Archaeological Remains of Ancient India

Discussion in 'General Multimedia' started by Shaitan, Aug 26, 2012.

  1. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    I'll post some interesting things from ancient, medieval, etc India.


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    Rare look at the architecture, clothing, etc of the Maurya, Sunga, Satavahana, etc. periods.



    These reliefs give you a good idea of how that period looked like. Many architectural, clothing, etc references in these reliefs.

    These reliefs are made in the Satavahana period, but the Satavahana being one of the Mauryans successors carried on many of it's style. The Mauryans would've made these carvings on wood. Sungas, Satavahana, etc started/shifted to use stone more.
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2012
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  3. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Rare look at the architecture, clothing, etc of the Maurya, Sunga, Satavahana, etc. periods,
     
  4. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Amazing image. On the top right a siege from Indian antiquity. Rare image. You can see the design of towers, gates, etc.

    Other images show ancient India's architecture.

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    Continue below
     
  5. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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  6. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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  7. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    More reliefs from Sanchi.

    You can see more of the architecture of time.
     
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  8. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    More reliefs from Sanchi.
     
  9. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Extermely rare image of a siege in ancient India. From Sanchi stupa.

    More images of the cities

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    Drawing of an ancient Indian city. The reference for this image is the reliefs in Sanchi, and other places.

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    Taken from the reliefs at Bharut. Small houses it seems.
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2012
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  10. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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  11. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    The discoveries at Sisupalgarh are quite similar as described in the Arthasastra.
    Translations from the Arthasastra about the description of fortified town are
    given in the following passages.
    "… the king may have his fortified capital as the seat of his ….in a locality
    naturally best fitted for the purpose. Such as the bank of the confluence of the
    rivers, a deep pool of perennial water or a lake or a tank, surrounded with an
    artificial canal of water connected with both land and water paths."
    " Above the rampart, parapets in odd or even numbers and with an intermediate
    space from 12-24 hastas from each other shall be built of bricks."
    "Demarcation of the ground inside the fort shall be made first by opening three
    royal roads from west to east and three from South to north…"
    These references from the Arthasastra are corroborated by Archaeological
    findings at Sisupalgarh e.g
    The presence of a square (Chaturasara) settlement.
    Fortification walls oriented along the cardinal directions.
    A moat around the fortification fed by a perennial stream.
    The fortification comprising a rampart and over lying brick walls
    with intermediary earthen fillings.
    Three royal roads running east-west and north and south
    So far there are two differences:6
    There are two major roads in east-west and north-south direction.
    May be due to Sisupalgarh not being as large a settlement as
    envisaged in the Arthasastra.
    The Arthasastra describes about twelve major gateways where as
    Sisupalgarh has only eight.
    The fort forms Rough Square in plan. The outline clearly suggests the existence
    of corner towers and eight large gateways, two on each sides besides about eight
    smaller openings distributed all over the perimeter. The gateways are so placed
    that if the distance between the two corner towers of any side is trisected, a
    gateway will be found near each point of trisection. All these suggests a regular
    planning not only of the fortification but of the streets inside which are likely to
    have run east-west, north-south connecting the opposite gateways in a grid
    pattern.
    An assemblage of 16 monolithic pillars, locally called Shola Khamba in an area
    of some 30 m x 30 m near the centre of the fortress were of special interest. Built
    up of laterite, some pillars are bearing medallions like those found in Bharhut,
    Sanchi, Udayagiri and Khanadagiri caves. The columns measure over 4.9 m in
    height and have a maximal diameter of about 70 cm. This could be the remains
    of a pillared hall since the pillars have horizontal sockets, seemingly intended to
    hold superimposed beams or rafters. However only few pillars are standing intact
    while others are missing their upper portion. The ground level inside the fort is
    4.5 meter higher than outside. The fort while being too large for a mere citadel
    enclosing perhaps the king’s palace and attached residence or quarters, did not
    seem to accommodate common people, most of whom lived outside its confines
    as it appears from the pottery remains towards the north and the west.


    Excavation has revealed that the fort was in occupation from the beginning of the
    third century BC till the middle of the fourth century AD. It also suggests that the
    culture of the site had reached its height in the early phase i.e., 200 BC to 100
    AD. And the deterioration had started taking place around 100 AD to 200 AD.
    Originally the defences were constructed towards the beginning of 200 BC and
    consisted of massive mud ramparts,10.12 meters wide at the base and more than
    8 meters high with magnificent gateways, guard rooms, ancillary passages and
    corner towers. In the second phase the clay rampart being susceptible to erosion
    was reinforced by adding a thick layer of gravel in its top. The third phase is
    marked by the erection of two brick walls, eight meters apart on top of the gravel
    layer with fillings of mud and debris in between. Finally a collapsed revetment
    wall was renovated with a battered exterior. The city was systematically planned
    with well built houses of laterite or brick laid out in orderly streets in a grid
    pattern. Cart-tracks uncovered at various levels of the streets reveal a record of
    life of the people in the city.
    The excavated western gateway of Sisupalgarh is worth mentioning. Built up of
    large slabs of dressed laterite this gateway is remarkably elaborate. The imposing
    complex has a passage 8mts wide between two flank walls and two gates, outer
    and inner, giving access to the interior of the town. Immediately behind the outer
    entrance a guard room was built in the southern flank while in northern flank
    near the inner gate was pierced by narrow pathway for pedestrian traffic
    probably a bypass when the main gate is closed. There were steps ascending


    Water resource is the deciding factor for town planning. Sanskrit and Pali
    literatures as well as Vastusastras exhibit moat, ditch or natural water barriers as
    safety valve of defense for the fort or the capital city. The moats though planned
    for defensive measure in the past, served as well for the water source for the
    township. Sisupalgarh is circumscribed by the water streamlet called the
    Gangua. The flow of the water is around the north, east and western sides of the
    fort, thus producing a moat with perennial supply of water. The houses inside the
    fort have wells fed by percolating water of the moat.
    It was while excavating the site of Sisupalgarh to find out the culture sequence of
    rouletted ware that fortunately along with the rouletted ware an excellently laid
    out fort of the pre-Christian era was unearthed by Prof. B. B.Lal in 1948. Soon
    after the Archaeological Survey of India ( ASI) declared the site protected in
    February 13, 1950 with the caption: "Ancient remains inside and outside rampart
    mostly buried". ASI has also recommended the site be declared protected for
    excavation. Organisations like Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural
    Heritage (INTACH) and Orissa Development Studies (ODS) had come forward
    with similar demands.

    http://www.sdstate.edu/projectsouthasia/Resources/upload/Sisupalgarh-Fortified-Urban-Center-of-Early-Historic-India-Ray.pdf


    A good read. About the fortifications in ancient India.
     
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  12. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    These images are from the Mauryan ruins of a hypostyle 80-pillared hall. From Pataliputra.


    Kumhrar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


    Mauryans used wood extensively.
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2012
  13. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Karla Caves, The Cave of Karli

    More of the same architecture. You can see the similar arches from the reliefs. These rock cut monuments and reliefs give you an idea how the buildings would've looked like then.

    More later
     
    Last edited: Aug 26, 2012
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  14. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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  15. Nagraj

    Nagraj Regular Member

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    please
    post more
     
  16. chase

    chase Tihar Jail Banned

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    After looking at these carvings i can tell that the clothing ethics of indians were highly sophisticated and very open...not suppressed as women are made to wear today.
     
  17. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Satavahana period stupa recreated

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  18. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Sannati stupa. Satavahana period. Originally it was a Mauryan stupa that was built over by the Satavahanas. A lot of the Mauryan's successors built over Mauryan stupas.
     
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  19. Shaitan

    Shaitan Zandu balm all day Senior Member

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    Recreated

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    This is an important relief from the Sannati stupa of an emperor with his concubines. This is the only image of Ashoka the Great.
     
    Last edited: Sep 10, 2012
  20. maomao

    maomao Veteran Hunter of Maleecha Senior Member

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    Who destroyed India's ancient past? Who wanted to eliminate any reference of past Glory of India and replace it by its own that too it was never its own? Who destroyed ancient Universities and Temples which were centers of learning and science? Who used to cut nose of Idols of Gods and Goddesses? Who never shows any respect for other religions or human lives? Ask any question and the answer remains same!
     
    Last edited: Sep 10, 2012
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  21. Sakal Gharelu Ustad

    Sakal Gharelu Ustad Detests Jholawalas Moderator

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    good work shaitan!
     

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