'Smiling Buddha' – India's military nuclear capabilities

JAYRAM

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By Omar Elmershedi


India possesses nuclear weapons and maintains short- and intermediate-range ballistic missiles, nuclear-capable aircraft, surface ships, and submarines under development as possible delivery systems and platforms. Although it lacks an operational ballistic missile submarine, India has ambitions of possessing a nuclear triad in the near future when INS Arihant the lead ship of India's Arihant class of nuclear-powered submarines formally joined the Indian Navy in 2011 after undergoing extensive sea-trials.
Though India has not made any official statements about the size of its nuclear arsenal, recent estimates suggest that India has between 80 and 100 nuclear weapons, consistent with earlier estimates that it had produced enough weapons-grade plutonium for up to 75–110 nuclear weapons. Production of weapons-grade plutonium is believed to be taking place at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center, which is home to the CIRUS reactor, acquired from Canada and shut down in 2010, to the indigenous Dhruva reactor, and to a plutonium separation facility.

India is not a signatory to the 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), which India argues entrenches the status quo of the existing nuclear weapons states whilst preventing general nuclear disarmament. India tested a nuclear device in 1974 (code-named "Smiling Buddha"), which it called a "peaceful nuclear explosion." The test used plutonium produced in the Canadian-supplied CIRUS reactor, and raised concerns that nuclear technology supplied for peaceful purposes could be diverted to weapons purposes. This also stimulated the early work of the Nuclear Suppliers Group. India performed further nuclear tests in 1998 (code-named "Operation Shakti"). India has signed and ratified both the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention.

History

India's first nuclear test occurred on May 18, 1974 (Smiling Buddha). Since then India has conducted another series of tests at the Pokhran test range in the state of Rajasthan in 1998. India has an extensive civil and military nuclear program, which includes at least 10 nuclear reactors, uranium mining and milling sites, heavy water production facilities, a uranium enrichment plant, fuel fabrication facilities, and extensive nuclear research capabilities.
In 1998, as a response to the continuing tests, the United States and Japan imposed temporary economic sanctions on India.
Some nuclear experts have speculated that India obtained nuclear enrichment from illicit proliferation through the A.Q. Khan Network from Pakistan.

Doctrine

India has a declared nuclear no-first-use policy and is in the process of developing a nuclear doctrine based on "credible minimum deterrence." In August 1999, the Indian government released a draft of the doctrine which asserts that nuclear weapons are solely for deterrence and that India will pursue a policy of "retaliation only". The document also maintains that India "will not be the first to initiate a nuclear first strike, but will respond with punitive retaliation should deterrence fail" and that decisions to authorize the use of nuclear weapons would be made by the Prime Minister or his 'designated successor(s)'".
According to the NRDC, despite the escalation of tensions between India and Pakistan in 2001-2002, India remains committed to its nuclear no-first-use policy.
Indian National Security advisor Shri Shivshankar Menon signaled a significant shift from "No first use" to "no first use against non-nuclear weapon states" in a speech on the occasion of Golden Jubilee celebrations of National Defense College in New Delhi on Oct. 21, 2010, a doctrine Menon said reflected India's "strategic culture, with its emphasis on minimal deterrence."

Command and control


India's Strategic Nuclear Command was formally established in 2003, with an Air Force officer, Air Marshal Asthana, as the Commander-in-Chief. The joint services SNC is the custodian of all of India's nuclear weapons, missiles and assets. It is also responsible for executing all aspects of India's nuclear policy. However, the civil leadership, in the form of the CCS (Cabinet Committee on Security) is the only body authorized to order a nuclear strike against another offending strike: In effect, it is the Prime Minister who has his finger "on the button". __

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SPIEZ

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India acquired nuclear enrichment tech from AQ Khan ???
India policy of "no first use against non nuclear states" ???
Meaning we are capable of using it first against nuclear states?
 

acetophenol

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India acquired nuclear enrichment tech from AQ Khan ???
i have been hearing that for a long time.
i read somewhere that AQ Khan once quotd that he should have sold the technology to india rather than taking to pakistan.
 

KUSH JHA

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indian nukes are based on plutonium.where as pak nukes are based on uranium.
uranium nukes are haevier and less effective.
india must maintain no first use policy but the no of nukes should be atleast 200-300.
100 based on submarime, 100 on the planed 40 stategic bombers and 100 on robust missile like agni 5.
which will make us actual triad
 
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A chauhan

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Some nuclear experts have speculated that India obtained nuclear enrichment from illicit proliferation through the A.Q. Khan Network from Pakistan.
:pound: is he a Pakistani writer ? How foolish speculation it is !!
 
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