plant. Since that time I’ve slowly been researching the history and development of the region – mostly out of personal curiosity – and making notes from what I see on Google Earth. I wasn’t planning on writing about it any time soon except yesterday I ran across a Times Online article which was absolutely fascinating. I wanted to share a few of the facts from this article as well as some other numbers I’ve run across myself just as a reminder to everybody, including myself, the horrible costs of living in a nuclear world.

    From 1964 to 1996 China tested 46 nuclear devices in Xinjiang’s Lop Nor region (sometimes spelled “Lop Nur”).
    Of these tests, 23 were in the atmosphere, 22 were underground, and one explosion failed.
    The price of the first bomb was roughly equal to a third of the entire state budget for the year 1957
    As part of the nuclear experiments, a full-scale Beijing subway station was constructed as well as many buildings and roads which can still be seen from satellite images today.
    China’s three biggest tests generated 4 million times more radioactivity than the Chernobyl disaster.
    Takada, a Japanese physicist, has calculated that over 1.48 million people have been exposed to contamination over the 32 years that these tests were conducted not including the estimated 190,000 people who have died.
    Before the NPT, the US tested over 1,000 nuclear devices.
    Nuclear accidents in the US, which weren’t uncommon (ex: Castle Bravo), as well as mass radiation exposure forced lawmakers to pass the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act (RECA) in 1990 to help pay the medical bills of those who had worked at or lived near the nuclear test sites.
    China built nuclear weapons because of the US and the USSR. The USSR built weapons because of the US. The US built nuclear weapons during WWII because they were afraid Germany might get the upper hand. It’s all just a bunch of dominoes.
    It’s a shame that all of this has to happen, not to mention the trillions, not billions, of dollars that have been spent in development, transport and waste disposal. Soon China is going to have to own up and pass something similar to the RECA, some form of compensation for the workers and people who lived near the test sites, especially because most of those affected happen to be minorities
    Last edited: Feb 28, 2012
  5. pmaitra

    pmaitra Moderator Moderator

    Mar 10, 2009
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    EST, USA
    I love the thread title. :thumb:
    LETHALFORCE likes this.

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

    Feb 16, 2009
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    The Snow Lion Foundation Blog: China's nuclear death in East Turkistan (Uyghur).

    China's nuclear death in East Turkistan

    New research suggests the Chinese nuclear tests from 1964 to 1996 claimed more lives than those of any other nation. Professor Jun Takada, a Japanese physicist, has calculated that up to 1.48m people were exposed to fallout and 190,000 of them may have died from diseases linked to radiation.

    Below is a shocking story we found on the World Uyghur Congress website and have re-printed it here in our attempt to let the Uyghur situation become better known throughout the world. China must be held accountable for its continued crimes against humanity and destruction against the Uyghur, Tibetan and many other peoples...

    Revolt stirs among China's nuclear ghosts

    Up to 190,000 may have died as a result of China's weapons tests: now ailing survivors want compensation.

    The nuclear test grounds in the wastes of the Gobi desert have fallen silent but veterans of those lonely places are speaking out for the first time about the terrible price exacted by China's zealous pursuit of the atomic bomb.

    They talk of picking up radioactive debris with their bare hands, of sluicing down bombers that had flown through mushroom clouds, of soldiers dying before their time of strange and rare diseases, and children born with mysterious cancers.

    These were the men and women of Unit 8023, a special detachment charged with conducting atomic tests at Lop Nur in Xinjiang province, a place of utter desolation and - until now - complete secrecy. "I was a member of Unit 8023 for 23 years," said one old soldier in an interview. "My job was to go into the blast zone to retrieve test objects and monitoring equipment after the explosion."

    "When my daughter was born she was diagnosed with a huge tumor on her spinal cord. The doctors blame nuclear fallout. She's had two major operations and has lived a life of indescribable hardship. And all we get from the government is 130 Yuan (about US $22) a month."

    Hardship and risk counted for little when China was determined to join the nuclear club at any cost.

    Soldiers galloped on horseback towards mushroom clouds, with only gas masks for protection.

    Scientists jumped for joy, waving their little red books of Maoist thought, while atomic debris boiled in the sky.

    Engineers even replicated a full-scale Beijing subway station beneath the sands of the Gobi to test who might survive a Sino-Soviet Armageddon.

    New research suggests the Chinese nuclear tests from 1964 to 1996 claimed more lives than those of any other nation. Professor Jun Takada, a Japanese physicist, has calculated that up to 1.48m people were exposed to fallout and 190,000 of them may have died from diseases linked to radiation.

    "Nuclear sands" - a mixture of dust and fission products - were blown by prevailing winds from Lop Nur towards towns and villages along the ancient Silk Road from China to the West.

    The victims included Chinese, Uighur Muslims and Tibetans, who lived in these remote regions. Takada found deformed children as far away as Kazakhstan. No independent scientific study has ever been published inside China.

    It is the voices of the Chinese veterans, however, that will resonate loudest in a nation proud of its nuclear status but ill informed about the costs. One group has boldly published letters to the state council and the central military commission - the two highest government and military bodies - demanding compensation.

    "Most of us are between 50 and 70 and in bad health," they said. "We did the most hazardous job of all", retrieving debris from the missile tests.

    "We were only 10 kilometers (six miles) from the blast. We entered the zone many times with no protective suits, only goggles and gas masks. Afterwards, we just washed ourselves down with plain water."

    A woman veteran of Unit 8023 described in an interview how her hair had fallen out. She had lost weight, suffered chronic insomnia and had episodes of confusion.

    "Between 1993 and 1996 the government speeded up the test program, so I assisted at 10 underground explosions," she said. "We had to go into the test zone to check highly radioactive instruments. Now I?m too sick to work - will the government help me?"

    The price was paid by more than one generation. "My father was in Unit 8023 from 1967 to 1979, when his job was to wash down aircraft that had flown through the mushroom clouds," said a 37 year old man.

    "I've been disabled by chronic immune system diseases all my life and my brother's daughter was born with a heart defect," he said. "Our family has spent thousands of Yuan on operations over the decades. Two and three generations of our family have such illnesses - was it the nuclear tests? Does our government plan any compensation?"

    In fact, the government has already responded to pressure from veterans' groups. Last year Li Xueju, the minister of civil affairs, let slip that the state had started to pay "subsidies" to nuclear test personnel but gave no details of the amounts.

    Such is the legacy of the decision by Chairman Mao Tse-tung, in 1955, to build the bomb in order to make China a great power. Mao was driven by fear of the US and rivalry with the Soviet Union. He coveted the might that would be bestowed by nuclear weapons on a poor agricultural nation. Celebrations greeted the first test explosion on October 16, 1964.

    The scientists staged a total of 46 tests around the Lop Nur site, 1,500 miles west of Beijing. Of these tests, 23 were in the atmosphere, 22 underground and one failed. They included thermonuclear blasts, neutron bombs and an atomic bomb covertly tested for Pakistan on May 26, 1990.

    One device, dropped from an aircraft on November 17, 1976, was 320 times more powerful than the bomb that destroyed Hiroshima.

    The last explosion in the air was in 1980, but the last underground test was not until July 29, 1996. Later that year, China signed the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty and, once again, only the sigh of the winds could be heard in the desolation of the Gobi desert.

    The financial cost remains secret, but the price of the first bomb was roughly equal to more than a third of the entire state budget for 1957 - spending that went on while at least 30 million Chinese peasants died of famine and the nuclear scientists themselves lived on hardship rations.

    Rare was the outsider who gained a glimpse of this huge project. One was Danny Stillman, director of technical intelligence at Los Alamos, New Mexico, home of America's nuclear weapons. He made 10 visits to secret Chinese nuclear facilities during a period of detente and information exchange from 1990 to 2001.

    "Some of the videos they showed me were of PLA (People's Liberation Army) soldiers riding on horses - with gas masks over the noses and mouths of both the horses and the soldiers - as they were riding towards the mushroom cloud of an atmospheric surface detonation," Stillman recalled.

    "It was strange because the soldiers had swords raised above their heads as they headed for the radioactive fallout. I have always wondered how many of them survived."

    Stillman was also allowed to see the lengths to which the Chinese scientists had gone to experiment with annihilation in the desert.

    Like the Americans, the Chinese placed caged live animals, tanks, planes, vehicles and buildings around test sites. Such were the remains gathered by the men and women of Unit 8302.

    "The surprise to me was that they also had a full-scale Beijing subway station with all supporting utilities constructed at an undefined depth directly underneath," said Stillman.

    "There were 10,000 animals and a model of a Yangtze River bridge," recalled Wu Qian, a scientist.

    Li Yi, a woman doctor, added: "Animals placed two kilometers from the blast centre were burnt to cinders and those eight kilometers away died within a few days."

    China had borrowed Soviet blueprints and spied on the West, according to The Nuclear Express, a book by Stillman and Thomas Reed, the former US air force secretary.

    It explains how China then exploited its human capital to win technological parity with the US for just 4% of the effort - 45 successful test explosions against more than 1,000 American tests.

    "The Chinese nuclear weapon scientists I met... were exceptionally brilliant," Stillman said.

    Of China's top 10 pioneers, two were educated at Edinburgh University - Cheng Kaijia, director of the weapons laboratory, and Peng Huan-wu, designer of the first thermonuclear bomb. Six went to college in the United States, one in France and one in Germany.

    For all this array of genius, no Chinese scientist has dared to publish a study of the human toll.

    That taboo has been broken by Takada, a physicist at the faculty of medicine at Sapporo University, who is an adviser on radiation hazards to the government of Japan.

    He developed a computer simulation model, based on fieldwork at Soviet test sites in Kazakhstan, to calculate that 1.48m people were exposed to contamination during 32 years of Chinese tests.

    Takada used internationally recognized radiation dosage measurements to estimate that 190,000 have died of cancer or leukemia. He believes 35,000 fetuses were deformed or miscarried, with cases found as far away as Makanchi, near the Kazakh border with China.

    To put his findings in perspective, Takada said China's three biggest tests alone generated 4 million times more radioactivity than the Chernobyl reactor accident of 1986. He has called the clouds of fallout "an air tsunami".

    Despite the pall of silence inside China, two remarkable proofs of the damage to health have come from official Communist party documents, dated 2007 and available on provincial web sites.

    One is a request to the health ministry from peasants' and workers' delegates in Xinjiang province for a special hospital to be built to cope with large numbers of patients who were "exposed to radiation or who wandered into the test zones by mistake".

    The other records a call by a party delegate named Xingfu for compensation and a study of "the severe situation of radiation sickness" in the county of Xiaobei, outside the oasis town of Dunhuang.

    Both claims were rejected. Residents of Xiaobei report an alarming number of cancer deaths and children born with cleft palates, bone deformities and scoliosis, a curvature of the spine.

    Specialists at hospitals in three cities along the Silk Road all reported a disproportionate number of cancer and leukemia cases.

    "I have read the Japanese professor"s work on the internet and I think it is credible," said one. No cancer statistics for the region are made public.

    Some memories, though, remain indelible. One man in Dunhuang recalled climbing up a mountain-side to watch a great pillar of dust swirl in from the desert.

    "For days we were ordered to keep our windows closed and stay inside," recounted another middle-aged man. "For months we couldn't eat vegetables or fruits. Then after a while they didn't bother with that any more."

    But they did go on testing. And the truth about the toll may never be known unless, one day, a future Chinese government allows pathologists to search for the answers in the cemeteries of the Silk Road.

    The dead of Dunhuang lie in a waste ground on the fringe of the desert, at the foot of great dunes where tourists ride on camels. Tombs, cairns and unmarked heaps of earth dot the boundless sands.

    By local tradition, the clothes of the deceased are thrown away at their funerals. Dresses, suits and children's garments lie half-buried by dust around the graves.

    "People don't live long around here," said a local man who led me to the graveyard. "Fifty, 60 - then they're gone."

    JAYRAM 2 STRIKE CORPS Senior Member

    Mar 8, 2011
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    North Frontier, The Mighty Himalaya's
    The effects of Nuclear Testing in East Turkestan

    Saturday, 03 March 2012 16:00 Dennis Barbion, The Tibet Post International


    BRUSSELS: On Wednesday 29th February 2012, an important issue was discussed at the European Parliament in Brussels, a topic that is so unknown and that is kept silent by the Chinese authorities already for decades.

    The People's Republic of China began to develop its nuclear weapons programme in 1951 following a secret agreement with Moscow which exchanged Soviet assistance for Tibetan uranium. Although this coorperation ended in the 1960s, China made rapid progress and detonated its first nucelar bomb, codenamed ‘596' in October 1964 in East Turkestan. From 1964-1996, 46 confirmed nuclear detonations have taken place at Lop Nor in East Turkestan, and 22 underground tests were undertaken, including thermonuclear blasts, neutron bombs and an atomic bomb. Urumqi, Turpan, Qumul and Korla are cities in East Turkestan with Uyghur populations that reside within 320 km from the test site. It is believed that 200,000 people have died and at least 1.5 million people have been affected by radioactive material during the 32 years of nuclear tests at Lop Nor. The total amount of plutonium released in the atmosphere in East Turkestan is estimated to be 6 million times more than the Chernobyl accident, which affected one million people worldwide.

    Several Members of the European Parliament, Mr. László Tökés, Mrs. Kristiina Ojuland and Mr. Vytautas Landsbergis, organised a conference "50 years after test 596 - China's nuclear programme in East Turkestan and its impact today" in cooperation with the World Uyghur Congress (WUC), the Unrepresented Nations and People's Organisation (UNPO) and the Belgian Uyghur Association.

    Moderator of the very interesting conference was Mr. Andrew Swan (UNPO Programme Manager), and guest speakers were Dr. Enver Tohti (Uyghur surgeon and independent researcher), Mr. Vincent Metten (International Campaign for Tibet), Antoinette de Jong (journalist and author), Mr. Martin Schulthes (UNPO Project Coordinator), Mr. Hanno Schedler (Society for Threatened Peoples), Mr. Jean-Marie Rogue (EU Liaison Officer of the International Federation for Human Rights) and Mr. Dominique Lalanne (Chair of the Armes Nucléaires STOP and expert for Observatoire des Armements in France).

    Member of the European Parliament Mrs. Kristiina Ojuland from Estonia stated that the nuclear tests at Lop Nor in East Turkestan are not known much at all, so it was time to raise this issue at the European Parliament. She has been Member of the Estonian Parliament and served as Estonia's Foreign Minister from 2002-2005. Estonia has been a part of the former Soviet Union and is independent since 1991.

    Dr. Enver Tohti worked as a cancer surgeon in Urumqi in East Turkestan. Secretly and systematically he recorded details of cancer cases after he became alarmed of high rates of the disease amongst Uyghur patients. In 1997 Dr. Tohti leaked his findings to a team of western journalists and an undercover documentary film about the nuclear tests was made in 1998: "Death on the Silk Road". The documentary was broadcast in over 80 TV channels including Japan and the UK (Channel 4). As a result, Dr. Tohti was forced to leave East Turkestan and was granted refugee status in the UK in 1999.

    Dr. Tohti: "In the past I was the leader of demonstrations in East Turkestan. China called me ‘one of the top terrorists'. In that time, almost 30 years ago, no one got arrested after a demonstration, the students who participated in the protest were kicked out of the University. During Xi Jinping's visit in the US recently, Hu Jintao's successor mentioned that human rights in China have improved much. The reality is very different. After the demonstration in Urumqi on 5th July 2009, several thousands of people were killed and lots of people are still missing."

    Dr. Tohti stated that the nuclear tests in East Turkestan have affected millions of people and an independent investigation and a compensation for the victims is needed. "The Uyghur people live in fear, constantly. We have to think about the nuclear victims and the environmental effects. Today we speak for these victims."

    "Lop Nor is a tourist area now. The Chinese say that there is no problem. However, the human cost is immense. I have worked at the hospital at Urumqi and I have done undercover research. In 2008 the hospital was expanded with two new and very big buildings and it became the biggest cancer hospital in whole China. In 1997, there were 500 beds in the tumor hospital in Henan and 500 in Xinjiang. In 2008 there were still 500 beds in Henan but 2000 in Xinjian. Many countries also have paid lots of money to dump their nuclear waste in East Turkestan. This nuclear waste has to stop and victims should get a compensation."

    "Making the documentary ‘Death on the Silk Road' was very risky. I have done undercover research and the documentary was made in 6 weeks time. In order to visit certain places we had to pretend that we were tourists. We also met disabled people, victims of the nuclear tests, I brought the film makers in contact with them. We also had a doctor in our team that could talk with the victims. I also have discovered secret medical documents at the hospital in Urumqi, and a nurse secrectly told me that 90% of the patients in Xinjiang had blood cancer. From 1993 till 2000 double as many people have died of cancer. Since 1976 the cases of cancer have increased a lot."

    "After making the documentary, the Chinese kept everything silent. Nothing has happened."

    Mr. Vincent Metten of the office of International Campaign for Tibet (ICT) in Brussels explained the situation in Tibet, and the impact of the nuclear tests on the Tibetan plateau. "In 1993, ICT has published the report ‘Nuclear Tibet'. The Ninth Academy was responsible for designing all of China's nuclear bombs in the 1970s, and set up the first nuclear bases in China. In 1971 the first nuclear weapon was brought to Tibet, in Amdo. There are 3 nuclear bases in Tibet. Prisoners in labour camps were forced to do dangerous work in test sites. Tibet holds the world's most important known uranium reserves. The largest uranium deposits are in Tibet, near Lhasa. There are 9 uranium mines in Tibet now. The Lop Nor nuclear tests have affected the Uyghur people in East Turkestan and also Tibet."

    Journalist, photographer and writer Mrs. Antoinette De Jong from The Netherlands and freelance photographer Robert Knoth have been working on various books and exhibitions. "Certificate no. 000358" is a project about the impact of several nuclear disasters in the former Soviet Union. Between 1999 and 2005 they have visited 4 places in the former Soviet Union: Kazakhstan, the Urals, Chernobyl and Siberia. Their pictures are examples of what has also happened in Lop Nor. "There is no proper health care, the victims had to pay the costs for health care themselves. In hospitals, the effects of radiation were studied, cases of leukaemia, bone cancer, skin cancer, breast cancer, brain tumors, bone diseases etc. The Techa river is a water supply for many people, but as the water was affected by radiation, this also had a big impact."

    During a question and answer session, human rights defender Dr. Gaudi-Nagy Tamás who is a Member of the Hungarian Parliament, stated that the nuclear tests disasters in East Turkestan is very sad. "It's a genocide, and the European Parliament is a good floor to raise this issue. It's also important to raise this issue to the United Nations. This is a top human rights issue, justice is needed for the Uyghur people."

    Mr. Hassan T. Aydinli of the Iraqi Turkmen Front in Belgium asked Dr. Tohti about the compensations for the Uyghur victims. Dr. Enver Tohti answered that this is a very difficult thing. "In order to establish a system of compensation, the Chinese first have to admit their fault, and when they do they have to give money to the victims, so this is extremely difficult. I have no idea how this could be possible." Dr. Tohti has written lots of letters and e-mails to many people and organisations, even hundreds, but with no answer. "For me it's also difficult as I can not go back to East Turkestan, so there is not much I can do."

    The UNPO, the WUC and the Nonviolent Radical Party, Transnational and Transparty of Italy are going to raise this issue to the United Nations.

    After the speeches by Mr. Martin Schulthes who is the UNPO Project Coordinator and Mr. Hanno Schedler of the Society for Threatened People, Member of the European Parliament Mr. László Tökés gave a statement. "We have to emphasize the moral aspect of this issue. Ignoring this subject would be totally immoral. The Uyghur people suffer so much of the oppression. The basic, fundamental human rights are so much more important than the economic prosperity of China."

    Mr. Jean Marie Rogue, EU Liaison Officer of the International Federation for Human Rights, stated: "We have to break the wall of secrecy. The EU and China should have a constructive dialogue, also about human rights, the protection of the minorities, the release of the political prisoners etc. This dialogue should have effect on the ground in China, this is most important of all."

    Mr. Dominique Lalanne, Chair of the Armes Nucléaires STOP and expert for Observatoire des Armements in France, referred to other cases in which victims of nuclear tests got compensations. He also mentioned the fact that his country France has done nuclear tests in the Sahara desert in the past as well.

    At the end of the conference, Mr. Dolkun Isa, General Secretary of the WUC, was handed over several presents as an appreciation for his work. He expressed his gratitude to all the participants of the conference.

    Mr. Dolkun Isa: "200,000 people have died because of those nuclear tests and millions of people were affected. This happened 30 years ago. We should not forget this and raise this issue at the UN. China has to ratify the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty that they have signed in 1996 but never ratify. China has to allow an independent research to find out the extent to which the Uyghurs have been effected by nuclear testing. They also have to implement the necessary measures to provide compensation to the victims. This would bring China in line with current policy developments in the US, Russia and France. China has to recognise their responsibility for the continuing suffering and provide appropriate medical care. The international community, including the EU, the UN and environmental NGOs must continue to draw attention to this neglected issue."

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