China military launches major air exercises

Discussion in 'China' started by SHASH2K2, Aug 3, 2010.

  1. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    [​IMG]

    China’s military launched major air defence exercises on Tuesday, highlighting rising capabilities that are seen as tipping the balance of power in east Asia.

    The drills involve more than 10,000 service members, including those from naval and army aviation units and land—based air defence forces, according to the official China News Service.

    CNS said the war games would run for five days over parts of the provinces of Shandong and Henan south of the capital Beijing. They will include three simulated attacks and one live—firing exercise designed around the scenario of defending the capital from an air assault.

    No rehearsals were held for the exercises, which will emphasize real—time responses to unplanned events and the integration of units under separate commands, CNS said. About 100 aircraft of seven different types will take part, along with air defence missiles and artillery units.

    Amid a boom in defence spending, China has lavished funds on its air force, navy and missile forces in recent years as part of a gradual shift away from ground units. The widely respected Stockholm International Peace Research Institute estimates total expenditures on the 2.3 million—member People’s Liberation Army, including funding for arms imports and defence research and development, reached nearly $100 billion last year.

    New additions to its air forces include SU—27 fighter—bombers purchased from Russia and produced under license by China, along with the homebuilt latest—generation J—10 fighter that Beijing touts as a breakthrough for its sprawling defence industry.

    Such hardware and China’s adoption of more effective training and tactics is widely seen as strengthening China’s ability to assert its territorial claims over Taiwan and the South China Sea. Military planners from New Delhi to Washington have taken note, fuelling calls for more attention to Chinese developments and increased regional cooperation with the U.S. military.

    While tensions with Taiwan have declined under the island’s relatively pro—Beijing administration, China has grown increasingly vocal in protesting U.S. naval operations off its coast.

    Beijing repeatedly criticized last month’s joint U.S.—South Korean exercises in the Yellow Sea and recently elevated the South China Sea, over which it claims complete sovereignty, to its list of high priority territorial claims.

    Such moves coincides with a willingness to send its navy further from shore, including the unprecedented dispatch of Chinese ships to join an anti—piracy flotilla off the coast of Somalia.

    As troops readied for Tuesday’s exercises, two of those ships, the destroyer Guangzhou and frigate Chaohu, docked in Italy as part of a three—nation goodwill cruise, the government’s Xinhua News Agency reported.

    Overseas visits and more realistic exercises are both aimed at boosting the PLA’s ability to project power and improve cooperation between its different branches, said Russell Smith, an analyst with Jane’s and former Australian defence attache in Beijing.

    “These are opportunities to practice conducting joint operations. I think you’re going to be more reorganizing and restructuring in the PLA to emphasize this,” Mr. Smith said.
     
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  3. vikramrana_1812

    vikramrana_1812 Regular Member

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    We may hate CHINA(weaker compared to US)...but I would like to admire that these Chinese people are dare devils....they are the only country in the world who is giving USA eye-for-an-eye.......Even Russia doesnt try to face USA on direct terms....but these Chinese dont fear Americans.....That is gr8 for them......and on the other hand we INDIA(stronger compared to PAK)...we know what Pakistan is doing to us...but still we play around bushes and act like a pigeon who close its eyen when see cat coming.
     
  4. Ray

    Ray The Chairman Defence Professionals Moderator

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    Shows of grandeur is essential to keep the mind away from mischief and discontent.

    It build unity as it did for the Olympics where Hans all over the world showed solidarity with China and condemned the attacks on the Olympic Flame run. They were delighted that China came out the winner in the Olympics.

    We are showcasing CWG so that we forget the price rise, Bellary brothers and other rampant corruption and being hand in glove with the mneybags at the cost of the people!

    Brinda Karat (I don't know how far it is correct) in a TV debate said that the oil prices were hiked to help private oil players, She backed it up by stating that the govt oil industry had show a Rs 10 crores profit and not loss and so there was no requirement for the hike! Who knows?
     
  5. arya

    arya Senior Member Senior Member

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    Is this a worry for india

    BEIJING - China launched large-scale air defense exercises on Aug. 3 - the latest in a series of drills carried out amid U.S. concerns about Beijing's increasing military assertiveness.

    More than 10,000 defense personnel and seven different types of military aircraft are taking part in the drills in the eastern province of Shandong and the central province of Henan, the official China News Service said.
    Related Topics



    The exercises, codenamed "Vanguard 2010," will involve emergency evacuation, war planning, and reconnaissance and early warning, the report said. They are slated to last five days.

    The exercises - aimed at ensuring preparedness for the defense of Beijing in a potential air raid - will include one live-fire drill and will take place in real-time war conditions without any previous rehearsal, according to the report.

    The exercises come hot on the heels of large naval and air drills held on China's southeast coast last week, just as South Korea and the U.S. conducted their own naval exercises in the region, opposed by Beijing.

    A large group of submarines and warships from the People's Liberation Army Navy fired guided missiles in the South China Sea and tested anti-missile air defense systems.

    The U.S. and China's neighbors have expressed concerns about what is perceived as Beijing's increasing military assertiveness.

    In recent years Beijing has poured money into its People's Liberation Army, with a string of big-budget increases that have funded the development of a host of advanced missiles, jet fighters and other weaponry.

    Adm. Mike Mullen, the top U.S. military officer, said in July that China's military had made "a fairly significant investment in high-end equipment" including satellites, aircraft and anti-ship missiles.

    He called the move a "strategic shift, where they are moving from a focus on their ground forces to focus on their navy, and their maritime forces and their air force," adding he was "concerned."

    China has also become increasingly vocal about territorial claims such as those in the South China Sea and over Taiwan, which it views as part of its territory awaiting reunification, by force if necessary.

    U.S. officials worry that Beijing's more assertive stance in the Pacific Ocean could undercut America's long-dominant naval power in Asia.

    China maintains that its army build-up is purely for national defense and poses no threat to other countries
     
  6. arya

    arya Senior Member Senior Member

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    what effect is going for India
     
  7. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    Nothing arya....It is just a tit-for-tat for the US...The Chinese are just responding to the US exercises in the South China sea along with South Korea.
     
  8. arya

    arya Senior Member Senior Member

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    @staish thats any teenager view sir

    well china cant go direct war with USA now they know that but they can go against u (India )

    do you think they will give us any reaction time well dear as an Indian think tank i am think what is effect on India
     
  9. Yusuf

    Yusuf GUARDIAN Administrator

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    India is not a banana republic that the chinese will fight a war with the US on Indian soil.
     
  10. Daredevil

    Daredevil On Vacation! Administrator

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    Threads merged..........
     
  11. SATISH

    SATISH DFI Technocrat Stars and Ambassadors

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    China cant go to war with India right now...they too have troubles with their outdated equipments and ferrying of troops. Their infrastructure is as bad as ours and actually our bad infrastructure helps us a bit. It prevents the overflow of the troops into the interior region. Fighting India right now is a very bad option for CHina as they are not equipped to handle India, hell they are finding it difficult even to handle Taiwan.
     
  12. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    I think its a ploy of China to show solidarity to North Korea. They are trying to prove that they also have some capability to take on USA and S korea. I think Its main target audiences are N koreans and Chinese public.
     
  13. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    China deploys new CCS-5 missiles on border with India


    WASHINGTON: China has moved new advanced longer range CSS-5 missiles close to the borders with India and developed contingency plans to shift airborne forces at short notice to the region, according to Pentagon.

    Despite increased political and economic relationship between India and China, the Pentagon in a report to the US Congress said, tensions remain along the Sino-India borders with rising instances of border violation and aggressive border patrolling by Chinese soldiers.

    However, a senior Defense Departmentofficial told reporters that the US has not observed any anomalous increase in military capabilities along the Sino-India border.

    Noting that China continues to maintain its position on what its territorial claim is, the official said, the two capitals - Beijing and New Delhi - have been able to manage this dispute, in a way, using confidence-building measures and diplomatic mechanisms to be able to maintain relative stability in that border area.

    "But it's something that China continues to watch; but I wouldn't say that there's anything in this report that demonstrates a spike or an anomalous increase in military capabilities along the border.

    "It's something that China's paying very careful attention to. It's obviously something that India is paying careful attention to as well," the Senior Defense Department official said.

    In its annual report, the US Defence department said, to improve regional deterrence, the PLA has replaced older liquid-fueled, nuclear capable CCS-3 intermediate range missiles with more advanced and survivable fueled CSS-5 MRBMs.

    "China is currently engaged in massive road and rail infrastructure development along the Sino-India border primarily to facilitate economic development in western China: improved roads also support PLA operations," the Pentagon said.

    The report presented to the Congress said despite increased political and economic relations over the years between China and India, tensions remain along their shared 4,057 km border, most notably over Arunachal Pradesh, which China asserts as part of Tibet and therefore of China, and over the Aksai Chin region at the western end of the Tibetan Plateau.

    "Both countries, in 2009, stepped up efforts to assert their claims. China tried to block a USD 2.9 billion loan to India from the Asian Development Bank, claiming part of the loan would have been used for water projects in Arunachal Pradesh. This represented the first time China sought to influence this dispute through a multilateral institution," the Pentagon said.

    Read more: China deploys new CCS-5 missiles on border with India - India - The Times of India http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/...h-India/articleshow/6324105.cms#ixzz0wqgmAjw3
     
  14. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Pentagon Cites Concerns in China Military Growth

    WASHINGTON — China has increased spending on a military that is becoming larger and more effective even as Beijing has rebuffed exchanges with the Defense Department that could improve stability, according to a Pentagon study released Monday.
    Senior Pentagon officials acknowledged that much of the Chinese military modernization program may reflect the rational ambition of a rising global power, albeit one that may be a worrisome rival to American interests in the Pacific region.

    But across the American government — from the White House to the Pentagon to Congress — officials express concern that China’s lack of openness about the growth, capabilities and intentions of its military injects instability to a vital region of the globe.

    China’s overall spending on national defense for 2009 was estimated at $150 billion, an increase of 7.5 percent but only about one-fifth of what the Pentagon spent to operate and carry out the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, according to the study, required each year by Congress.

    China’s arsenal of missiles arrayed across a strait from Taiwan, an American ally considered a wayward province by Beijing, did not substantially grow in numbers but is being upgraded to be more capable, according to the review.

    Of the many potential points of conflict, Taiwan remains the most notable, as China froze military-to-military relations with the Defense Department earlier this year after an announcement that the United States was selling more than $6 billion in weapons to Taiwan.

    Administration officials say that while ties between Washington and Beijing in the areas of diplomacy and economics are improving, the military-to-military relationship is prickly and a reason for concern.

    Another cause of worry, according to the study, is China’s emphasis on weapons that could deny the ability of American warships to operate in international waters off the coast; those weapons include precision, long-range missiles and a growing fleet of submarines and warships.

    The Pentagon study said that China had an active program to develop and build several aircraft carriers, and could start construction by the end of this year. China also appears intent on expanding its arsenal of nuclear-powered submarines, with one missile-launching submarine and several hunter-killer submarines already at sea, all nuclear-powered for greater range. These nuclear-powered submarines are in addition to larger and growing numbers of diesel-powered hunter-killer submarines in the Chinese Navy, according to the study.

    Administration and military officials also criticized China’s actions beyond its territorial waters, particularly in the South China Sea. Pentagon officials say China’s military appears intent on extending claims for maritime jurisdiction beyond the range accepted by international law.

    Senior Defense Department officials who released the study declined to be drawn into a discussion of politics, but Representative Ike Skelton of Missouri, the Democrat who is chairman of the House Armed Services Committee, expressed a view shared by the Pentagon.

    In a statement released Monday, Mr. Skelton said he was concerned by “ambiguities regarding China’s military modernization, including its missile buildup across from Taiwan, its maritime activities in the South China Sea, and the steady increase of its power-projection capabilities, which do not obviously support China’s stated national security objectives.”

    While “China has taken some steps toward increasing transparency and openness regarding its defense strategy and expenditures in recent years,” Mr. Skelton said, “such steps are modest. China’s most recent military budget continues a trend of sustained annual increases, and China’s strategic intentions remain opaque.”

    The Pentagon review comes as China surpassed Japan in the second quarter of the year to become the world’s No. 2 economy, after the United States.
     
  15. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    China deploys CCS-5 missiles on India border

    PTI | Washington

    China has moved new advanced longer range CSS-5 missiles close to the borders with India and developed contingency plans to shift airborne forces at short notice to the
    region, according to Pentagon.

    Despite increased political and economic relationship between India and China, the Pentagon in a report to the US Congress said, tensions remain along the Sino-India borders with rising instances of border violation and aggressive border patrolling by Chinese soldiers.

    However, a senior Defense Department official told reporters that the US has not observed any anomalous increase in military capabilities along the Sino-India border.

    Noting that China continues to maintain its position on what its territorial claim is, the official said, the two capitals – Beijing and New Delhi - have been able to manage this dispute, in a way, using confidence-building measures and diplomatic mechanisms to be able to maintain relative stability in that border area.

    "But it's something that China continues to watch; but I wouldn't say that there's anything in this report that demonstrates a spike or an anomalous increase in military capabilities along the border.

    "It's something that China's paying very careful attention to. It's obviously something that India is paying careful attention to as well," the Senior Defense Department official said.

    In its annual report, the US Defence department said, to improve regional deterrence, the PLA has replaced older liquid-fueled, nuclear capable CCS-3 intermediate range missiles with more advanced and survivable fueled CSS-5 MRBMs.

    "China is currently engaged in massive road and rail infrastructure development along the Sino-India border primarily to facilitate economic development in western China: improved roads also support PLA operations," the Pentagon said.

    The report presented to the Congress said despite increased political and economic relations over the years between China and India, tensions remain along their shared 4,057 km border, most notably over Arunachal Pradesh, which China asserts as part of Tibet and therefore of China, and over the Aksai Chin region at the western
    end of the Tibetan Plateau.

    "Both countries, in 2009, stepped up efforts to assert their claims. China tried to block a USD 2.9 billion loan to India from the Asian Development Bank, claiming part of the loan would have been used for water projects in Arunachal Pradesh. This represented
    the first time China sought to influence this dispute through a multilateral institution," the Pentagon said.

    The report said: "The then governor of Arunachal Pradesh announced that India would deploy more troops and fighter jets to the area. An Indian academic also noted that, in 2008, the Indian Army had recorded 270 border violations and nearly 2,300 cases of 'aggressive border patrolling' by Chinese soldiers".

    China refers to its intervention in the Korean War (1950-1953) as the "War to Resist the United States and Aid Korea." Similarly, authoritative texts refer to border conflicts against India (1962), the Soviet Union (1969), and Vietnam (1979) as "Self-Defense Counter Attacks," the Pentagon report said.

    The Pentagon said Beijing remains concerned with persistent disputes along China's shared border with India and the strategic ramifications of India's rising economic, political, and military power

    China wary of India's rise: Pentagon

    IANS | Washington

    China remains concerned about strategic ramifications of India's rising economic, political, and military power even as it quickly modernises its own military, according to a new US defence department report.

    With sights set on extending its influence deep into the Pacific and Indian oceans, the People's Liberation Army is advancing across the board commensurate with China's burgeoning economic power, said Pentagon's annual report to Congress on China's military Monday.

    "To improve regional deterrence, the PLA has replaced older liquid-fuelled, nuclear capable CSS-3 intermediate-range ballistic missiles with more advanced and survivable solid-fuelled CSS-5 MRBMs and may be developing contingency plans to move airborne troops into the region," the report said.

    "China is currently investing in road development along the Sino-Indian border primarily to facilitate economic development in western China," it said noting "improved roads would also support PLA border defence operations.

    The 83-page report, "Military and Security Developments Involving the People's Republic of China" noted "China has deepened its ties with India through increased trade, high-level dialogues, and an improved military-to-military relationship."

    "China and India agreed to boost trade from $11.4 billion in 2007 to $40 billion in 2010, and they have held several rounds of dialogue over disputed territorial claims.

    "Sino-Indian Defence ties were institutionalised in 2007 with the establishment of an Annual Defence Dialogue and by conducting three bilateral Defence exercises since 2007."

    "Nonetheless, Beijing remains concerned with persistent disputes along China's shared border with India and the strategic ramifications of India's rising economic, political, and military power," the Pentagon said.

    "Despite increased political and economic relations over the years between China and India, tensions remain along their shared 4,057 km border, most notably over Arunachal Pradesh, which China asserts is part of Tibet and therefore of China, and over the Askai Chin region at the western end of the Tibetan Plateau," the report said.

    Suggesting both countries in 2009 stepped up efforts to assert their claims, the report recalled "China tried to block a $2.9 billion loan to India from the Asian Development Bank, claiming part of the loan would have been used for water projects in Arunachal Pradesh (India's northeastern state bordering China)."

    "This represented the first time China sought to influence this dispute (China lays claims to Arunachal Pradesh) through a multilateral institution," it said.

    Turning to China's cyberwarfare capabilities, the report noted "In March 2009, Canadian researchers uncovered an electronic spy network, apparently based mainly in China, which had reportedly infiltrated Indian and other nations' government offices around the world. More than 1,300 computers in 103 countries were identified."

    Listing numerous areas in which China's military is on the march, the report said China is developing and fielding large numbers of advanced medium-range ballistic and cruise missiles and deploying a new class of nuclear-powered submarines equipped with intercontinental ballistic missiles.

    It is also pouring money into "increasingly capable long-range air Defence systems, electronic warfare and computer network attack capabilities, advanced fighter aircraft, and counter-space systems."

    China has "the most active land-based ballistic and cruise missile programme in the world," the report said. Beijing "now possesses one of the largest" forces of surface-to-air missiles in the world, it added. And it has the "largest force of principal combatants, submarines, and amphibious warfare ships in Asia."

    Assessment details worrying military ambitions of China

    PTI | Washington

    China is pursuing a major military build up in a "secretive manner" developing survivable nuclear delivery system, a 1,500 km range anti-ship missile to hit aircraft carriers and has the most active land based ballistic and cruise missile programme in the world, Pentagon has said.

    Beijing is acquiring 'capabilities' to strike from a distance, warned the US Defence department, saying these moves, "increases the potential of misunderstanding" and military conflict with other nations.

    In worrying new assessment, Pentagon said Beijing had developed missiles capable of striking targets in space and is also expanding its fleet of conventional and nuclear submarines to give it forces global reach.

    The annual Congressional-mandated report by the Pentagon expressed concern about the lack of transparency from China into the force projection and anti-access, area denial capabilities it is acquiring.

    In 2009 alone, the Pentagon said China's military-related spending was USD 150 billion. While some of the increasing Chinese capabilities have been put to positive use, like humanitarian and anti-piracy efforts, the report says, China's continued effort to be able to sustain military operations far from its shore was a cause of concern
    to the US military.

    But, it said China had still limited ability to sustain military power at a distance. "They are fast catching up", the report said, by developing an anti-ship ballistic missile that has a range in excess of 1,500 kilometres, which is intended to provide the PLA
    with the capability to attack ships, including aircraft carriers in the Western Pacific.

    According to the report, "China has the most active land-based ballistic and cruise missile program in the world. It is developing and testing several new classes of offensive missiles, qualitatively upgrading certain missile systems and developing methods to counter ballistic missile defenses," a Pentagon official told reporters.

    China's active ballistic and cruise missile development programme also extends over into the area of its nuclear force modernisation, where China appears to be focusing on developing more survivable delivery systems, he said.

    "Turning to the maritime realm, the PLA navy has the largest force of principal combatant submarines and amphibious warfare ships in Asia. China continues to invest heavily in undersea warfare with a mixture of nuclear-powered submarines and conventionally-powered diesel electric boats.

    This is complemented by investment in new surface combatants designed to improve the PLA navy' capability and capacity for anti-surface and anti-air warfare," the official said.

    "In the South China Sea, China's primary interests are related to securing its extensive sovereignty claims and exploiting natural resources. A stronger military presence in the region would also position it for force projection, blockade and surveillance operations
    to influence critical sea lanes," the official said.

    "China's investment in advanced electronic warfare systems, counterspace weapons and computer network operations reflect the emphasis and priority China's leaders place on building capability in these areas," the senior Defense official said.

    "China still has much work to do to translate its aspirations into operational capabilities, but we note that China is in fact working to translate those aspirations into operational capabilities," the official said.

    http://www.dailypioneer.com/276667/China-deploys-CCS-5-missiles-on-India-border.html
     
  16. LETHALFORCE

    LETHALFORCE Moderator Moderator

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    Don't worry we have AGNI's on the border.

    http://frontierindia.net/indian-agni-missiles-deployed-in-tunnels-on-chinese-border


    Indian Agni missiles deployed in tunnels on Chinese border

    India has built atleast 2 tunnels in mountains for storage of Agni Intermediate Range Ballastic Missile (IRBM). It was revealed by Mr. Bharat Karnad, who released his book “India’s Nuclear Policy” in Mumbai yesterday. He said that India is building more such facilities. Such tunnels will help India’s second strike capability, as; the Chinese Thermo Nuclear weapons cannot vaporize mountains.

    Mr. Karnad explaind that it has been done to offset the deployments of Chinese IRBM”s in Chinese occupied Tibet. Mr. Karnad also outlined some scenarios when India and China might actually fight a war and the nuclear weapons might be used. One of the foremost reasons could be the Chinese plans to build a dam and divert water from Yarlung Zangbo (Brahmaputra) to the Yellow river. He said that China has already proceeded by the civil works. In a second scenario, he said, the new generation Tibetians who are very motivated, would launch an armed struggle against Chinese Imperialist. Another important fact he said was that India and China are already engaged in a battle to secure natural resources, even as far as Ecuador.

    Bharat Karnad said that the weakest point of the Nuclear Chain of command was the will of the government to launch retaliatory strike. He said this was told to him by a retired Indian Army General. While Bharat karnad was unsure of current governments will, he and other speakers were unanimous that eventually the decision will come.

    I have difference of opinion with some of the points made by Mr. Karnad. He mentions that the MiG-23 was purchased by IAF when they were given choice of purchasing TU-22M. MiG-23 was purchased was a knee jerk reaction to purchase of F-16’s by Pakistan Air Force. But the general observation of the lack of foresight by the Indian Air Force to build up capabilities against Chinese is agreeable. He also mentioned that India had put the ICBM development in back burner because of lack of resources. My point of view is different. I assume that India is actually building ICBM capabilities in the DRDO’s Advanced Systems laboratory (ASL). ASL does not seem to have a publicly defined mandate. Mr. Karnad says that India is leasing Akulas and it will improve the second strike capability. I just wonder which Indian missile can be fired from it. Mr. Karnad also revealed that India is negotiating for purchase of TU-160 Black Jacks from Russia. He could be right; Russian Air Force did display Tu-160s with their capability to get their job done over Indian Ocean during Indo-Russian Naval Exercises (INDRA).

    I would also like to add some vital comments by some good speakers present at the book launch. Dr. P.K. Iyengar, former Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission made a point that, the Indian nuclear program was about weaponisation right from the start. He observed that, Nasser, Nehru and Tito, the three founders of Non- Alignment Movement (NAM) had agreed that if NAM has to be heard, it needs nuclear weapons. While Apsara reactor was established to get hands on Graphite machining and Cirrus was for extracting Plutonium. Dr. Iyengar was not at his verbal best on his opposition to India-US civil nuclear deal. Dr. Iyengar also recounted an incident that where he had asked the Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi for nuclear test. But Rajiv Gandhi responded by saying that he is putting a note to UN general assembly for disarmament.

    Vice Admiral Madanjit Singh (Retd.) outlined the structure of the Indian nuclear command. He said that there was a National Commission (or Committee, I didn’t get that right). Then Executive Committee. These both are manned by civilians. Then the decision goes to another civil (DRDO and AEC) and military group who would translate the decisions into reality. Vice Admiral Madanjit also outlined the prospects of the Indian Nuclear submarine (ATV) building costs, costs of operation that includes the decision where would the ATV be berthed after it comes back from sea.

    Ambassador Prakash Shah, IFS (Retd.) revealed that India signed Chemical Weapons ban (CWC) with the pre-condition that infamous Australia Group will be dissolved in future.

    Dr. A.N. Prasad, former Director, BARC turned out to be the terrific speaker. He managed to come out with some pointed inferences, while I was wondering what he would speak since everybody else has spoken everything. He said that Thorium is the third stage but what about natural Uranium right now? He said that Dr. Homi Jehangir Bhabha had the vision to start extracting uranium right in 1960 with the uranium in Indian ore of just .07% (700 grams per ton). Those days, the world was operating 2-3% uranium content mines. Then he said that India lost focus and is now realizing the mistake of not continuing to build up on new mines and processing facility. He said that if the Indians would have concentrated on various ways of extracting uranium, we could have found alternative source like the Japanese have found a method of extracting uranium from sea water. One major point he brought out was that when the decision to build the nuclear submarine in 1970’s, the choice of the fuel was enriched uranium and not plutonium. India did not posses the facilities to enrich uranium but subsequently built it up.
     
  17. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    US says China's military has seen secret expansion


    The growth of China's military is shrouded in secrecy which could give rise to "misunderstanding and miscalculation", a US defence department report says.

    China has been upgrading its land-based missiles, expanding its submarine force and nuclear arsenal, the Pentagon's annual report to Congress said.

    It also said that China has extended its military advantage over Taiwan.

    The report confirms US concerns about the rapid growth of China's military.
    Frictions

    China has 1,150 short-range ballistic missiles and an unknown number of medium-range missiles, the report says.



    The billions of dollars in expenditure has been conducted largely out of the public eye, the report alleges.

    "The limited transparency in China's military and security affairs enhances uncertainty and increases the potential for misunderstanding and miscalculation," it says.

    Recent commentaries from the Chinese military establishment have complained about large-scale military exercises held by the US and South Korea.

    They have spoken of an alleged policy of US "encirclement" that threatens China's core interests.

    China has also criticised what it sees as unwarranted interference by the US in one of those core interests, China's claim to much of the South China Sea.

    US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton recently told a regional summit in Vietnam that it supported non-Chinese claimants to the sea.
    US commander Jeffrey Kim (R) and his crew are greeted by Vietnamese naval officers at Tien Sa port in the central coastal city of Danang The training marked 15 years of normalised relations between the US and Vietnam

    The US also recently held a week of visits and training exercises with Vietnam.

    Washington is also embarking on a new round of exercises with South Korea which it describes as purely defensive.

    Military-to-military contacts between the US and China have been suspended and China refused to meet US Defence Secretary Robert Gates.

    "It's been ambiguous over the past several months," a senior defence official told the Associated Press when asked about the Pentagon's view of its relationship with China.
    Far reach

    The Pentagon suggests that China's purchases show a growing military reach beyond its borders, and beyond Taiwan.

    "The balance of cross-Strait military forces continues to shift in the mainland's favour," the report said, regardless of improving political and business ties with Taiwanese President Ma Ying-jeou.

    And China was "already looking at contingencies beyond Taiwan," it says, citing work on longer-range missiles that could reach the Pacific.

    "Current trends in China's military capabilities are a major factor in changing East Asian military balances and could provide China with a force capable of conducting a range of military operations in Asia well beyond Taiwan," it said.

    The report alleges this reach could go beyond traditional boundaries of Okinawa in Japan and the South China Sea to Guam, mainland Japan and the Philippines.

    In March this year, China said it would increase its defence budget by 7.5% to 532bn yuan ($77.9bn, £50bn), less than the usual double-digit increases.

    The US annual military budget is about $700bn (£448bn).

    The Pentagon said it wanted dialogue with China to avoid any "miscalculation" between the two militaries.

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  18. SHASH2K2

    SHASH2K2 New Member

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    Rising China Tests the Waters

    With joint exercises between the navies of the United States and Vietnam kicking off, Washington and Beijing's rivalry over the South China Sea is heating up. Although exercises with Vietnam involve non-combat training such as search and rescue, they reinforce recent remarks by US Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.

    Speaking at last month's meeting of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), Clinton affirmed that peacefully resolving territorial disputes in the South China Sea amounted to a US ''national interest''. What followed was a sharp retort from one claimant - Beijing - with Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi labeling Clinton's remarks as an ''attack''.

    Conflicting claims in the South China Sea, which involve China and five other nations in the region, have long flown under the radar in Washington. Only now, as the South China Sea makes headlines, has understanding of the issue increased.

    For decades, China, Taiwan, the Philippines, Brunei, Vietnam, and Malaysia have claimed sovereignty over all or part of the South China Sea. China's claim, which encompasses roughly the entire body of water from China's south coast past Vietnam
    and the Philippines, reaching almost to Singapore, is by far the most ambitious. Its claim is based on maps from the 1930s and some shards of Chinese pottery discovered on currently uninhabited islands.

    Behind claims to the South China Sea lie fundamentally realpolitik considerations: control of trade routes, access to natural resources, and fear.

    Annually, one third of the world's maritime trade traverses the South China Sea, which is also home to some of the largest untapped stores of oil and natural gas in the world - some optimistic Chinese analysts refer to it as ''the second Persian Gulf''. The South China Sea is a major highway linking the oil fields of the Middle East and the factories of East Asia. Over 80% of China's oil imports flow through the South China Sea, and Japan and South Korea
    likewise receive the lifeblood of their economic engines via this strategic waterway. As influential Asia-watcher Robert Kaplan has put it, the South China Sea's importance to the region makes it the ''Asian Mediterranean''.

    Also intertwined with the South China Sea dispute is Southeast Asian uncertainty about the nature of China's rise. Although Beijing has become a key trading partner for most of the region, decades of military expansion (especially in the maritime sphere) has made Southeast Asian capitals understandably concerned about Chinese maritime claims.

    Tensions in the South China Sea have waxed and waned over the years, occasionally leading to violent confrontation. Most recently, in 2002, China and ASEAN signed a Declaration which committed all claimants to peacefully resolve their disputes. Since this signing, several claimants have submitted their disputes to international organizations for arbitration. Most recently, Singapore and Malaysia resolved a dispute using the International Court of Justice.

    China, however, remains outside this trend of reconciliation and international arbitration. It has attempted to keep disputes bilateral, apparently believing that its expanding economic and military power will force the smaller countries of Southeast Asia
    to eventually acquiesce. This explains Beijing's vigorous rejection of Secretary Clinton's offer for multilateral arbitration - China's ability to coerce smaller states will decrease when they have neighbors and the United States behind them. Unfortunately for China, the number of parties involved and Beijing's signing of the 2002 Declaration with ASEAN implies an international nature to these disputes.

    Instead of pursuing international arbitration, Beijing has opted for a more hardline approach to the South China Sea. In direct contravention of international law, China has asserted the right to regulate what ships can navigate and conduct research in its exclusive economic zone. In May of this year, Beijing ratcheted up its rhetoric , labeling the South China Sea as a ''core national interest''. Until then, the Chinese government had limited this phrase to basic matters of national interest, such as economic development and territorial sovereignty (code for Taiwan, Tibet, and Xinjiang). The use of ''core interest'' to describe the South China Sea signaled a new, aggressive phase in China's approach.

    The flexing of China's naval muscles has supported this rhetoric. China has harassed foreign navies operating off its southern coast; the most publicized case to date is the USS Impeccable, which was swarmed and almost rammed by Chinese vessels. Such maritime confrontations, though usually unreported in the media, continue today. China's navy has also conducted a series of exercises along its periphery, and just last month, conducted a major exercise within the South China Sea that involved mock long-range precision strike and attacks against enemy jet fighters.
    The world has taken notice of China's increasingly aggressive behavior. Many will interpret this more hardline approach to the South China Sea as a leading indicator of a risen China's future behavior. For decades, China's backward economy and weak military meant that its attitude on international issues attracted little notice. But with China emerging as one of the world's most influential nations, its position on the South China Sea - and other issues - is closely scrutinized. While most nations, including the United States, welcome the economic dimension of China's rise, many increasingly question the purpose of China's robust military modernization efforts. Add to this uncompromising rhetoric surrounding the South China Sea, and the use of military exercises as a thinly-veiled threat, and China's rise appears less pacific than its mantra of “peaceful development” would indicate.

    So what is to be done?

    In recent months the Barack Obama administration has taken an important step by raising the South China Sea's international profile. Public statements by high-level American officials call attention to Beijing's behavior in the South China Sea.

    But this is only the first step.

    The United States and its allies and partners in the Asia-Pacific need to coordinate to develop a common position on the South China Sea. This position should emphasize sustaining open access to an international body of water, an angle on the South China Sea that will not place nations in the awkward - and unwanted - position of choosing between the United States and China.

    Privately, Washington and Asian capitals should convey to Beijing that they consider the South China Sea a leading indicator of how a risen China will behave on the world stage. American officials should unambiguously state that whether Beijing allows unhindered passage through the South China Sea and seeks to peacefully resolve territorial disputes there will go a long way toward determining the future shape of US policy toward China.

    The United States and other like-minded Asia-Pacific nations should take additional steps to ratchet up the costs Beijing will incur if it seeks to extend sovereignty deep into the South China Sea. These steps include building up local naval capacity and expanding military cooperation. In particular, joint naval exercises with Vietnam should be gradually expanded. Over the long term, the United States must invest in its navy to ensure it retains a significant presence in the South China Sea for decades to come.
    Lastly, the US Senate should finally ratify the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). In the United States, ratification has the support of almost every national security leader and expert from both political parties. Because UNCLOS defines the illegality of China's claims, remaining outside of the treaty weakens American efforts to establish a bulwark against Beijing's ambitions.

    We should not forget that Beijing views the South China Sea as a leading indicator of how the international community will respond to China's growing power and assertiveness. An anemic international reaction will embolden China, not only in the South China Sea, but elsewhere as well. Insistence on open access to the South China Sea, if backed by US and regional action, will incline China to reassess its approach.
     

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