The EVM controversy: old allegations revisited


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Super Mod
Apr 5, 2009
The EVM controversy: old allegations revisited

by Ajai Shukla
Business Standard, 7th Aug 09

Today, the BJP and the Shiv Sena appeared before the Election Commission to allege that Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs), which are now used for all Indian elections, can be manipulated to favour a candidate. But old-timers from Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), who perfected the EVMs in the late 1980s, say that all the current allegations have been raised before, and comprehensively disproved.

Colonel HS Shankar, former Director (R&D) at BEL says that EVMs came under fire soon after BEL demonstrated them to Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi in mid-1989. Shankar, who attended that meeting, recalls that an impressed Rajiv Gandhi suggested the use of EVMs in 150 constituencies during the 1989 general elections.

The first challenge came swiftly. On 15th October 1989, at a dramatic press conference in New Delhi, Janata Dal chief, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and George Fernandes produced a “computer consultant” to prove that EVMs could easily be rigged. Before a crowd of journalists, the consultant keyed in “3 + 3” into a computer, pressed “Enter” and showed the answer to the crowd. It was 9.

In the charged atmosphere of 1989, the Election Commission scrapped the plan to use EVMs that year. But when VP Singh became PM, BEL launched a campaign to prove the reliability of electronic voting. Eventually, the government created an experts committee to examine whether EVMs could be “fiddled”.

Professor S Sampath of the Defence R&D Organisation headed the committee, which included Dr PV Indiresan of IIT Delhi, and Dr C Rao Kasarabada, Director Electronic Research and Development Center, Trivandrum. Dr Indiresan gathered four of his brightest research students and gave them five days to subvert the EVM’s source code. Their only restriction: there should be no external damage to the EVM.

Colonel Shankar says that BEL gave Dr Indiresan’s team all the EVM circuit diagrams and design drawings; only the encryption-coded software was withheld. “After five days of struggling, they admitted that the EVM was tamper-proof.”

At the core of the EVM is a microcontroller chip, built by Hitachi of Japan, called an OTP-ROM (one-time programmable read-only memory). Onto this, the Indian EVM contractors --- BEL and Electronics Corporation of India (ECIL) --- “burn” the algorithm that makes it record votes. The microprocessor’s “non-volatile” memory ensures that, once the algorithm is written, it can never be overwritten or subverted, not even by the manufacturer.

The algorithm makes the EVM function as a vote counter. Each candidate is assigned a numbered button, according to the alphabetic order of the candidates’ names. Each time a voter presses, say, Button No 1, the software adds one vote to the account of Candidate No 1. And since, in each constituency, each political party’s candidate will have different serial numbers (determined by the candidate’s name) there is no possibility of installing a country-wide code that favours one party.

After failing to subvert the software, the Sampath Committee staged a mock election to try and subvert the procedure. Failing to do so, it strongly endorsed the EVM. Chief Election Commissioner, RVS Peri Sastry, discussed the test results with all the political party heads, including BJP President LK Advani, all of whom agreed to the use of EVMs in general elections.

“The reason why all parties accepted the EVM was simple”, explains Colonel Shankar, “We copied the simplicity and transparency of the earlier system, while doing away with its drawbacks.”

Besides the tedious counting of votes, the major drawback in the old system of paper voting was booth capturing. Party goons would take over voting booths and, in a couple of hours, stamp thousands of paper ballots in each booth and slip them into the boxes. EVMs mitigate the effects of booth capturing, since a delay circuit ensures only two votes can be recorded per minute. Even if a booth is captured for an hour, a maximum of 120 votes can be polled.

"Eventually, EVMs were used for the first time in general elections in 45 seats in 1999. Polling in the 2004 general elections was entirely on EVMs. This year, again, 671 million voters got the opportunity to vote on EVMs."


Super Mod
Mar 24, 2009
Country flag
For me it's a question of sore losers. If the BJP thinks that the EVMs were riggable, how come they lost the elections in 2004? No political party is true and honest. They would have ensured that they won thst elections. The same EVMs are used in assembly elections and in places like Karnataka they have near two thirds majority. Was that rigged?

I think people want to go back to the ballot paper system because it was riggable. With the EVMs they have lost that possibility and are dependent only on the voters and not their goons.


Member of The Month OCTOBER 2009
Senior Member
Jul 23, 2009
EC's demo silences EVM critics​

Are the Electronic Voting Machines (EVMs) tamper-proof? Yes, says the Election Commission and proves it with an open demonstration. The commission gave the demonstration to political parties, petitioners and critics who have been questioning the functioning of the EVMs. On 7th and 8th, the Election Commission offered one hundred EVMs picked at random for a demonstration in the presence of technical experts, including engineers representing the EVM manufacturers. These engineers were especially called from Hyderabad and Bangalore.

The Election Commission says none of the persons could demonstrate that any of the hundred EVMs could be tampered with. The people who challenged the EVMs either failed to demonstrate or in the end chose not to participate.Earlier on July 5, the Election Commission had said that it was satisfied about the EVMs foolproof working. "The EC is amply satisfied about the non-tamperability and the foolproof working of the EVMs. The Commission's confidence in the efficacy of the EVMs has been fortified by the judgments of various courts and the views of technical experts," the Commission said in its press note reacting to reports about the technological vulnerability of EVMs.

The EC's July 5 clarification came in the wake of BJP leader L K Advani demanding reintroduction of ballot papers in elections, beginning with the Maharashtra assembly polls and three other states, observing that there was every possibility of malfunctioning of EVMs.


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