Harpoon

Discussion in 'Strategic Forces' started by LETHALFORCE, Aug 1, 2009.

  1. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    US to sell anti-ship missiles to India | Lok News


    US to sell anti-ship missiles to India
    By Lok News Bureau • Sep 15th, 2008 • Category: USA

    WASHINGTON – Pentagon’s Defense Security Cooperation Agency (DSCA) informed the US Congress of its plan to sell HARPOON Block II Missiles as well as associated equipment and services to India. The total value could be as high as $170 million.

    The Government of India has requested a possible sale of 20 AGM-84L HARPOON Block II missiles; 4 ATM-84L HARPOON Block II Exercise missiles; containers; training devices; spare and repair parts; supply/technical support; support equipment; personnel training and training equipment; technical data and publications; U.S. Government and contractor engineering and logistics support services; and other related elements of logistics support The estimated cost is $170 million.

    “This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by helping to improve the security of an important partner and to strengthen the U.S.-India strategic relationship, which continues to be an important force for political stability, peace, and economic progress in South Asia,” the Pentagon said.

    If the Harpoon deal goes through, it would be the fourth major US arms sales to India over the last three years. Washington has already sold to Indian military, ANTPQ37 weapon-locating radars, six giant Hercules C-130J transport aircraft and eight new maritime P-8 reconnaissance aircraft.

    India intends to use the HARPOON missiles to modernize its Air Force Anti-Surface Warfare mission capabilities and improve its naval operational flexibility. The missiles will assist the Indian Navy to develop and enhance standardization and operational ability with the United States. India will have no difficulty absorbing these missiles into its armed forces. DSCA stated that the proposed sale of this equipment and support will not affect the basic military balance in the region.

    Implementation of this proposed sale will not require the assignment of any additional U.S. Government or contractor representatives to India permanently. There may be U.S. Government or contractor personnel in country on a temporary basis in conjunction with program technical and management oversight and support requirements.
     
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  3. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Harpoon Block II / AGM-84L, RGM-84L, UGM-84L

    The Harpoon is an all weather, subsonic, over the horizon, anti-ship missile which can be launch from surface ships, submarines and aircraft. The Harpoon Block II is the latest version of the Harpoon missile and is able to strike land-based targets and ships in littoral environments. The Block II incorporated the GPS/INS guidance system of the JDAM bombs and the mission computer, software, and GPS antenna employed by the SLAM ER missile.

    The Harpoon Block II missile can discriminate target ships from islands and other nearby land masses. The Block II is fully compatible with current operating Harpoon platforms with no modifications required. Boeing offers the Block II as an upgrade kit for existing Harpoon missiles.

    The Harpoon Block II upgrade kit was initially ordered by Denmark. In February 2004, the Australian Minister of Defense Robert Hill announced acquisition of Harpoon Block II retrofit kits worth $20 million.

    In November 2005 Boeing was awarded a $62.5 million contract for delivery of Harpoon Block II and related materiel for Pakistan, Japan, and Australia. The order included a $61.7 million contract for delivery of 40 tactical Block II AirLaunch All-Up-Round (AUR) missiles and 10 tactical Block II Grade B AUR missiles for the Government of Pakistan.
     
  4. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Ships Ahoy! The Harpoon Missile Family

    Ships Ahoy! The Harpoon Missile Family

    21-Dec-2008 09:21 EST



    The sub-sonic, wave-skimming *GM-84 Harpoon is the US Navy’s sole anti-shipping missile, with the minor exception of small AGM-119B Penguin missiles and anti-tank Hellfires carried on some H-60 helicopters. The Harpoon has accordingly been adapted into several variants, and exported to a wide variety of world navies. Its best known competitor is the French/MBDA *M39/40 Exocet, though recent years have witnessed a growing competitive roster at both the subsonic (Israel’s Gabriel family, Russia’s SS-N-27 Klub family, Saab’s RBS15, Kongsberg’s stealthy NSM, China’s YJ-8/C-802 used recently in Lebanon) and supersonic (Russia’s SS-N-22 Sunburn/Moskit and some SS-N-27 Klub variants, India’s PJ-10 BrahMos derived from Russia’s SS-N-26) levels.

    At present, the Harpoon family includes air, sea/land, and submarine-launched versions of the GM-84 missile. Variants such as the land attack SLAM variant and the modern AGM-84K Joint Standoff Land Attack Missiles-Expanded Response (SLAM-ER) will also be covered in this DID FOCUS Article, which describes the missiles themselves and covers global contracts involving this family since Oct 1/06.

    The most recent additions involve a Taiwanese request to buy Block II Harpoons, Dutch tests involving their new air defense frigate class, and a datalink order for SLAM-ER…
     
  5. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    AGM-84 Harpoon/SLAM - Smart Weapons

    The Harpoon Block II is an upgrade program to improve the baseline capabilities to attack targets in congested littoral environments. The upgrade is based on the current Harpoon. Harpoon Block II will provide accurate long-range guidance for coastal, littoral and blue water ship targets by incorporating the low cost integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System (GPS/INS) from the Joint Direct Attack Munitions (JDAM) program currently under development by Boeing. GPS antennae and software from Boeing's Standoff Land Attack Missile (SLAM) and SLAM Expanded Response (SLAM ER) will be integrated into the guidance section. The improved littoral capabilities will enable Harpoon Block II to impact a designated GPS target point. The existing 500 pound blast warhead will deliver lethal firepower against targets which include coastal anti-surface missile sites and ships in port. For the anti-ship mission, the GPS/INS provides improved missile guidance to the target area. The accurate navigation solution allows target ship discrimination from a nearby land mass using shoreline data provided by the launch platform. These Block II improvements will maintain Harpoon's high hit probability while offering a 90% improvement in the separation distance between the hostile threat and local shorelines. Harpoon Block II will be capable of deployment from all platforms which currently have the Harpoon Missile system by using existing command and launch equipment. A growth path is envisioned for integration with the Vertical Launch System and modern integrated weapon control systems. With initiation of engineering and manufacturing development in 1998, initial operational capability for Block II will be available by 2001.
     
  6. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Rockets, Missiles, and Spacecrafts :: Missiles :: Harpoon Block II

    [​IMG]

    Title : Harpoon Block II
    Description : Harpoon Block II provides accurate long-range guidance for land and ship targets by incorporating the low-cost inertial measuring unit from the Boeing Joint Direct Attack Munition, or JDAM, program; and the software, mission computer, integrated Global Positioning System/Inertial Navigation System and the GPS antenna and receiver from the Standoff Land Attack Missile Expanded Response, or SLAM-ER.

    Harpoon Block II is capable of executing both land-strike and anti-ship missions. To strike targets on land and ships in port, the missile uses GPS-aided inertial navigation to hit a designated target aimpoint. The 500-pound blast warhead delivers lethal firepower against a wide variety of land-based targets, including coastal defense sites, surface-to-air missile sites, exposed aircraft, port/industrial facilities and ships in port. For conventional anti-ship missions, such as open ocean or near-land, the GPS/INS improves midcourse guidance to the target area. The accurate navigation solution allows users to discriminate target ships from islands or other nearby land masses or ships. These Block II improvements maintain Harpoon's high hit probability even against ships very close to land.

    The multi-mission Block II is deployable from all current Harpoon missile system platforms with either existing command and launch equipment or the new Advanced Harpoon Weapon Control System, or AHWCS.
    Credit : The Boeing Company
    Source : The Boeing Company
     
  7. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Boeing AGM/RGM/UGM-84 Harpoon

    Boeing (McDonnell Douglas) AGM/RGM/UGM-84 Harpoon

    The Harpoon is the only dedicated anti-ship missile in service with U.S. armed forces. It has been developed into several advanced versions, including the SLAM (Stand-off Land Attack Missile) derivatives for high-precision attacks on land targets. The Harpoon and SLAM will remain in service with the U.S. Navy for the foreseeable future.

    In 1965 the U.S. Navy began studies for a missile in the 45 km (25 nm) range class for use against surfaced submarines. The name Harpoon was assigned to the project (i.e. a harpoon to kill "whales", a naval slang term for submarines). After the sinking of the Isreali destroyer Eilat in 1967 by Soviet-built anti-ship missiles, the U.S. Navy saw the need to develop a dedicated anti-shipping missile, and therefore Harpoon's primary mission became surface ship attack. The development project was formally begun in 1968, and the missile designator ZAGM-84A was allocated in 1970 after the Navy had issued a formal RFP (Request For Proposals). In June 1971, McDonnell Douglas was awarded the prime contract for Harpoon, and the first test missile flew in October 1972. By that time it had already been decided to develop air-launched, ship-launched and submarine-launched Harpoon variants, designated AGM-84A, RGM-84A and UGM-84A, respectively. Because the range requirement was increased to 90 km (50 nm), turbojet propulsion was selected by McDonnell Douglas. Production of the Harpoon began in 1975, and the first version to enter service was the shipborne RGM-84A in 1977, followed by the AGM-84A on P-3 aircraft in 1979. The UGM-84A became operational on attack submarines in 1981. There are also unarmed training versions of the AGM/RGM/UGM-84A, designated ATM-84A, RTM-84A and UTM-84A.

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    The Harpoon missile is powered by a Teledyne/CAE J402 turbojet in an A/B44G-1 propulsion section, giving it a maximum range of about 185 km (100 nm) for the air-launched version. For surface launches, RGM/UGM-84 variants use a solid-fueled rocket booster in an A/B44G-2 or -3 booster section, which is discarded after burn-out. Maximum range for surface launches is around 140 km (75 nm). After launch, the missile is guided towards the target location as determined by the launching aircraft or ship by a three-axis Attitude Reference Assembly (ATA) in an AN/DSQ-44 guidance section. The ATA is less accurate than a full-fledged inertial system, but good enough for Harpoon's range. For stabilization and control, the AGM-84A has four fixed cruciform wings (3x BSU-42/B, 1x BSU-43/B) and four movable BSU-44/B tailfins. The missile flies at a low cruise altitude, and at a predetermined distance from the expected target position, its AN/DSQ-28 J-band active radar seeker in the nose is activated to acquire and lock on the target. The radar switch-on distance can be set to lower or higher values, the former requiring a more precisely known target location but reducing the risk to be fooled by enemy ECM. An alternative launch mode is called BOL (Bearing-Only Launch). In this mode, the missile is launched in the general direction of the target, and its radar activated from the beginning to scan for the target in a +/- 45° sector in front of the flight path. Once a target has been located and the seeker locked, the xGM-84A missile climbs rapidly to about 1800 m before diving on the target ("pop-up manoeuver"). The 221 kg (488 lb) WDU-18/B penetrating blast-fragmentation warhead (in the WAU-3(V)/B warhead section) is triggered by a time-delayed impact fuze. When no target can be acquired after radar activation, the Harpoon will self-destruct.

    The RGM-84A is usually fired from MK 140 (light weight) or MK 141 (shock-hardened) canister launchers, which hold four missiles, but older MK 112 (ASROC) or MK 26 (Standard) launchers can also be used. The RGM-84A has folding wings and fins which flip out immediately after exit from the launcher. For target acquisition and tracking, Harpoon-equipped surface ships use the AN/SWG-1 Harpoon Fire Control System.
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    RGM-84A

    For launch from submarines, the UGM-84A is enclosed in a capsule, which glides to the surface after launch from the torpedo tube. When the capsule breaks the surface, the front and end caps are ejected and the missile fired. The digital MK 117 Fire Control System has full support for Harpoon integrated.

    The UGM-84B is a UGM-84A variant for use by the Royal Navy, and flies at a slightly lower cruising altitude than the -84A. The UGM-84B is called GWS-60 by the Royal Navy, and the UTM-84B is the corresponding training version. Interestingly, the designations AGM-84B, RGM-84B, ATM-84B and RTM-84B were also formally allocated, although no air- or ship-launched -84B missiles were ever built.

    The next U.S. Navy variant was the Harpoon Block 1B, designated AGM-84C, RGM-84C and UGM-84C. The Block 1B missiles were first delivered to the Navy in June 1982. The xGM-84C flies at the same lower cruise altitude as the UGM-84B, and does no pop-up manoeuver, flying a sea-skimming attack profile instead. The Block 1B training missiles are the ATM-84C, RTM-84C and UTM-84C.
    [​IMG]
    UGM-84 (exact model unknown)
     
  8. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    In 1985 the Block 1C version of Harpoon was introduced, being designated AGM-84D, RGM-84D and UGM-84D. The Block 1C has increased range (AGM-84D maximum range is quoted to be 220 km (120 nm)) by using JP-10 instead of JP-6 jet fuel. The terminal attack mode of the xGM-84D is selectable (pop-up or sea-skimming), and the missile also has improved ECCM equipment. Ships equipped with the improved AN/SWG-1A Fire Control System can program several way-points into the flight path of the missile before launch. Using this feature, the RGM-84D will fly an indirect path to the target area, thereby concealing the position of the launching ship. As with the earlier versions, there are also ATM-84D, RTM-84D and UTM-84D training missiles. The CATM-84D is a captive-carry training missile. The CATM-84D-1s are converted older ATM-84As, and CATM-84D-2s are improved new-built missiles.

    The AGM-84E Harpoon Block 1E SLAM (Stand-off Land Attack Missile) is essentially a new missile. It is a high precision land-attack missile, which combines the airframe, engine and warhead of the anti-ship Harpoon with the WGU-10/B IIR seeker of the AGM-65D Maverick and the data link of the AGM-62 Walleye. Development of SLAM began in 1986 as an interim precision-attack missile pending delivery of the AGM-137 TSSAM (Tri-Service Standoff Attack Missile), and the first all-up AGM-84E rounds were delivered in November 1988. SLAM became operational with the U.S. Navy in 1990, just ready for a few missiles to be used in action in Operation Desert Storm in early 1991. After the TSSAM was cancelled in 1995, the importance of SLAM increased significantly. The AGM-84E flies a complex path to its target using its inertial system, and during the final 60 seconds of the flight it is controlled through the data link (using an AN/AWW-13 pod on the launching aircraft) using imagery from the IIR seeker. The WDU-18/B warhead is in a new WAU-23/B warhead section with an (optionally delayed) impact fuze.
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    AGM-84E

    Non-tactical versions of SLAM include the ATM-84E training missile, CATM-84E captive-carry variant, DATM-84E ground handling trainer, and the NAEM-84E test and evaluation missile with special telemetry equipment. A ship-launched version of SLAM, to be designated RGM-84E Sea-SLAM, was also tested, but production was cancelled.

    The next version of the Harpoon anti-ship missile was the Block 1D, designated AGM-84F and RGM-84F. The Block 1D missile was longer and heavier for a significant increase in fuel load and flight duration. Because the increased length prevented the use from submarines, there was no "UGM-84F". The longer duration not only increased the missile's range, but also allowed the integration of a re-attack capability. When the radar seeker could not acquire a target after being switched on, the xGM-84F would fly a cloverleaf-shaped search pattern trying to detect the target until fuel exhaustion. Development of the Block 1D started in 1989, and the first missile flew in September 1991. Although it was planned to convert many Block 1C missiles to Block 1D standard, the program was cancelled in 1993.

    The AGM-84G, RGM-84G and UGM-84G Harpoon Block 1G is an upgrade of the xGM-84D Block 1C, the main new feature being the re-attack capability of the xGM-84F Block 1D. In addition, the Block 1G has also further improved ECCM capability. Block 1G missiles will be produced by converting older Block 1C rounds.

    The AGM-84H SLAM-ER (Stand-off Land Attack Missile - Expanded Response) is a much improved AGM-84E. Development began in 1994, and the first flight test occurred in March 1997. The first production missiles were delivered to the Navy in April 1998, and IOC (Initial Operational capability) was eventually reached in March 2000. The most prominent new feature of the AGM-84H are the pop-out swept wings (similar to those of the RGM/UGM-109 Tomahawk), which significantly increase the missile's range and manoeuverability. The new AN/DSQ-61 guidance section includes the computers, the inertial system, and the new multi-channel GPS receiver. The data link has a longer range and is more jamming-resistant. Software upgrades in the WCU-24/B control section make it easier for the operator to direct the missile to the selected target, and also introduce such features as target switching immediately before launch and search-while-track mode to search for a better aim-point without breaking lock on an existing one. The IIR seeker is hardened against laser countermeasures and last but not least, the AGM-84H has a much heavier 360 kg (800 lb) WDU-40/B penetrating blast-fragmentation warhead in a WAU-30/B warhead section. Training versions of SLAM-ER are the ATM-84H (with AN/DKT-81 telemetry equipment), CATM-84H and DATM-84H.

    [​IMG]
    AGM-84H


    As early as 1996, McDonnell Douglas proposed the "Harpoon 2000" improvement, later evolving into the Harpoon Block II. Suggested Block II features included a GPS-aided INS, a radar seeker with improved ECCM and some SLAM hardware. The GPS/INS guidance would allow much higher precision in attacks on shore-based targets. The "Harpoon 2000"/Block II proposal was apparently not too well received by the U.S. Navy, and no development order came forward. However, Block II was developed for export as AGM/RGM-84L, q.v.. In February 2008, the designations AGM-84J and RGM-84J were retroactively allocated to Block II conversions based on the AGM-84D.

    The AGM-84K is an upgraded variant of the AGM-84H SLAM-ER with internal improvements. Developmental tests of the hardware and software updates of the AGM-84K were conducted in early 2001, followed by operational test and evaluation in the first half of 2002, and Initial Operational Capability in July 2002. Existing AGM-84Hs will be upgraded to AGM-84K standard. Training versions are the ATM-84K and CATM-84K.

    The latest upgrade of the AGM-84H/K SLAM-ER is the SLAM-ER ATA (Automatic Target Acquisition). This missile can be launched in the general direction of the target and will automatically select a target by comparing the stored reference image with the IIR seeker image without the need for operator intervention. However, the operator can take over control of the missile at any time in the mission, thereby retaining the capabilities of the basic SLAM-ER. The ATA system was released to the Fleet in 2002, and existing AGM-84H/K missiles will eventually be upgraded.

    Although the GPS-equipped Harpoon Block II was not ordered by the U.S. Navy, the missile was offered for export, and eventually ordered by several contries, including Egypt, the United Arab Emirates, Taiwan, and South Korea. These export missiles are based on the RGM-84G, and designated RGM-84L. Korea has also ordered the air-launched AGM-84L variant.
    [​IMG]
    AGM-84L


    In January 2008, the U.S. Navy awarded Boeing an SDD (System Design and Development) contract for the AGM-84M Harpoon Block III. The Block III upgrade includes the major Block II features like the GPS/INS guidance and a new seeker, and adds a two-way datalink. The datalink makes it possible to update the targeting information after launch and actively control the missile at all points of the mission. The Navy plans to acquire Block III upgrade kits for 850 Harpoon missiles, with IOC planned for 2011. The RGM-84M is the ship-launched variant of the Block III missile.

    More than 7000 Harpoon anti-ship missiles (including production for foreign countries) and 1000 SLAM variants have been built so far. Production of the anti-ship missiles continues for non-US customers, while productuon for the U.S. Navy will continue with the AGM-84K SLAM-ER ATA. Current U.S. platforms for the AGM-84 anti-ship Harpoon are the Navy's F/A-18, P-3C and S-3B and also a few B-52Hs of the USAF. The AGM-84E/H/K SLAM is mainly employed by the F/A-18, but has been used by the P-3C, too.


    Specifications -check link
     

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