South Korean Space News Thread

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Quick summary:
  • South Koreans are new entrants in space but have clumb up quick. They launched their first orbital rocket KSLV-I (Naro) just in 2013. A 100kg LEO class rocket.
  • They have launched an orbiter mission to Moon (called "Danuri"), though on a SpaceX rocket.
  • They have tested KSLV-II (Nuri), a PSLV-CA class rocket in just June 2022. A 1.5 tonnes to 2.6 tonnes class rocket. It's next launch is scheduled for December this year again (or slip to early next year) which is very impressive by both perspectives, it being a new rocket + Korea being a new spacefaring country.
  • Nuri has surpassed Israel, Iran and North Korea by a good margin, directly bringing capability to South Korea to launch its polar satellites, small satellites to GTO, small spacecraft like Chandryaan & Mangalyaan to Moon and Mars and off course, steal some commerical launch market.
Korean Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is certainly going to be started getting counted among major space agencies while such quick progress from Iran, Israel or North Korea is nowhere in sight.

That's enough to establish higher notability of South Korean space program.
 

SKC

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The way South Korea works, they will soon surpass ISRO too.

They started with a relatively kept quite deal with Russians and Naro-1 used Russian stage 1. Russian shared a lot of knowledge with them and South Korea soon developed their own version.
 

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The way South Korea works, they will soon surpass ISRO too.
It will take a while for them to make cryogenic engines and GTO transfer tech. They anyway will catch up much much faster than Iran and North Korea. South Korean rockets will take a decade or more to be mature and compete with big 6 since they are late in game (nevertheless their speed is impressive). Their budget constraints won't let them move ahead from a level of around Japan.

Since making bigger rocket is an engineering and technological challenge than a scientific one, South Korea has been left with two checkpoints. Only transitioning through a checkpoint takes time and making platforms on it doesn't.
  1. Do an orbital launch (achieved by Korea).
  2. Make a sizable vehicle with 90%+ success rate (partially achieved by Korea). They will reach upto 3~3.5 tonne class LEO.
  3. Make a cryogenic engine (pending).
  4. Develop upper stages (pending).
Korea once has a cryo engine, it will saturate at the point of JAXA and ISRO with heavy lift launch systems and exploration.

Then, upper stages for direct MEO, GEO and TLI transfers are needed which technology is only available with US, Russia and China. ISRO had a project called "PAM-G" for same purpose which has no update since 2015~16. Looks like they gave up on it.
 

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Their bigger rockets seem to be only cubbing the same engine multiple times.won't that lead to reliability issues as any of those engines could malfunction and could destroy the entire rocket and then mission.
That is why I said they are going to take time. They are not going to cross 6-8 tonnes LEO capacity with clustering of small engines (and that too a bulky inefficient LV). As told to @SKC, they aren't going to surpass either of ISRO or JAXA anytime soon.

But they certainly are in a league ahead of Iran and North Korea.
 

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Beyond the abilities of major space agencies; NASA, RFSA, ESA, CNSA, ISRO and JAXA which are always in limelight, these ones usually don't get to make in headlines.
  • State Space Agency of Ukraine: Uses Soviet origin Zenith rockets (slightly higher payload than LVM3). Used by Ukraine for commerical launches mostly. Has a high failure rate.
  • Iranian Space Agency: Has been building many small below SSLV class rockets. Human spaceflight program and bigger rockets (Qonoos and Soroush series) never moved because of lack of funds and experience. Isn't going anywhere good before 10 years.
  • Israeli Space Agency: Has a SSLV class rocket called Shavit 2. They are content with it as its enough for their needs. They rely on others for rest. They are focused on satellite technology and not launch vehicles.
  • National Aerospace Development Administration (North Korea): PR and propaganda without any actual progress. They have a low launch frequency, only 200-300 kg class SLVs but have given dated timelines to send humans to space, making heavy and super heavy launch vehicles, establishing space stations and sending a sample return mission to Moon, all before 2030.
  • Korean Aerospace Research Institute (South Korea): Entered in game suddenly from nowhere and made quick progress having assistance from both US and Russia. They rather intend to compete with Japan than launching human spaceflight missions though.
  • Brazilian Space Agency: Poor chaps were trying since 1995 to launch their rocket called VLS-1 in orbit until they ended up killing 23 people in a pad explosion and gave up on it. They are again going to try in 2023 with a new one called VLM.
I have seen Iranian and North Korean fan-chaps too convinced of their state announcements regardless of their national abilities they had acquired at that time. For instance, Iranian posters in 2016 were convinced of 2011 announcement that Iran will launch humane in space in 2017 before India.

I also had an irritant North Korean WPK troll (North Korean counterpart of CCP on other board) with quite amusing boasting LOL.
Commentary

From official North Korean sources, back in 2012, it was disclosed that the manned Unha-X launcher would have a mass of 400 tonnes.

Kwangmyongsong SLV (the 2016 Unha-4) can send a 1'000 kg payload to a 500 km LEO. The three stages Unha-9 SLV can send a 2 tonnes payload to a 500 km LEO.

With only 4 sets of 80 tonnes force Paektusan-1 engines, totalling a liftoff thrust of 320 tf, the two stages Unha-IX-E2 with a mass of 200 tonnes could only send a single seater E2 (Mallima-1B in Korean) manned capsule with a mass under two tonnes (~1'800kg) at some 250 km LEO altitude.

Note: E1 is the only known Persian designation for the suborbital one seater manned capsule. I called it Mallima-1A for more clarity. While the orbital version is called by Me "E2" or Mallima-1B, by analogy with the U.S.' Mercury-Redstone and Mercury-Atlas concept. Also following this logic, the Redstone would be replaced with a Safir-1D SLV in Iran and a Hwasong-15 SLV in North Korea for the suborbital mission.

With 4 additional strap-on boosters, increasing the liftoff thrust to 8x 80 tonnes force or 640 tonnes force, the 400 tonnes manned Unha-X-F1 can place a dual/three seaters F1 (Mallima-2 in Korean) spacecraft at some 350 km LEO.

Therefore the very ambitious North Korean space conquest plan started in 2017, to perform a spacewalk by 2022 will need at least 6 launches to ensure the reliability of the Unha-9 as a man-rated SLV.
  • Two Observation satellites
  • Two Communications satellites
  • One Lunar orbiter
  • One GEO satellite

Notice the lunar orbiter will precede the GEO satellite as explained below:

1hLylwc.jpg


1. Lunar gravity assist used to place North Korea's satellite into the GEO belt.


The suborbital part is only a speculation based on the Iranian plan. If it exist, then it should be conducted in parallel, as the launcher is not the Unha, sharing in common only the spacecapsule and the 10 astronauts selection.

India can never catch up with North Korea's 2022 spacewalk, as ISRO has not even considered this possibility, and time is running out.

As a last resort, only Modi Ji performing his famous Yogic Earth Rotation could snatch the 4th space superpower place from North Korea! :lol:

CrystalBall2.gif





Han Ho Seok's Progressive Discourse (241)



Han Ho Seok | [email protected]news.com



Approval 2012.12.31 10:41:53



The fact that his remarks on the launch of manned spacewalk is not an exaggeration and can be seen from the scale of the facilities of the West Sea [Sohae] Satellites Launch Center. According to this reporter, the launch pad of the West Sea [Sohae] Satellites LC was designed to launch a 400 - ton ultra - large carrier rocket. In fact, the height of the launcher is more than 50m. He described it as a super large carrier rocket, but if it is a 400 ton class rocket, it is not a carrier rocket that carries satellites, but a carrier rocket that carries a manned spacecraft.



On April 12, 1961, the mass of the Soviet manned spacecraft Vostok 1, which flew to space with the first human Yuri Gagarin (1934-1968), was 5.9 t. And the two-stage carrier rocket of the Voskhod spacecraft that performed the first manned spacewalk was 30.84 meters long, the first stage diameter was 2.99 meters, and the mass 298.4 tons. This means that the Soviet Union developed a powerful rocket with a total mass of 304.3 tons, that could launched a manned spacecraft.



Kim Jong Un seems to include a plan to launch a manned spacewalk as well as a lunar exploration satellite in the chairman's first plan for space conquest. The model of the Unha-9 built next to the stage of the 2012.12.21 ballroom is not rocket model for manned space flight. Chairman Kim Jong Un will carry out a step-by-step implementation of the space conquest plan to launch a manned spacewalk on the new type of carrier rocket Unha-10, which is totally different from the Unha-9 model. It is to be realized in the future. In the 10 years period from 2012 to 2022.



http://www.tongilnews.com/news/articleView.html?idxno=101028




mju396F.jpg


2. The Unha-IXE2 launcher with the single seater capsule and the first North Korean spacewalk by 2022.

PpeqDJq.jpg


3. The Unha-X launcher with the dual/three seaters spacecraft.

DWiFJpb.jpg


4.Modi Ji Rotating The Earth, the only way to perform the first Indian spacewalk before North Korea by 2022!
:cool1:
Now, South Korea which started launching after NKOR has entered second stage while NKOR is still launching small (200-300 kg) rockets in 3 years, hasn't launched anything for 7 years. Leave alone pepping India and Japan for 4th place after US, Russia and China. :laugh: :laugh:

Didn't know that Modi is known in far east too. Muh 4th superpowers North Korea and Iran LOL.
 
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SKC

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Their bigger rockets seem to be only cubbing the same engine multiple times.won't that lead to reliability issues as any of those engines could malfunction and could destroy the entire rocket and then mission.
isn't this what being done around world now. SpaceX is putting 25-30 engines in their Starship.
Their Current Falcon 9 also has multiple Engines in their stages.
 

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isn't this what being done around world now. SpaceX is putting 25-30 engines in their Starship.
Their Current Falcon 9 also has multiple Engines in their stages.
There is a stark difference. Big agencies are clustering engines to make super heavy launchers (Saturn V class rockets). Even ISRO's SCE-200 engines will be clustered to make HLV and later a manned moon rocket. So are Chiense with their CZ-5C and CZ-9.

South Korea is clustering small engines to make medium lift launchers (GSLV class rockets). No way they can make a reliable or even a once successful rockets with dozens of engines. Individual engine thrust has to be increased after a certain threshold. So South Korea will stall at 5 tonnes payload for some time.

I don't see Koreans going far anytime soon. They will mess around for at least a decade or two to get a cryogenic rocket.
 

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Looks like they are on overdrive
KSLV-III / KSLV-IV
KSLV-III is the geostationary orbit launcher, to be developed by 2027 based on the KSLV-II Korean booster. KSLV-IV is the larger geostationary launch vehicle, the development of which would be conlcuded in 2033. Of course, there is not much in the way of planning on these vehicles.
Taking KSLV-1 as a stepping stone, Korea launched the KSLV-II program in 2010, which is developing the next version of the Korea space launch vehicle in an indigenous way. In the framework of future cooperation to launch heavier satellites is expected to create rocket KSLV-II and KSLV-III. As of 2007, South Korea wanted to bring the more powerful models KSLV-II (in two stages, 1 ton payload) and KSLV-III (three-stage, 1.5-ton payload) to market by 2015.
KARI planned to conduct two or three space launches per year from the Naro Space Center, and then transfer launch services to the private sector sometime after 2025. KSLV-III will be used for geostationary transfer orbit launch. If a terrestrial launch site is not available near the equator, a sea-launch is an alternative as currently provided by Sea Launch company.
The KSLV-III is a three-stage rocket capable of multipurpose space to display the load on the sun-synchronous orbit. The first launch of the rocket is scheduled for 2017. At one time the first and second stage liquid rockets qwere to be developed in Russia, the third - solid fuel, in South Korea.
South Korea intended to develop a new KSLV-II rocket, 50 meters long, on the basis of national technical solutions. Already they have almost completed development of the engine thrust of 30 tons, and started the preliminary studies of the creation of the engine thrust of 75 tons.
The strategy which is taken in the KSLV-II project is that proven engines are clustered to get more power rather than to develop a new more powerful engine.
Due to this strategy, mass production becomes possible, and consequently, design and manufacturing costs are reduced. Once technological independence is obtained through the development of the KSLV-II, it will be much easier to launch a three ton satellite into geo-stationary transfer orbit or a 10 ton satellite into low earth orbit (KSLV-III, not planned yet). Furthermore, the larger size space launch vehicle (KSLV-IV, not planned yet) can handle at least 20 tons of large cargo.
Mission opportunities and trajectory characteristics for the future Korean Mars mission have designed and analyzed using KSIV-III(Korea Space Launch Vehicle-III). Korea's first space center, 'NARO space center' is selected as a launch site. For launch opportunities, the year 2033 is investigated under considering the date of space center's completion with KSLV series development status. Optimal magnitude of various maneuvers, Trans Mars Injection (TMI) maneuver, Trajectory Correction Maneuver (TCM), Mars Orbit Insertion (MOI) maneuver and Orbit Trim Maneuver(OTM), which are required during the every Mars mission phases are computed with the formulation of nonlinear optimization problems using NPSOL software. Finally, mass budgets for upper stage (launcher for KSIV-III and spacecraft are derived using various optimized maneuver magnitudes.
For results, daily launch window from NARO space center for successful Korean Mars mission is avaliable for 27 minutes starting from Apr. 16. 2033. 12:17:26 (UTC). Maximum spacecraft gross mass which can delivered to Mars is about 206kg, with propellant mass of 109kg and structure mass of 97kg, when on board spacecraft thruster's Isp is assumed to have 290 sec. For upper stage, having structure ratio of 0.15 and Isp value of 280 sec, gross mass is about 1293kg with propellant mass of 1099kg and structure mass of 194kg. However, including 10% margins to computed optimal maneuver values, spacecraft gross mass is reduced to about 148kg with upper stage's mass of 1352kg.
KSLV-III

KSLV-4 / KSLV-IV
The KSLV-4 rocket has 27 x 75 ton engines - the Korean version of Falcon Heavy. KSLV-IV can be launched from the same launch site as KSLV-III with some upgrades. If the development of the KSLV-III and the fourth-generation launcher proceeded according to plan, KARI would also build a third and a fourth launch pad at the space center.
 

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Wow,their annual Budget itself $553mil for 22,but they are interested in lunar projects!

Interesting

South Korea seeks $553 million space budget for 2022

 

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Wow,their annual Budget itself $553mil for 22,but they are interested in lunar projects!

Interesting

South Korea seeks $553 million space budget for 2022

Not just planning lunar lander, they are planning launch on an indigenous launcher, direct trans lunar injection and an RTEG (nuclear powered) power source for months long machines at par with NASA, that all by 2031.
Don't think anything significant will be there in meantime. South Korea nevertheless will improve greatly.
 

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Not just planning lunar lander, they are planning launch on an indigenous launcher, direct trans lunar injection and an RTEG (nuclear powered) power source for months long machines at par with NASA, that all by 2031.
Don't think anything significant will be there in meantime. South Korea nevertheless will improve greatly.
They one more advantage they pick and choose western tech (to an extent) meantime they can utilize their domestic silicon tech and advanced material fabrication units to streamline the process.


Where as we started from scratch.

Anyway 2031 seems to be reasonable timeline.

Who knows we both might end up doing joint missions too in the future.
 

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Anyway 2031 seems to be reasonable timeline.
It is very reasonable if they are going to send a small lander through orbital maneuvers.

Launching a 1.8 tonnes lander, powered by RTEGs and that also directly in TLI is unrealistic for South Korea by 2031.
Who knows we both might end up doing joint missions too in the future.
No, they will continue with NASA's initiatives.

We don't have quite warm relations with them. But Japan. We might see Japnese astronauts on Indian human spaceflights, Japnese and Indian payloads on each other's rockets.

Japanese Indian collaboration will be a boon for Indian space station program given Japan's experience on international space station. They had a huge learning curve building cargo spacecraft for ISS while India is yet to test SPADEX. While Japan is looking for ISRO's lander tech, IAD and may be SCE-200 engine based HLVs.
 

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It is very reasonable if they are going to send a small lander through orbital maneuvers.

Launching a 1.8 tonnes lander, powered by RTEGs and that also directly in TLI is unrealistic for South Korea by 2031.

No, they will continue with NASA's initiatives.

We don't have quite warm relations with them. But Japan. We might see Japnese astronauts on Indian human spaceflights, Japnese and Indian payloads on each other's rockets.

Japanese Indian collaboration will be a boon for Indian space station program given Japan's experience on international space station. They had a huge learning curve building cargo spacecraft for ISS while India is yet to test SPADEX. While Japan is looking for ISRO's lander tech, IAD and may be SCE-200 engine based HLVs.
Makes sense,back to soko,do you think their payload/kg launch cost would be less than isro/indian pvt. Players?

Why i am asking is,i dont want another competitor in the market.
 

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Beyond the abilities of major space agencies; NASA, RFSA, ESA, CNSA, ISRO and JAXA which are always in limelight, these ones usually don't get to make in headlines.
  • State Space Agency of Ukraine: Uses Soviet origin Zenith rockets (slightly higher payload than LVM3). Used by Ukraine for commerical launches mostly. Has a high failure rate.
  • Iranian Space Agency: Has been building many small below SSLV class rockets. Human spaceflight program and bigger rockets (Qonoos and Soroush series) never moved because of lack of funds and experience. Isn't going anywhere good before 10 years.
  • Israeli Space Agency: Has a SSLV class rocket called Shavit 2. They are content with it as its enough for their needs. They rely on others for rest. They are focused on satellite technology and not launch vehicles.
  • National Aerospace Development Administration (North Korea): PR and propaganda without any actual progress. They have a low launch frequency, only 200-300 kg class SLVs but have given dated timelines to send humans to space, making heavy and super heavy launch vehicles, establishing space stations and sending a sample return mission to Moon, all before 2030.
  • Korean Aerospace Research Institute (South Korea): Entered in game suddenly from nowhere and made quick progress having assistance from both US and Russia. They rather intend to compete with Japan than launching human spaceflight missions though.
  • Brazilian Space Agency: Poor chaps were trying since 1995 to launch their rocket called VLS-1 in orbit until they ended up killing 23 people in a pad explosion and gave up on it. They are again going to try in 2023 with a new one called VLM.
I have seen Iranian and North Korean fan-chaps too convinced of their state announcements regardless of their national abilities they had acquired at that time. For instance, Iranian posters in 2016 were convinced of 2011 announcement that Iran will launch humane in space in 2017 before India.

I also had an irritant North Korean WPK troll (North Korean counterpart of CCP on other board) with quite amusing boasting LOL.


Now, South Korea which started launching after NKOR has entered second stage while NKOR is still launching small (200-300 kg) rockets in 3 years, hasn't launched anything for 7 years. Leave alone pepping India and Japan for 4th place after US, Russia and China. :laugh: :laugh:

Didn't know that Modi is known in far east too. Muh 4th superpowers North Korea and Iran LOL.
Yeah galactic penguin St i remember
 

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