Don't Drink Junk - Learn about Teas

Discussion in 'Members Corner' started by Ray, Feb 9, 2012.

  1. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    What are the different types of tea?

    All tea comes from the evergreen tea bush (Camellia Sinensis). The following terms only describe tea leaves after they are harvested from the tea bush and processed for consumption.

    Green Tea

    Oxidization is a chemical reaction that takes place when tea leaves are picked and begin to wither and die. Green tea is not allowed to oxidize and is quickly dried, pan-fried or oven fired to dehydrate the tea leaves for storage. This process retains many of the polyphenols, catechins, and flavonoids that are associated with the health benefits of drinking green tea.

    Black Tea

    Black tea is allowed to oxidize which “ripens” the tea and creates a deep, rich, robust flavor with uniqueness based on the tea grower’s knowledge and skill. The oxidation process is commonly referred to as fermentation. This is technically incorrect because "fermentation" is a process in which yeast is converted into alcohol and sugar is converted to and released as carbon dioxide gas.

    Oolong Tea

    Oolong tea falls somewhere between green tea and black tea in the amount of time the tea leaves are allowed to oxidize. Two terms often used to describe oolong tea are “green” and “amber” style. The “amber” styles are allowed to oxidize slightly more than the “green style” oolong tea. This results in a variety of smooth teas available that bear the makers style and tradition.

    White Tea

    White tea is picked before the leaf buds fully open and are still covered with fine silky hairs. The delicate buds are quickly air dried to produce some of the rarest and most expensive tea available. White tea is said to have three time more antioxidants than green or black tea. Researchers for some of the large cosmetic companies have become very interested in white tea in recent years. The polyphenols in white tea have been shown to be very effective in mopping up free radicals that can lead to aging, and wrinkles, and sagging skin.

    Pu-erh

    Pu-erh tea comes from the Yunnan province in China. Pu-erh tea has a distinct earthy aroma. This type of tea differs from other formed black tea because it is allowed to grow a thin layer of mold on the leaves. Of course these are harmless cultures and are reputably known in China for their medicinal effects. This makes sense because the antibiotic penicillin was first discovered through mold cultures.

    Formed or Compressed Tea Bricks

    This could either refer to green tea or black tea that is pressed into tea bricks, medallions, balls or other impressions. In ancient times, this was necessary to keep compact for storage on long voyages by ship or camel. It also preserved the tea during these long journeys because the tea was so tightly packed that it sealed out air that would otherwise degrade the tea.

    Flavoured Tea

    Flavored tea is typically a black tea that's soaked in natural or artificial flavours. Today there are too many flavours to list. The most notable is Earl Grey,which is flavoured with the oil of bergamot. Flavored green teas and herbal tisanes are also now available and gaining popularity and Herbal Tea
    Herbal tea or herb tea is not really tea at all, since they do not contain leaves from the tea bush (Camellia Sinensis). Herbal teas are made from seeds, roots, flowers, or other parts of plants and herbs. They are often blended to make unique tasting infusions and more formally known as tisanes. Medicinal teas are herbal teas that are used for the treatment of ailments. These teas are gaining acceptance in western culture.

    Types of Tea | Green Tea, Black Tea, Oolong and White Tea from Imperial Tea Garden
     
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  3. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Tea Processing

    Tea Processing

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    The most common misperception is that the different types of tea come from different tea plants. Black, Green and Oolong teas are all derived from the Camellia sinensis evergreen plant. The difference comes from how the plant is processed. Common processing terms are withering, rolling, oxidation, and drying or firing.

    Withering:
    Newly picked leaves are thinly spread to dry during this process. Heated air is forced over the leaves if the climate is not suitable. The main goal of this process is to reduce the water content. By the end of this process, the leaves should be pliable enough to be rolled.

    Rolling:
    From the withering racks, the leaves are now twisted and rolled so that the leaf cells are broken up. Sometimes shaking is done as well. Oils are released with this rolling process that give the tea its distinctive aroma. The leaves can be rolled with machinery or by hand. The juices that are released remain on the leaf; a chemical change will occur shortly.

    Oxidation:
    This is the chemical process where oxygen is absorbed. This process began once the leaf membranes were broken during the rolling process. Oxidation causes the leaves to turn bright copper in color. This process is the main deciding factor whether we have Green, Oolong or Black tea.

    Drying or Firing:
    In this stage the leaves are dried evenly and thoroughly without burning the leaves. Firing the leaves stops the oxidation process.


    Black Tea:
    The Black tea process goes through the most stages. Once the leaves are picked, they are left to wither for several hours. After the leaves are rolled, oils from the leaves are brought to the surface. These aromatic oils aid in the oxidation process, which last for several hours. The last step consists of placing the leaves in an oven with temperatures reaching up to 200 degrees Fahrenheit. When the leaves are 80 percent dry, the leaves complete their drying over wood fires. The resulting product is brownish (sometimes black) in color and is sorted accordingly to size, the larger grade is considered "leaf grade," and smaller "broken grade" are usually used for tea bags.

    Oolong Tea:
    Oolong goes through a similar process that black tea goes through. The first two steps are withering and rolling. Instead of rolling, sometimes shaking is done to bruise the outer edges of the leaves. The oxidation period for oolong is half that of black tea. Once the veins become clear and the edges of the leaves become reddish brown, while the center remains green, the oxidation process is stopped by firing. For oolong tea, the leaves are heated at a higher temperature so that they can be kept longer, due to the lower resulting water content.

    Green Tea:
    The process for making green tea is the shortest. Withering is done first, but this step might be omitted. Rolling the leaves to break the membranes for oxidation is skipped, hence the oxidation process is also skipped. After withering, the leaves are pan fried or fired to prevent oxidation from occurring. The last step is to roll the leaves and dry them one last time for its final shape. The green tea leaves usually remain green.

    Tea Processing
     
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  4. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Production Methods

    Black tea is withered, fully oxidized (fermented) and dried. Black teas are available from various estates, countries and regions, with added flavorings and also as specialty blends.
    The two main types of manufacture for black teas are Orthodox (rolled whole leaf) and CTC-Cut Torn and Curled (appears like little ball bearings). The Orthodox method produces the traditional looking tea leaf - long and wiry whole leaf types. This is achieved as follows - the withered leaf is fed into what appears to be a very large mixing bowl with a large paddle that mashes the tea. During the process the tea is torn apart to a certain degree and also crushed. To achieve 'clean' tea, several series of stalk extractors are used. Orthodox teas tend to be lighter and less full bodied as compared to CTC manufactured teas.

    The CTC manufacturing process turns the tea into what appears to be small balls of tea. The withered tea leaf passes between two large rollers that are revolving opposite to one another. On each roller are a multitude of sharp blades set at an angle that mesh with the opposing roller. As the tea passes through this series of blades the tea is cut and torn apart and is compressed or curled into little balls.

    CTC is a popular variety of manufacturing since producers realize higher yields form acreages under tea cultivation. Also CTC teas are more suitable to tea bagging since they flow more easily to gravity fed bagging machines. CTC teas tend to be more full bodied and robust and are well suited to 'gutsy' blends.

    Some of the processes involved in tea production are:


    Plucking: Top quality tea is hand plucked and the best tea comes from the new shoots which are the top two leaves and the bud of this shoot. It takes 4.5 pounds of green leaf to produce one pound of black tea.

    Withering: The leaves are spread out on long trays in warm temperatures for 12-16 hours so that they loose water (approx 50% of moisture content).

    Rolling: The withered leaves are first rolled by machine then often crushed torn and curled (CTC method) to break open the tea cells.

    Fermentation: The tea is left open to the air for one to two hours. Oxidation occurs affecting both the taste and the color of the tea.


    Drying : After the fermentation stage the leaves are passed through a drier stopping the oxidization process.


    After processing, the tea is sorted and tasted and, if desired, the tea is blended and/or flavored. Oolong tea is withered, partially oxidized (fermented), and dried. Green tea is an unfermented tea. After withering (if withered at all) it is immediately steamed or heated via firing or pan frying to prevent oxidization, and then rolled and dried.Green tea may or may not go through a withering process. The leaves are immediately pan fired, steamed or baked to prevent oxidization, thus no chemical change. The tea leaves are then rolled and dried.A special type of green tea is White Tea. Like green teas this tea is unfermented. White teas go through the least amount of processing of all the teas. White teas are withered and then immediately dried by steaming.
    Additional Types of Tea

    Rooibos or "Red" tea is made from the Rooibos ("red bush" in Afrikaans) and is made from the fermented leaves. The potassium and magnesium content makes it useful in hot climates and during any dehydrating conditions, such as colds or hangovers.

    Fruit and Herb tea is generally based in Hibiscus and Rose hips, with a wide variety of additional flavorings available. Fruit and Herb teas contain no caffeine, and are all natural.

    Herbal tea is generally a pure herbal substance such as chamomile or spearmint, although sometimes used to flavor green tea as in a mint flavored green tea.

    Tea Types and Production
     
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  5. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Tea Types

    All tea comes from the Camellia sinensis plant. What makes each tea different is the way it has been processed. Tea can be placed into 6 groups based on the amount of processing that goes into the final product.



    Black Tea and Flavored Black Tea

    This tea goes through the most processing. Once the leaves are picked they are left out in the sun to become slightly wilted. The leaves are then rolled to break open their tissue. The inner chemicals react with the air and begin to ferment. During the fermentation, the leaves darken and change from green to red and finally to black. After the fermenting is complete, the leaves are dried and them packaged.



    Assam- these teas are grown in the Assam Valley of India. To the far north east of India is the state of Assam, known for the one-horned rhino and the Brahmaputra river. Along both sides of this mighty river lie the rolling plains of the world's largest tea growing area along with the highest yield per acre. Assam is the birthplace of India tea as discovered by Robert Bruce in 1823.

    Assam teas have a first flush, second, and Autumnal flush. The first flush has a rich and fresh aroma; the second flush produces the famous "tippy" teas. It is this feature of the teas of the second flush that make them more popular. (Tippy refers to black tea with gold tips or what appears to be golden-colored leaf). The amount of tip will vary dependent upon where in Assam the estate from which the tea comes is located. Additionally, not all tea estates have the ability or capacity to produce these "tippy" teas. An examples of an Assam "tippy" tea is Hunwal. The golden tip present in Assam tea lessens the astringent characteristic of the tea and make it sweet and smooth. Therefore, Assam tea can be malty, as well as sweet and smooth. These are qualities that all tea drinkers enjoy!

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    Hunwal

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    Darjeeling- these teas are grown in the Darjeeling Province of India at 6,562 feet above sea level and is nestled in the foothills of Himalayan Mountain Range. This picturesque setting contains 42,008 acres of tea bushes (according to the Tea Board of India) producing the exquisite Darjeeling tea that is unequalled anywhere in the world.

    The cool and moist climate, the soil, the rainfall and the sloping terrain all combine to give Darjeeling its unique "Muscatel" flavor and exquisite bouquet. The combination of natural factors that gives Darjeeling tea its unique distinction is not found anywhere else in the world, hence this finest and most delicately flavored of all teas has over the years acquired the reputation of being the "Champagne of Teas."

    These high quality teas are full bodied, yet delicately flavored. Yields are very low for Darjeeling teas, since planters do not give up quality for quantity. They work had to maintain consistency year after year.

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    mim

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    Soom

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    Margaret's Hope
     
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  6. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Ceylon- these teas are grown in five different growing districts in Sri lanka. The high grown district districts are Dimbula, Nuwara Eliya, and Uva. Teas grown in these areas of 4000 above sea level tend to be light and flavory. Kandy is the medium growing district of 2000-4000 feet and produces teas with a malty fullness and floral notes. The low growing district of Ruhunu is under 2000 feet. Teas grown in this area are full bodied with lots of flavor.

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    Sylvakandy

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    St James

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    Lover's Leap
     
  7. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    China Blacks Tea has been a staple in China and Taiwan for more than 2000 years. In Chinese society there are historical, legendary and religious connotations associated with tea. The best known China black tea is Keemun with its rich aroma and complex taste. Keemun if stored properly will keep for many years.

    Yunnan has a very distinctive appearance. The leaf is very tippy with more than half of the leaf being a light tan color blending into black. This tea has a full bodied taste with subtle sweetness.

    Scented teas from China should not be confused with flavored teas that get their taste from flavoring oils, waters, and crystals. These teas are scented using Jasmine flowers, rose petals, and lichee fruit.

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    Keemun

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    Yunnan

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    Lapsang Souchong Zhivago

    Green Tea

    Green tea is from the same plant as (Camellia sinensis.) as all other teas. After the tea leaves are plucked and sorted, they are either steamed or pan fired. Green tea does not go through the oxidation (fermentation) process. Green tea does have less caffeine than black tea. The leaves are often rolled into different shapes before drying. Sencha tea is rolled into fine strands, while gunpowder tea leaves are rolled into pellets. Many Chinese green teas are painstakingly shaped and tied. Once the leaves are shaped, they are dried and packaged. Green tea also has HGCG; the most powerful antioxidant known. This can only be found in green tea.

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    Gunpowder

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    Jasmine Dragon Tears

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    Lung Ching
     
  8. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Oolong Tea

    Oolong tea, like black tea goes through a withering stage (wilting). The difference is the oolong tea, goes through a shorter stage and the leaves are fired directly after that to prevent continued oxidation (fermentation.) The leaves can range from being almost black to dark green depending on when oxidation is stopped. The longer the leaves are oxidized the closer to black tea they will become. Formosa Oolong is an Amber Oolong with a rich amber cup that is a little toasty tasting.) Se Chung leaves are not allowed to oxidize as long, so the leaves have a dark green appearance and produce a light yellow cup with hints of sweetness.

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    Formosa

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    Ti Kuan Yin

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    Quangzhou Milk Oolong

    White Tea

    White tea is the least processed tea. The leaves are picked early in the year while the tiny white hairs are still visible on the leaves and the bud is still closed. Only the top leaf and a bud are picked from the plant. The leaves are then allowed to dry in the sun; they are not steamed or pan fired like green tea. If mechanical drying is required for a white tea, they are baked. This produces a light cup usually a very pale yellow with a light and lightly sweet taste.

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    Fujian Silver Buds

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    Tea Types difference between green tea black tea oololg tea white tea
     
  9. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

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    Sir, Did you drink or eat all these teas today? If your did not then this is not the right place for posting this.

    Your derailing this thread, please. :troll:
     
  10. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    I won't say all of them, but most of them.

    I am a tea connoisseur and that is why I never take tea outside my house, because it is sure to be a hoax.

    I have been in tea gardens for quite some time in my life and have studied the aspects of tea, tea manufacture, tea auctions and so on.

    I agree it is trifle off topic, but I wanted to inform about teas, so that when they have their breakfast or bed tea, they know what they are drinking and demand the best or what they want.

    The worst tea comes in teabags!

    And yet it is the fashion of the day!
     
  11. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    It is like having dosas and idlis in the Officers Mess and having it with a South Indian friend.

    I never thought an idli could have a difference and yet...........!

    And so I thought one should know before they take tea.

    Sorry if it derailed the thread.

    And 'today' has become what was 'tomorrow' when the thread started! :)
     
    Last edited: Feb 9, 2012
  12. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

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    Sir i understand but start a new thread on tea, that will be intresting..

    How does tea go with liquor?
     
  13. The Messiah

    The Messiah Bow Before Me! Elite Member

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    Ive never had tea in my life.
     
  14. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    One must know what he drinks as TEA!

    Posted here from another thread as a new thread owing to request.
     
  15. The Messiah

    The Messiah Bow Before Me! Elite Member

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    Ive never had tea.
     
  16. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

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    out you go....:accepted:
     
  17. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Lest the posts appear disjointed, the tea issue was mentioned in the thread 'What did you eat Today'

    GK requested to move it and start a new thread.

    Here it is.

    The Management ALWAYS cares for the Member's Requests and here is an example! :)
     
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  18. Galaxy

    Galaxy Elite Member Elite Member

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    Strange....!!
     
  19. Godless-Kafir

    Godless-Kafir DFI Buddha Senior Member

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    Ray Sir, what about inventing liquor tea? I am sure it will sell like hot cakes..

    Have you ever tried mixing tea liquor and sugar? or is that called irish tea?
     
  20. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    You do that so that you become an inventor!

    Mixing anything with anything makes it lose its original characteristics.

    Since you raise the issue of liquor, connoisseur of any type of liquor would be revolted if anything was to be added.

    Liquor is best enjoyed 'neat'.

    There is a difference in 'enjoying' what you drink as liquor and wanting to get 'drunk'.

    If one's enjoyment is to get 'drunk', why waste money.

    Go for country liquor and if you want to add 'class', put it in a empty Scotch Bottle and tipple from it! :rofl:
     
    Last edited: Feb 9, 2012
  21. W.G.Ewald

    W.G.Ewald Defence Professionals/ DFI member of 2 Defence Professionals

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    That is wise. Did you hear about the Native American chief who drank too much tea one night? The next morning he was found dead in his tee-pee.

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