Tamerlame vs Hindus & Jats

Hemu Vikram Aditya

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Timur and India I

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I am posting an Indian account of how the wars with Timur went.

Our Histories just tell us of the mayhem and rapine that he created,
but here is a different account, not generally given much publicity
in our histories.

Readers will note the detail in the account names, places, dates.

I am posting this without editing; hoping it will become the basis
for further research and a record of our people's resistance

Apart from this, there is a persistent oral tradition in Western UP
of how Timur came, and was driven out, and not allowed reaching
Haridwar.

Comments welcome.



Ravi




TIMUR AND INDIA

Translated from: Jat Viron ka Ithihas (Hindi) (The History of the
Jats) (1992)

Captain Dalip Singh Ahlawat, Acharya Printing Press, Dayanand Mut,
Rohtak, India.
.

PP 376- 383, 578.


TIMUR AND INDIA

Timur was born in 1336 AD in Kesh, in Mavraunhar which is 50 miles
from, Samarkhand.

His father Amir Turgeh (Turangi) was a leader of the Gurkhan Clan of
the Turks. When he was 33 years old he became the leader of the
Chagtai Turks. He made Samarkhand his capital. As he child he went
lame in one leg, and was known as Timur Lung or Timur the Lame. (The
author comments: Chagtai is a Jat Clan, the name having evolved from
Chatta or Chagtah).

In Central Asia, at this time, the Jats were in great strength and
Timur made war on them. According to the History of Persia Vol II,
(Percy Sykes) - "At that time Mongolia or Jatah was ruled by Tuglak
Khan of the Oghlan Clan of the Jats, and he was a follower of the
Buddhist religion. He learned that Haji Barlas had acquired
Samarkhand and he determined to take it for himself. Towards this
objective he appeared in the province of Kesh in AD 1369(A.H 761).
Timur's paternal uncle (Chacha) Haji Barlas, in fear of the invasion
ran away to Khurasan and was later killed there by brigands. Tuglak
Khan established his authority at Samarkhand. Some time later Timur
appealed to Tuglak Kahn to allow him to serve him. Tuglak Kahn
appointed his son Khoja Oghlan as the Governor of Transoxiana
(Samarkhand) and Timur was appointed his counselor.

Timur developed his military strength by stealth, and established his
authority on the kingdom of Samarkhand.

He was a heroic warrior, brake and skilled in warfare. Using the
strength of his military force he started to attack the neighboring
kingdoms.

The Jats inflicted a great defeat upon his, and an account of that is
given in the book" The Conquests of Timur Lung". The account is like
this:

' Under the leadership, of the Jat general Vikijuk, the Jats
inflicted a great defeat on Timur, and he escaped with his life. The
Chief Maulvi of Samarkhand, Zainuddin said to Timur ' Even I the
Chief Mulla have to live in hiding in fear for my life, where you
(Timur) have found me. Woeful days are upon us. It is the same state
of affairs in Bokhara, Khojhand, and Karshi… everywhere. There in not
a single Tatar prince who can lead us? You the only Prince who dared
… to come near the Jat strongholds. Zainuddin studied me shrewdly. I
(Timur) had once accepted Allah's mantle - I want to wear it no
more. In the name of Allah I have fought once with the Jats, I do
not wish to face such a calamity again. 'Pray for a scourge on the
Jats', I said derisively, and then in a moment of inspiration, I add,
seriously,' Pray for a scourge on their horses. Without horses the
Jats are powerless.'(Autobiography of Timur, Eng. Translation, by
Major Stewart (1830) from Persian Malfuzat- I- Timuri by Abu Talib
Husaini- quoted in 'Jats the ancient rulers - author B. S. Dahiya.'
Pp61, Sterling Books, New Delhi

For some reason, a virulent disease spread among the horses of the
Jats, and they had to fight the war carrying their weapons and
belongings on their heads. In the end Timur won the victory. After
defeating the Jats of Central Asia, Timur was able to come upto India
and ransack Delhi.

In the Jat country of Turuska (Turkistan), at the time of the war
with Changez Khan, there were many larger cites. At this time in
Central Asia (Turkistan) the Jat civilization was at its prime.
Colonel Todd, says of these Jats" If we test the effect of the empire
of the great Getic (Jat) people kingly At the time Cyrus, six hundred
years prior to Christ, the achievements were not less than the high
achievements of Timur. Even though 20 centuries had passed.


After defeating the Jats, Timur established his capital at
Samarkhand. With his strong army he won Turkistan, Fars, Afghanistan
and other nations, and then decided to attack Bharat, which at time
was not in a good condition. The last Badshah of the Tuglaks, ruling
at the Delhi Sultanate was a weak ruler. He was unsuccessful in
subduing the many rebellions in India. Taking advantage of this
situation Timur attacked Bharat. He first made is grandson Pir
Muhammad the general of the advance army. He crossed Sindu and
conquered Kutch. He advanced further and conquered Multan, Dipalpur,
and Pak Patan. He the reached the Sutlej river, where he awaited his
grandfather. On September 24, 1398 AD, Timur, with 92000 horsemen,
acme over the Hindukush and crossed Sind. He came to Multan via
Peshawar. On his advance from there he had a big clash with the
Khokkar Jats, and after defeating them he reached the Sutlej and met
up with his grandson. In the battle of Multan, and on his advancing
path, the Jats resisted him with great valor. He then attacked
Bhatnair, for there was a fear of an attack on him by the Jats.
Bhatnair is the on the road from Bhatinda to Bikaner. (A brief
History of Medieval India- pp161-163- author - Ishwari Prasad.)

Munshi Jawalasahai in his book Vankaya Rajputana, Vol I, writes"
Bhatnair, which is now a part of the kingdom of Bikaner, was in olden
times a capital of another group of Jats. These Jats were so capable,
that when rising they took issue with the Badshahs (Mughal kings),
and when defeated, managed their defeat. This area was called
Bhatnair because of the great population of Bhatti Jats.

The people, who would attack India from Central Asia, found Bhatnair
in their path, and because of this Bhatnair gained fame in history.
They resisted Timur's attack"

Timur conquered Bhatnair, and having established his Hakim Chigath
Khan as Governor advanced ahead. A few days after this attack, the
Jats took back their kingdom, and under the leadership of Sardar Vir
Singh and Verisaal, they advanced from Phulaera and Mahraut and
attacked Bhatnair. Upon achieving victory the reestablished
themselves in Bhatnair. (History of the Jats (Hindi) - Thakur Desraj)

The Jats fought Timur with great valor, and he said of them" the Jats
are a strong race. They look like demons, I numbers like ants, and
for an enemy great warriors."

Timur with 10,000 chosen horsemen, through the jungles around
Bhatnair reached the village of Tohana, In his annals of conquests, '
On reaching Tohana, I found that the residents of this place are
Vajra Corporal ***, and are known as Jats. They are Muslims only in
name. They have no equal in looting and banditry. These Jat gangs
loot passing caravans and have driven fear into the lives of
Mussalmans and other travelers."


In his first effort he was unable to defeat the Jats, and he had to
advance further using additional troops. He then writes" In fact my
objective for conquering Hindustan was to make a religious war on
this idol worshiping Hindus, and to follow the directions of Mohammed
and spread Islam. It was necessary that I wipe out every sign of
these Jats' Timur killed 2000 demon like Jats. The wives and children
were made captive. The animals and property were looted. After
repressing them, a sigh of relief was taken. (E and Dr, Tujuke
Temuri, part 3, Pp429, and Sharafdin Ali Yezdi Krta Zafarnama, Part
3, PP 492-493).


From Bhatnair Timur advanced towards the Sarasvati, and reached
Kaithal, where he made preparations to attack Delhi by the time he
reached Panipat, Mahmud Tuglak handed over all authority to his
minister Mallu Iqbal, and ran away to Gujarat. Timur after much
looting and oppressing arrived at Jahanpanaha', the seat of the
Kingdom. This place was constructed 6 miles from Delhi by Firoz
Tuglak. He ravaged the surrounding countryside. When he came near
Delhi, he massacred o100, 000 Hindus who were in his captivity. Now
Iqbal advanced with an army of 40,000-foot soldiers, 10,000 fine
horsemen, and 125 cannon for battle. Outside Delhi both armies fought
fiercely. The Indian troops fought bravely and determinedly but lost.
The general Mallu Iqbal fled from the battlefield. Timur unfurled his
flag on the fort of Delhi.

Timur in his anger, ordered general slaughter and looting. The Turk
army massacred lakhs of men and women. The massacre and looting went
on non-stop for five days. When due to the stench of the innumerable
corpses it was impossible to stay in Delhi, he orders the return via
Meerut. (History of Medieval India (Hindi) PP 161-163 Author -
Ishwari Prasad. Hidustan ka Ithihas (urdu) pp. 186- 189, The rise of
the Jats, (Hindi) PP 115 Yogendra Pal Shastri, History of the Jats
(Hindi) Thakur Desraj.)


Timur vanquished the governor of Meerut Alyas Afghan. There he
slaughtered 50,000 citizens and razed all the houses to the ground.
At that time Haridwar was a famous place. After looting much wealth
from there, Timur reached Jammu via the Sivaliks. He defeated the
king there and forced him to become a Muslim. Then he decided to
return to his land. Prior to his return he eliminated the rulers of
Lahore, Multan and Dipalpur Kijra Kha. Timur then left Hart and
arrived at Samarkhand. (History of Medieval India (Hindi) PP 163-163,
Ishwariprasad, Hindustan Ki Tarik (Urdu) pp. 189 0190,
 

Hemu Vikram Aditya

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Ram Sarup Joon[14] writes: It has been mentioned in Malfuzat Temuri that is the time of Temuri's invasion of India, Jats were the first to intercept him many Jats were killed in the encounter. Timur had for long harboured an animosity against the Jats. Timur was from Chughtaiya (Saktaya) the capital of which was in Trans Oxiana. A great Jat king Kokaltas invaded Khorasan and occupied it. After that he invaded Trans Oxiana. The king fled away. But the nephew of that Amir Timur was a clever and far sighted man. He offered due apologies on behalf of his uncle and admitted the suzerainty of Kokaltas, who had one Lakh (100,000) brave Jats in his army. King Kokaltas died issue less in 1380. Timur occupied the throne and also married a Jat Rajkumari. But Jats did not accept the rule of Timur. A mutiny flared up and continued for long time. Finally Timur managed to suppress it, carried out a mass massacre of the Jats and drove out the remnants from the country. By 1349 he succeeded in finally establishing himself, but still he was not free from Jat troubles. He writes in Timur Nama, that he did not intend to kill so many Jats, because they were handsome, stalwart people, but he had to do so. It is written in MulfuZai Temur P 429 that when he invaded India, he was interrupted by the Jats who took a heavy toll of his army. It is also mentioned in Todd's Rajasthan with reference to Tazke-babri that at the time of Babar's invasion of India a large number of Jats resisted him at Thanesar and most of them were slain.

Dr Girish Chandra Dwivedi[15] writes about Jats and Timur:

The Jat rose again when Timur invaded India. Malmuzat-i-Timuri testifies to his satisfaction over killing 2,000 Jats of a village Tohna near Sarsuti. He found them "demon like", "robust", "marauding" and "as numorous as ants, and locusts".[16] We learnt that in order to hold deliberations over the problem of his invasion, a Sarva Khap Panchayat meeting was held in Samvat 1455 (1398 AD.) in the forest of Chaugama under the presidentship of Deo Pal Rana. It passed the resolutions that they should "vacate the villagers, sending the children and women to the forests and that the able-bodied persons should take up arms and destroy the arm'y of Timur".[17] The Panchayat militia harassed the forces of Timur, while they were advancing from Meerut towards Hardwar. In the process the former lost 6,000 men.[18]
Haryana Sarva Khap Panchayat Army and Timur
In 1398 AD Timur made a ferocious attack on India with 92,000 horsemen. On receiving the news of Timur's total and open looting and destruction, in Vikram Samvat 1455 (1398 AD), kartick badi 5, Raja Devpala (who was born in the village of Nirpura, District Meerut in a Jat family), who was in charge of the of the Haryana Sarva Khap Panchayat, called a Mahapanchayat in the jungles in the middle of the villages of Tikri, Doghat, and Daha. The chief committee passed the following resolutions:

1) All villages would be emptied.
2) The elders and women, and children would be taken to safe places
3) All able-bodied men would join the army of the Sarv Khap
4) The young women would also take up arms like the men.
5) The army of Timur, which was advancing from Delhi to Haridwar, would be fought with Guerilla warfare, and the water in his way would be poisoned.
6) 500 young horsemen would follow Timur and report his whereabouts to the Sarv Khap army.
The Panchayat Army: Under the flag of the panchayat, 80,000 warrior soldiers (Mulls) and 40,000 young women joined together. These heroes also handled all the arrangements of the war material. From hundreds of miles around Delhi Heroic warriors came to the battlefield ready to sacrifice their lives. All the young men and women took up arms.

Dharampal Dev a Jat warrior, who was 95 years old, played a great part in gathering together this army. He traveled day and night on horseback to encourage men and women and gather the army. His brother Karan Pal helped arrange money, grain, and clothing for the army. The choosing of the Supreme General, the deputy general and the other generals. In this endeavor of the Sarv Khap, the hero warrior Jograj Singh Gujar was chosen Supreme General. He was of the Clan Khubar Parmar, and hailed from a village near Haridwar called Kunja.

The general chosen from among the heroic maidens were

1) Rampiari Gujar,
2) Hardai Jat,
2) Devi Kaur Rajput,
3) Chandro Brahmin, and
4) Ramdai Tyagi.
All of them took a vow to lay down their lives in defence of their nation. Two Deputy Generals were chosen -

1) Dhula Bhangi (Valmiki),
(2) Harbir Singh Gulia Jat,
Dhula Bhangi was a resident of the Village of Hansi, near Hissar. He was a strong and powerful brave warrior. The second deputy general was Harveer Singh Jat, of the Gulia Clan. He was from the village Badli, district Rohtak in Haryana. He was 22 years old. He weighed 53 Dharis (approx. 160 kilograms). He was strong and brave warrior. The names of the generals were:

1) Gaje Singh Jat Gatwala,
2) Tuhiram Rajput,
3) Nedha Rawa,
4) Sarju Brahmin,
5) Umra Taga (Tyagi), and
6) Durjanpal Ahir.
The deputy generals chosen were

1) Kundan Jat,
2) Dhari Gadariya, who was a Dhari,
3) Bhondhu Saini,
4) Hulla Nai (barber),
5) Bhana Julaha (Harijan)
6) Aman Singh Pundir, Rajput
7) Nathu Pardar, Rajput
8) Dhulla (Dhandi) Jat, who would lead raids from Hissar to Dadri to Multan.
9) Mamchand Gujar
10) Phalwa Kahaar.
Assistant generals, 20 assistant's generals were chosen from the various jatis (castes). The hero Bard: the Eminent Scholar Poet Chandrabhutt (Bhat) as chosen as the official Bard. He wrote an eyewitness account of the war with Timur.

The battles with Timur were fought by the Jat Panchayat army at Muzaffarnagar, Meerut and Haridwar. The Deputy Commander Harveer Gulia, along with 25,000 warriors of the Panchayat army, made a fierce attack on a big group of Timur's horsemen, and a fierce battle ensued where arrows and spears were used (There over 2,000 hill archers joined the Panchayat Army. One arrow pierced Timur's hand. Timur was in the army of horsemen. Harveer Singh Gulia charged ahead like a lion, and hit Timur on his chest with a spear, and he was about to fall under his horse, when his commander Khijra, saved him and separated him from the horse. Timur, eventually, is said to have died from this wound when he reached Samarkhand. The spearsmen and swordsmen of the enemy leapt on the Harveer Singh Gulia, and he fainted from the wounds he received and fell. At that very time, the Supreme Commander Jograj Singh Gujar, with 22,000 Mulls (warriors) attacked the enemy and killed 5000 horsemen. Jograj Singh himself, with his own hands, lifted the unconscious Harveer Singh Gulia and brought him to the camp. But a few hours later, the hero warrior Harveer Singh achieved martyrdom. He was from the village Badli; district Rohtak in Haryana, India. He was 22 years old when fought war with Timur. He was a strong and brave warrior. His attack on Timur led to Timur's death. See for details article Harveer Gulia. [1]

Timur, after the battle of Delhi, on his way to Haridwar was confronted, harassed and plundered on his way retreat so much by the Jat Panchayat armies that he retreated via Saharanpur to avoid Muzaffarnagar. Timur describes

"Jats as a robust race, demon-like in appearance and as numerous as ants and locusts, a varitable plague to the merchants and wayfarers" (Mulfuzat-i-Timuri, Elliot, III, 429)
 

Razor

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TIMUR AND INDIA

Translated from: Jat Viron ka Ithihas (Hindi) (The History of the
Jats) (1992)

Captain Dalip Singh Ahlawat, Acharya Printing Press, Dayanand Mut,
Rohtak, India.
.

PP 376- 383, 578.


TIMUR AND INDIA

Timur was born in 1336 AD in Kesh, in Mavraunhar which is 50 miles
from, Samarkhand.

His father Amir Turgeh (Turangi) was a leader of the Gurkhan Clan of
the Turks. When he was 33 years old he became the leader of the
Chagtai Turks. He made Samarkhand his capital. As he child he went
lame in one leg, and was known as Timur Lung or Timur the Lame. (The
author comments: Chagtai is a Jat Clan, the name having evolved from
Chatta or Chagtah).
.
.
.
Chagtai is a jat clan???
:dude:

Chagtai is the son of chinghis Khan of the borjigin clan of the Mongols. .
 

Ravi Chaudhary

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Why should the information be biased , because it is a Jat source?

Are you suggesting that what Jat histories tell us is biased?
 

pmaitra

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Chagtai is a jat clan???
:dude:

Chagtai is the son of chinghis Khan of the borjigin clan of the Mongols. .
I think Jats do have lineage from regions now in present day Kazakhstan, so Turko-Mongol ancestry (including, but not limited to, Scythian ancestry) cannot be ruled out. There was a thread by @Samar Rathi on this subject. There is a lot of information there too. I need to find that thread out.
 

Razor

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I think Jats do have lineage from regions now in present day Kazakhstan, so Turko-Mongol ancestry (including, but not limited to, Scythian ancestry) cannot be ruled out. There was a thread by @Samar Rathi on this subject. There is a lot of information there too. I need to find that thread out.
It is possible that their origins are in central Asia but doubtful they are of Mongol origin (chagtai) or Turkic origin.
They maybe related to the earlier mass steppe migration of of Iranic peoples and not the later Turkic migrations.
But let me see if I can find something when I reach my pc.
 

Ravi Chaudhary

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Razor saheb

This thread is about whether the jats kicked Timur out of Hindustan or not.

If you wish to discuss origins, open a new thread!
 

pmaitra

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It is possible that their origins are in central Asia but doubtful they are of Mongol origin (chagtai) or Turkic origin.
They maybe related to the earlier mass steppe migration of of Iranic peoples and not the later Turkic migrations.
But let me see if I can find something when I reach my pc.
Ok, looking forward to it.

I found the thread, so let's continue there: Ancestry Of Jats
 

amittohana

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It is a harsh truth that while writing the history of India, many historians have manipulated the truth with a bad feeling. Only a few invaders were glorified by erasing the name of the eternal heroes from the pages of history. An attempt was made to suppress the history of Jat Veers. Many Jat Veers of Tohana region of Haryana wrote a golden history but some British and leftist ideology crushed it. When the history of Tohana region will be repeated, the name of Jat Veers will be taken at the top.
 

Chimaji Appa

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Yes “Hindus” offered resistance to Timurlane, he may have been harassed by Ahris, Jats, and the Paharis, but this is not known in any contemporary source if I am aware. Also, he sacked Delhi with ease and invaded Anatolia next year with many war elephants. This “battle” is nothing but fiction. If Jats really did “maul” Timurs Army back to Afghanistan, then it is certainly questionable on how he Invaded Anatolia next year, and that too with war elephants. Not a single historian takes this seriously (and before you call me a “leftist”, just read my post history).
 

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