USAF's Next Generation Optionally Manned Bomber Development is Gathering Pace

asianobserve

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

Pentagon’s Inspector General Praises Secret $80 Billion Bomber

The Air Force’s classified next-generation bomber program began with a solid plan for meeting cost goals and warfighting requirements, which include an option to fly unmanned missions, according to a newly declassified audit from the Pentagon’s inspector general.

The challenge will be sticking to that plan.

The early praise for what the Congressional Budget Office in a new estimate says is a $97 billion B-21 program came about a month before the Air Force selected Northrop Grumman Corp. over a rival team consisting of Boeing Co. and Lockheed Martin Corp. for the bomber contract in late 2015.

While big-ticket weapons systems like the B-21 frequently end up with significant cost increases and production delays, in the initial stages the Air Force was cited for its “comprehensive acquisition strategy and risk-management process to support a cost-effective program,” according to the audit. The program had “clearly defined requirements to ensure” warfighter “needs are being met,” it added.


That initial assessment is no guarantee the B-21 won’t encounter serious cost, schedule and performance problems as system development continues, with the service seeking to declare an initial operating capability by the “mid to late 2020s,” Global Strike Command spokesman Joe Thomas said in an email. The aircraft’s first flight “along with specific details of the technical capability of this platform, is protected by enhanced security measures,” he added.

The CBO’s $97 billion estimate includes $69 billion in production costs, though the office says the program’s secrecy made it difficult “to generate an independent estimate of its costs.”

Read about the Air Force’s $2 billion request for the B-21 in fiscal year 2018

The previously classified audit by the inspector general was released this month under a Freedom of Information Act request after the service made major redactions, adding additional secrecy to a program critics such as Republican Senator John McCain, chairman of the Armed Services Committee, have complained was already excessively classified.

The inspector general’s report also disclosed details about the B-21’s expected capabilities. In addition to being able to carry and deliver a modified B-61 nuclear bomb two years after reaching its initial operating capability stage, the bomber will also be capable of unmanned operations.

Because the audit is redacted, it could not be determined whether the service allowed only favorable conclusions to be released while keeping any criticism cloaked in secrecy. The Air Force, for example, released the conclusion that the service had a detailed contracting strategy but blacked out a paragraph that preceded the sentence “under this approach the Federal Government assumes some of the research and development risk.”

The praise also means the inspector general’s assessment will come under scrutiny if the program veers off track, in costs or performance, as it proceeds.

Second Assessment
Still, the conclusions released mark the second time an outside group has praised the service’s acquisition approach. The U.S. Government Accountability Office, in a February 2016 decision that rejected a protest filed by Boeing-Lockheed Martin against the Northrop award, praised the selection process.

Northrop Grumman’s “significantly lower proposed prices” for initial production “created a near-insurmountable obstacle” to Boeing “achieving best-value” or to “demonstrating prejudice” in the Air Force’s calculation of realistic costs, the GAO said.

The Pentagon’s inspector general also said the program office “incorporated adequate processes to develop accurate cost positions and funding requirements" and the review system set up with Pentagon cost analysts “ensures appropriate oversight, accurate development and effective approach for funds management,” said the audit. The service also developed a “detailed contracting strategy” and “adequately developed and incorporated a process to develop an accurate cost position and program schedule,” said the audit.

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/arti...-bomber-praised-by-pentagon-inspector-general

Despite McCain’s criticism of excessive secrecy, Congress has supported the program, approving $2 billion in the fiscal 2018 policy bill the Air Force requested toward added staffing for Northrop Grumman, software development and producing detailed engineering drawings.




 

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http://data:image/jpeg;base64,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Air Force’s $2 Billion Bomber Request Pays for Staff, Drawings
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
The $2 billion that the U.S. Air Force wants to spend this fiscal year for the new B-21 bomber would go toward added staffing for contractor Northrop Grumman Corp., software development and producing detailed engineering drawings, according to a top service official.

While the items listed by Air Force Undersecretary Matt Donovan were predictable for early work on a major weapons system, it provided a peek behind the curtain of plans for the new bomber that could become an $80 billion program for at least 100 of the aircraft. Donovan came to the Pentagon from the Senate Armed Services Committee, whose chairman, John McCain, has protested that the bomber is being shrouded in excessive secrecy.

“One of the things I was concerned about before I moved over” to assume the Air Force’s No. 2 civilian post is the budget is unclassified even if the bomber’s capabilities must remain secret, Donovan said in an interview Tuesday.

“Senator McCain’s view is ‘Look, the American taxpayer deserved to know how you can spend that money,’” said Donovan, who had been the top staff aide on aircraft issues for the committee’s majority Republicans.


In a June 6 exchange with Air Force Secretary Heather Wilson, McCain of Arizona said that “it’s understandable to keep the B-21-specific warfighting capabilities classified, but it’s difficult to understand why you should keep other aspects of the program under the veil of secrecy,” such as the $2 billion request for fiscal 2018.

Telling Committees

Wilson replied: “Senator, we are very open with the appropriate committees and the Congress about exactly what we’re doing and what we’re spending it on.”

The Air Force hasn’t publicly disclosed the value to Northrop of the development contract it was awarded in 2015 or the fee amount set aside to reward the company for good performance. But it has provided information such as how much has been spent to date and the projected research, procurement and per-jet costs.

On the request for the year that began Oct. 1, Donovan said, “Part of that money is being spent on staffing -- we’ve got to staff up the contractor so they can really move out on this thing. Software development is always an issue so we’ve got to make sure the software stays on track.”

Money also will be spent on producing engineering drawings for a “clean-sheet” design, he said, which means the new bomber won’t be an adaptation of the B-2 stealth bomber or other existing aircraft, as some analysts have suggested.

Northrop’s performance is “generally on track” and “within the windows of expected progress that we’ve expected at this point,” Donovan said. Still, “there is some risk in this program because it’s a brand new, clean-sheet design. So we’ll work through those.”

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/arti...illion-bomber-request-pays-for-staff-drawings

 

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A top secret desert assembly plant starts ramping up to build Northrop's B-21 bomber



A once-empty parking lot at Northrop Grumman Corp.’s top secret aircraft plant in Palmdale is now jammed with cars that pour in during the predawn hours.

More than a thousand new employees are working for the time being in rows of temporary trailers, a dozen tan-colored tents and a vast assembly hangar at the desert site near the edge of urban Los Angeles County.

It is here that Northrop is building the Air Force’s new B-21 bomber, a stealthy bat-winged jet that is being designed to slip behind any adversary’s air defense system and deliver devastating airstrikes for decades to come. The Pentagon is aiming to buy 100 of the bombers by the mid-2030s for at least $80 billion, though the exact amount is classified.



Northrop won the bomber contract in 2015, but the pace of activity is ramping up sharply under an Air Force budget that has reached $2 billion for this fiscal year.

Construction crews are getting ready to add 1 million square feet to the plant, a 50% increase over what is already a huge facility that is protected by razor wire-topped fences, electronic sensors and military air space surveillance, according to interviews and government documents.

The project marks a sharp turnaround in the fortunes of the Southern California aerospace industry, which has been atrophying since the end of the Cold War. It was widely assumed that the region would never again be home to a large aircraft manufacturing program and now it has one of the largest in modern history. The program is breathing new life into an industry that once defined the Southern California economy.

The bomber — dubbed the “Raider” — is expected to become Northrop’s largest cash cow, which could run for two decades if it does not encounter technical or political setbacks. But it will be competing with other nuclear and nonnuclear modernization programs for limited defense funds — a cutthroat political contest.

Northrop has 3,000 employees at the Palmdale plant and is still hiring at a rapid clip. By late 2019, the operation will have 5,200 employees at the site, Kevin Mitchell, deputy vice president of global operations, recently told a Lancaster Chamber of Commerce meeting.



The facility also produces Northrop’s high-altitude surveillance drones, the Global Hawk for the Air Force and the closely related Triton for the Navy, as well as the center fuselage for Lockheed Martin’s F-35 Joint Strike Fighter. Company officials declined to be interviewed on the B-21, citing Defense Department restrictions.

The Palmdale factory is part of the Air Force’s massive Plant 42 operation, where some of the nation’s most secret warplanes have been built, including Northrop’s flying wing B-2 bomber.

The B-21 program is not just secret but “special access,” setting a much higher bar on who can get a clearance and how data are stored, among much else. An executive conference room at the plant is actually a high security windowless vault, where a massive conference table is surrounded by three dozen leather chairs and the walls are adorned with large photographs of the company’s long line of weapons. No cellphones are allowed in the room.

Heavy bombers, particularly those capable of carrying nuclear weapons, have been among the most controversial military projects in U.S. history. When the B-1 bomber was rolled out, pacifists attempted to throw themselves under its wheels. The Northrop B-2 stealth bomber gave Congress sticker shock with its $1-billion-per-plane manufacturing cost.



By contrast, the B-21 so far is slamming through the political system with few obstacles with a projected cost of $550 million per plane, translating to production costs alone of $55 billion, according to staff at the House Armed Services Committee. The dollar amount for research and development is highly classified, Under Secretary of the Air Force Matthew Donovan said in an in interview.

The service is committed to releasing that cost information as soon as possible, Donovan said, “but we have to balance that with protecting the capabilities of our aircraft against potential adversaries.”

Even more highly classified are the technical details of the future bomber.

A crude drawing of the plane released by the Air Force seems to resemble the company’s B-2 bomber, but Donovan and others say the new plane is not a derivative but a “clean sheet” design. It is supposed to carry nuclear weapons, though the Air Force does not plan to certify it for such missions until two years after it first becomes operational, a cost-saving decision that the House Armed Services Committee criticized in a 2013 report.

Evading more capable future radar systems is a singular requirement. When the B-2 was built, some experts claimed it looked no bigger than a hummingbird on a radar screen. The B-21 would have to be even stealthier. The preliminary design of the bomber’s stealth characteristics was “investigated in detail against current and anticipated threats,” according to a Congressional Research Service report released in June.

The plane will be operated either by an onboard crew or autonomously, the report said. Without a crew, the bomber could linger much longer over targets, requiring fewer sorties and holding an enemy hostage much longer. Unlike the B-2, it is planned as part of a “family of systems,” implying that it would fly with other aircraft or weapons systems, though government officials declined to say anything about it.



The B-21 will benefit from much more sophisticated, faster and cheaper computer systems, as well as software, said Don Hicks, who was Northrop’s senior vice president for research during the B-2 era and later served as the Pentagon’s research and engineering chief. He said Northrop developed crucial technology in its X-47B drone, an experimental jet that made history in 2013 with the first autonomous landing on an aircraft carrier.

“The B-21 is much better than the B-2,” Hicks said. “It has a lot of capability built into it that the B-2 doesn’t have.”

The B-21 is being marketed as a replacement for the Air Force’s aging bomber fleet, which dates back to the 1960s for the B-52 and the 1980s for the B-1. The Air Force says potential adversaries are improving their air defense systems and it has to find new capabilities to ensure it can hold them at risk. Even if the Air Force gets all 100 bombers now planned, it will end up with a smaller fleet than it has now.

The Pentagon fears a repeat of the B-2 bomber program, in which the nation invested $20 billion in research and development with a plan to buy 132 airplanes. The plan’s cost ballooned and the Cold War ended just before production began, leaving even the Defense Department questioning why it was needed. In the end, the Air Force got only 21 aircraft, which forced it to keep using the older bombers.

The B-21 also faces a tough road ahead because of competing programs. The Pentagon has plans to update every leg of the nuclear weapons complex, including warheads, missiles and submarines, at an estimated cost of $1.2 trillion, according to a Congressional Budget Office estimate released Oct. 31.







 

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The B-21 is getting an early start, but some other programs are scheduled just when the B-21 would enter production in the mid-2020s and could challenge the bomber for funding.

“They don’t have enough money,” said Jeffrey Lewis, a nuclear weapons analyst with the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies in Monterey, Calif. “Building everything at once is the best way to build nothing.”

Unlike many strategic weapons systems, such as submarines or intercontinental ballistic missiles, bombers are in use daily on missions in the Middle East. More than a decade of war in Afghanistan, Iraq and Syria have made clear that bombers play a big role in limited conventional war.

The ultimate success of the program will depend on continued government support and cost controls. The Air Force considers the bomber one of its top three priorities, along with the F-35 and a new aerial refueling tanker.

So far, the program has received all the money that President Obama and President Trump have requested. Last year, two dozen members of the House — a colorful political mix of conservatives and liberals — sent a letter to appropriation committee leaders asking them to maintain funding for the bomber.

The only grumbling has surfaced from Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz.), chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee, who has pressed for more disclosure about the cost of research and development. The Air Force has resisted, arguing it would disclose the scope of the technology development underway.



To help keep Northrop on schedule, the Air Force is managing the B-21 through its Washington, D.C.-based Rapid Capabilities Office, which is intended to cut red tape, said Donovan, the undersecretary. The Air Force is requiring that any design changes, which often slow progress and increase costs, be approved at a higher level than is typical.

Building bombers under the black budget is not unprecedented. The U.S. government didn't lift the veil on the B-2 program until a decade after it had begun, revealing one of the largest weapons development efforts since the Manhattan Project produced the atomic bomb in the 1940s.

The Air Force and Northrop went to great lengths to conceal even the smallest detail of the B-2 program. Many suppliers had no idea they were making parts for the bomber. The government created dummy companies that ordered the parts, which were often picked up in the middle of the night by unmarked trucks.

Northrop made a bold decision a decade ago when it decided against teaming up with either Lockheed Martin Corp. or Boeing Co., going it alone. That led to Boeing and Lockheed, the nation’s two largest defense contractors, teaming up against Northrop. When they lost that competition, it left Northrop with 100% of the prime contract profits, not having to share it with a partner.

“I said we don’t need either of them,” said a person who was involved.

In addition to the major work in Palmdale, parts of all sizes will pour from factories in California and across the nation. The bomber, like other big-ticket aircraft programs before it, will probably spur new housing and commercial development. Mitchell, Northrop’s vice president, told the Lancaster Chamber of Commerce that the company is working with local leaders to make sure employees have access to services and amenities they want.



The company, for example, is working with Antelope Valley College, which recently developed an eight-week training program for aircraft fabrication and assembly, said Liz Diachun, a college spokeswoman. The vast majority of the college’s aircraft fabrication graduates go to Northrop. The college even has a bachelor’s degree program with a course on the theory of “low observable” technologies.

Northrop’s website has 272 jobs posted for Palmdale, including flight test engineers, machinists, aircraft electricians, composite technicians and low-observables mechanics. Many postings have multiple openings.

But the B-21 will probably not have the economic power of past defense programs. The industry is more efficient now, with production using more robots and other automated machinery. In 1992 when Northrop’s B-2 bomber was near its peak, the company had 9,000 workers at a now-shuttered plant in Pico Rivera and an additional 3,000 in Palmdale. The entire B-2 program employed 40,000 across the nation.

The mix is also changing. In the B-21, Palmdale already has as many workers as the B-2 and is headed higher, suggesting that its role will include not only final assembly but a significant amount of parts or process work. Although the plane is being assembled at Palmdale, the Northrop program office is located at another major company aircraft facility in Melbourne, Fla.

Manufacturing engineering work is being planned in Palmdale, while Melbourne serves as a design center. A longtime aerospace industry veteran said Northrop has also opened a modest B-21 engineering office at its plant in El Segundo, because it is challenged to find all the engineers it needs in Florida.

Mike Blades, a securities analyst with Frost & Sullivan, said he believes that about 30% to 50% of the Air Force’s $2-billion bomber budget for fiscal 2018 is flowing through Northrop.

“By far, it is going to be the largest source of their funding,” Blades said. “It is going to be a big deal for a long time. You are talking $2 billion and they are just in research and development.”

Investors have taken close note. Since the company was awarded the contract in October 2015, Northrop shares have nearly doubled, outpacing industry rivals over the same period.

Northrop Chief Financial Officer Kenneth Bedingfield earlier this year told securities analysts that the company’s restricted activities, which refer to secret contracts such as the B-21, made up more than 20% of sales last year.

“I will tell you that it is a nicely growing part of our business,” he said.


http://www.latimes.com/local/california/la-fi-northrop-bomber-20171110-htmlstory.html
 

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Are We Seeing B-21 Raider Development and Testing Activity at Area 51?
Read more at https://theaviationist.com/2017/11/...ting-activity-at-area-51/#mA1tioCy6DQvCwTC.99


With New Projects in Development, and New Construction, The Area is Ramping Up.

We’re not sure what is happening inside (and close to) the restricted Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), but after visiting the area earlier this month, we are reasonably certain something significant is taking place right now. The massive area, reported to be 4,531 square miles, is one of the most secure national security sites and is closed to the public.

Earlier this month we drove the remote roads along the perimeter of the NTTR between Las Vegas, Nevada and Beatty, Nevada on the way to and from the Jedi Transition low-level flying area in Death Valley National Park. While this is one of the emptiest, most barren stretches of paved highway in the U.S. in just a few hours we made a number of interesting observations.

Sometime after 3:00 AM across from Creech AFB we saw a military-aged male with a beard in civilian clothes and a medium-sized piece of luggage or large lunch box board an airport-style shuttle bus and drive away on Highway 95 west of Creech. The vehicle drove a significant distance west and north on the highway before we lost sight of it. There is almost nothing out there. On the trip back that night we saw an F-117 fuselage covered by a tarp being transported on a flatbed truck in the dark west-bound on Highway 95. Earlier in the day someone had gotten photos of it by the side of the road.

In less than 24 hours, on one stretch of road at the outskirts of a massive 4,000+ mile testing range, we saw that much activity.

Moreover, the following day, on Nov. 14, an authority on the area referred to only as “G” of lazygranch.com, shot photos of an F-117 flying with a two-seat F-16. The very same day, in the afternoon a similar (or maybe the same with a diffirent configuration) two-seat F-16, carrying the Lockheed Martin’s AN/AAS-42, an IRST (Infra Red Search and Track) pod (theoretically capable to detect stealth aircraft by their IR signature), with sparse markings was photographed flying through the Jedi Transition. The photo was good enough that we could identify a patch worn on the right shoulder of each of the aircraft’s flight suits. The patches suggest the crew are associated with the famous “Red Hats” opposing forces test unit and the 53rd TEG Det 3, the unit thought to have replaced the 4477th “Red Eagles”, another opposing force simulation and testing unit.

Separate and additionally from those sightings near or around Tonopah Test Range, journalist Tyler Rogoway at The War Zone, has been a keen observer of the Nevada Test and Training Range. Rogoway reported on the appearance of several new construction projects at Area 51, notably, a new “U” shaped taxiway, vehicle roadway and most interestingly, a large aircraft hangar.

If you compare satellite imagery of Area 51 beginning in 1984 you see a progression of small changes followed by the significant addition of a long, second, parallel runway. Work on the second runway began in 1990 and seemed complete in about 1992. From 1999-2000 several new buildings appeared in satellite photos. In 2001-2002 an intermediate vehicle road connecting taxiways and runways was built. And most recently, in 2013, a major new construction project began at the southwest corner of the area. Soon after, in July 2014, the U.S. Air Force issued a request for proposal for a new, long range, low-observable strike aircraft. The project became the LRS-B. From 2014 to 2016 a large, new hangar was built at the southwestern corner of the facility. The structure appears to be nearly large enough to house an aircraft the size of the current B-1B Lancer bomber.

The latest satellite photos show what appears to be new engine test facilities, and most significantly, the southern taxiways and hangar in new-looking condition. Comparing the satellite photos of the facility going back to 1984, the two most significant, visible expansions are the second runway in 1990 and the new southwest square taxiway and hangar building beginning in 2014.

Noted aerospace imaging expert Al Clark told TheAviationist.com, “In the general Groom Lake image our best reference is one of the F-16s parked on the west side of the base. The F-16 length is approximately 50-feet. Building number one, which is almost directly west of the F-16s is approximately 120’x120’. It looks to be an engine test/run-up hangar. The building that is more interesting is approximately 250-feet wide by a length of 275-feet. This is interesting because the B-2 wingspan is only 172-feet, so this is [possibly] designed to house large aircraft, in my opinion possibly the B-21 Raider. To the southwest of that structure it looks like what could be a weapons storage facility. The smaller bunker is approximately 75-feet long by 30-feet wide, and the larger bunker is approximately 75-feet wide and 100-feet long. Those are fairly large weapons bunkers. The general placement of the munitions depot tells me that there is something pretty volatile in it because they are keeping it away from the main base at Groom Lake.”

Is what we are seeing evidence of the LRS-B program development and the B-21 Raider? While there are likely several other major developmental programs underway including a new manned or unmanned reconnaissance and strike platform (the RQ-180 spy drone is one of them), LRS-B and B-21 are the most mature and most talked about in official channels and, as a result, most conclusions point to something related to their development out at Area 51 in the new hangar.

Prior to her departure from the office, former Air Force Secretary Deborah James told media, “Our 5th generation global precision attack platform will give our country a networked sensor shooter capability enabling us to hold targets at risk anywhere in the world in a way that our adversaries have never seen.” Her comments about the LRS-B program and B-21 acknowledge both the capability and necessity of the program, and may suggest the urgency of it as the Air Force maintains its small fleet of B-2 Spirit low-observable long range strike aircraft against a growing demand for its unique capability.

That might mean we are seeing the B-21 Raider development program take shape right under our noses at Area 51. Or this is what they want us to believe.


Read more at https://theaviationist.com/2017/11/...ting-activity-at-area-51/#mA1tioCy6DQvCwTC.99
 

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B-21 Raider Headed Toward Critical Design Review



The B-21 team successfully completed an integrated baseline review of the flying-wing bomber in November 2016 and passed through the preliminary design review stage earlier this year. The requirements and basic design of the aircraft should now be firm.

Walden confirms that the production target remains 100 bombers, and the first operational unit should be ready for service by the mid-2020s.
http://aviationweek.com/defense/b-21-raider-headed-toward-critical-design-review-rco-says
 

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USAF plans to consolidate bomber fleet to B-21 and B-52

The US Air Force has confirmed plans to re-engine the Boeing B-52H fleet and retire the Northrop Grumman B-2 and the Rockwell B-1 as Northrop’s next-generation B-21 stealth bomber ramps up deliveries.

The proposals in the Trump Administration’s Fiscal 2019 budget request will consolidate the Air Force’s strategic bomber fleet to the B-21 and a re-engined B-52 fleet after
around 2040.

https://www.flightglobal.com/news/a...onsolidate-bomber-fleet-to-b-21-and-b-445845/

Holy cow! By 2040 the current B-52H is already around 79 years old! This is a testament to the soundness of the basic design of the B-52.
 

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A nice colorful attempt at trying to explain a blackhole military program...

 

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U.S. Air Force’s new B-21 bomber will likely have air-to-air defense capabilities

Sources familiar with the development of next-generation bomber said the B-21 Raider would be fitted with advanced radar that will be provided air-to-air capabilities. For air-to-air defense, the new bomber also would be added capability to carry air-to-air missiles.

https://defence-blog.com/news/u-s-a...ely-have-air-to-air-defense-capabilities.html


The B-21 will be a game-changer.
 
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asianobserve

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More likely 75 more B-21 will be ordered



The US has 156 bombers today. But the Air Force is committed to boasting 386 squadrons, up 75 from its total today. “Certainly,” Ray said, “that means good growth for the bombers.” He cited outside studies that conclude the Air Force needs 225 bombers. The current official benchmark, set by the bomber roadmap, is for 75 B-52s and 100 of the new B-21s bombers being built by Northrop Grumman. So 225 would mean another 50 bombers.

https://breakingdefense.com/2019/09/more-b-21s-likely-b-1s-to-carry-up-to-8-hypersonic-weapons/
 

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Wishful thinking to see some of these in our inventory even a limited no.
 

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