Science, technology and innovations in India

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Indian start-up makes affordable and dual powered defibrillator; sanmitra 1000hct


Posted On: 19 JUL 2021 4:55PM by PIB Delhi



*Low weight


* Can be used even in areas without electricity


* Does not require any battery change


* Can even prove fruitful in treating COVID-19 patients suffering from issues related to rate or rhythm of the heartbeat


* Ideal for city and remote area hospitals


* In-built generator provides the Device advantage over traditionaldefibrillator


* Receives four patents in India and United States






DBT-BIRAC-funded JeevtronicsPvt. Ltd. has developed SanMitra 1000 HCT, the hand-cranked dual powered (grid+hand cranked)defibrillator. The affordable, low-weight device is considered more reliable than traditional defibrillators by experts as it can be used even in the areas where electricity is unavailable.


The device works with both AC mains and a hand-cranked generator built into the unit, and does not require any battery change. The start-up has reported that the device’s battery has been tested for a large number of charge-discharge cycles therebymaking it cost-effective. The device is ideal for hospitals located in cities and remote areas. So far, over 200 devices have been deployed across India and Africa, as per the stats provided by the start-up.


Jeevtronics, an ISO13485 certified company, has already received four patents in US and India, and had been facilitated financially by BIRAC under the schemes of BIG and IIPME (Early Transition stage) in the past.SanMitra 1000 HCTis designed to international IEC standards for medical devices and the patented technology costs INR 99,999+ taxes, which is1/4th of the big brands, as reported by the start-up.These defibrillators can be usually preferred over chest compressions (CPR), and can even prove fruitful in treating COVID-19 patients suffering from issues related to rate or rhythm of the heartbeat (Arrythmias).


As per the start-up, they have also developed the only Make-In-India “ambulance grade” defibrillator, named as JeevtronicsSanMitra 1000 HCT EMS, which has been tested at ARAI and will be priced at fraction of the cost of MNC brands.





For Further Information: Contact Communication Cell of DBT/BIRAC



www.dbtindia.gov.in


www.birac.nic.in


About DBT


The Department of Biotechnology (DBT), under the Ministry of Science and Technology, promotes and improves biotechnology development in India through its development and implementation in agriculture, healthcare, animal sciences, the environment, and industry.


About BIRAC


A non-for-profit Public Sector Enterprise, Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council (BIRAC), has been set up by the Department of Biotechnology (DBT), Government of India, which acts as an interface agency to enhance and encourage the evolving biotechnology industry to implement strategic research and development activities in regards to the product development needs of the Nation.
 

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Kerala startup develops biosensor device that could revolutionise snakebite diagnosis


Indriyam Biologics, recognised by the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) and Startup India, intends to resolve this issue through their new monovalent snake-venom detection biosensor device which finds out if a snakebite is venomous or non-venomous by analysing a drop of the victim’s blood. It is also capable of distinguishing the species of the snake and the quantity of venom circulating in the patient’s body.


The technology was developed by Dr Dileepkumar with the co-founder of Indriyam Biologics Dr Anaswara Krishnan S and a host of other qualified hands in snake envenomation treatment like Dr Oommen V Oommen, Dr Sudhakaran (University of Kerala), Dr Joseph K Joseph (Little Flower Hospital, Angamaly), Dr Vipin Nair, Dr Sudarslal S, and Dr Jaideep C Menon (Amrita University).


In addition to the diagnostic device, the Kerala startup is also developing snakebite kits following the lateral flow assay model for rapid detection of snakebites.


 

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IIT Ropar develops first-of-its-kind Oxygen rationing device - AMLEX


Posted On: 20 JUL 2021 11:48AM by PIB Chandigarh



To increase the life of medical oxygen cylinders three fold, the Indian Institute of Technology, Ropar has developed a first-of-its-kind Oxygen Rationing Device – AMLEX that supplies a required volume of oxygen to the patient during inhalation and trips when the patient exhales CO2. This process saves oxygen which otherwise unnecessarily get wasted.


So far, during exhalation, the oxygen in the oxygen cylinder/pipe is pushed out along with the exhaled CO2 by the user. This leads to wastage of a large volume of oxygen in long run. In addition to this, a large volume of oxygen escapes from the openings of the mask to the environment in the resting period (between inhalation and exhalation) due to continuous flow of life saving gas in the mask. As we have seen the demand of medical oxygen has jumped manifold amid the second wave of Covid-19, the device would help in stopping the unwanted wastage of the same.


“The device can operate on both portable power supply (battery) as well as line supply (220V-50Hz)”, said Director, IIT, Ropar, Prof. Rajeev Ahuja.





It has been developed by PhD students of Biomedical Engineering Department of the institution - Mohit Kumar, Ravinder Kumar and Amanpreet Chander under the guidance of Dr. Ashish Sahani, Assistant Professor, Department of Biomedical Engineering.








“Made specifically for oxygen cylinders, AMLEX can be easily connected between oxygen supply line and the mask worn by the patient. It uses a sensor which senses and successfully detects inhalation and exhalation of the user in any environmental condition”, said Dr Sahani. This ready to use device works with any commercially available oxygen therapy masks having multiple openings for air flow.





Appreciating the innovation, Dr GS Wander, Director, Research and Development at Dayanand Medical College, Ludhiana, said that in the present pandemic times we all have learnt the importance of effective and pertinent use of life saving Oxygen. He said though many hospitals are increasing their oxygen production capacity, a device like this can really help in limiting the use of oxygen in small rural and semi urban health centers.





Prof. Rajeev Ahuja said that the country now needs rapid but safe solutions to combat Covid-19. Since the virus is affecting the lungs and subsequently breathing system of the patient, the institution has not intended to go in for patenting of the device. He said rather the IIT would be happy to transfer this technology free of cost, in the interest of the nation, to those interested to go in for mass production of the device.
 

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New Low Cost Electrical Contact Material For Thermoelectric Devices


Posted On: 20 JUL 2021 4:55PM by PIB Delhi



  • Stable at high temperature
  • Thermostatic material can generate electricity by using temperature difference between its two sides
  • Device can also function as a small heat pump

Researchers have developed a new low-cost electrical contact material for thermoelectric devices that is stable at high temperature. The thermoelectric material can generate electricity by using a temperature difference between its two sides. The thermoelectric device can also function as a small heat pump, moving heat from one side of the device to the other.


Thermoelectric materials convert thermal energy directly into electricity through a process that involves a solid-state electron and phonon diffusion process. Though the principle is known for two centuries, it had limited utility as most known thermoelectric materials' energy conversion efficiency is very low. Nanotechnology brought innovations to improve the efficiency of materials, but the mass-market application of such innovations has remained restricted due to the low device conversion efficiency of 6-10%. This makes the electricity produced costlier than other technologies.


Researchers from the International Advanced Research Centre for Powder Metallurgy & New Materials (ARCI), an autonomous institute of the Department of Science & Technology, have designed and developed thermoelectric modules using lead telluride (PbTe) and magnesium stannite silicide (Mg2Si1-xSnx) compounds, which gives more than 10% conversion efficiency. This work has been published in the journalMaterials Research Bulletinrecently.


The thermoelectric device, which requires a metal electrode electrically connected to semiconductor thermoelectric materials, needs two essential functional requirements. The joint should be stable at elevated operating temperature (300-600°C) and should not undergo any thermochemical degradation. It should have the least contact resistance so that the current flow and the power delivered reach a maximum.


The ARCI team explored various metallization methods and diffusion barrier materials with a systemic approach to make a stable bismuth-doped Mg2(Si1-xSnx)-Cu joint to fabricate a thermoelectric generator. A single-step direct vacuum hot pressing of bismuth-doped magnesium silicide stannide (Mg2(Si0.38Sn0.6)Bi0.02) powder produced a dense pellet with a mechanically stable metalized layer suitable to use in thermoelectric modules up to 400°C.


The bismuth-doped magnesium silicide stannide powder synthesized by induction melting of constituent elements and ball milling of the solidified ingots was hot-pressed with SS304 and copper (Cu) powders. The joint's specific contact resistance is around 4.4 µΩ.cm2, which is the lowest value reported so far in this material.


The joint showed excellent thermal stability up to 450°C temperature when tested for 15 days, with insignificant change in the reaction layers thickness at the interface. By using these joints, a thermoelectric device has been developed successfully and tested for its performance.








Figure 1 shows the TE legs, SEM micrograph, and the variation of contact resistance with annealing of the Mg2(Si0.38Sn0.6) Bi0.02-Cu joint with SS 304 barrier layer.


Figure 1 SEM micrograph of Mg2(Si0.38Sn0.6) Bi0.02-Cu joint with SS 304 diffusion barrier layer (left) and the variation of specific contact resistance with annealing time at 450°C. The interfaces are free from mechanical defects showing perfect diffusion bonding of Cu with SS304. At the SS304/Mg2Si0.38Sn0.6Bi0.02 interface, a continuous reaction layer with two sublayers was developed. The combined thickness of the reaction layers varied from 12 to 30 µm. The good bonding between the Mg2(Si0.38Sn0.6) Bi0.02 and SS 304 due to these reaction layers makes the hot-pressed pellets suitable for mechanically dicing up to 3 mm x 3mm cross-section legs usually used in TE modules. Thus the research demonstrated a single-step, low-cost process to fabricate a reliable metal-thermoelectric joint with less than 5 µΩ.cm2 contact resistance to fabricate TEG.
 

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Automated Train Toilet Sewerage Disposal System - A Cost-effective Alternative To Bio-toilets


Posted On: 16 JUL 2021 1:19PM by PIB Delhi



An automated technology for collection of toilet waste which is easy to maintain and seven times cheaper alternative to the bio-toilets, developed by an Indian scientist, can be used to maintain the toilet system of the Indian Railways.


Existing Bio toilets use anaerobic bacteria for converting human waste to gas, but that bacteria can’t decompose plastic and cloth materials dumped into toilets by passengers. Hence maintenance and removing of such non decomposed materials inside the tank is difficult.


The technology developed by Dr. R.V. Krishnaiah from Chebrolu Engineering Collegeisan automated system for collection of toilet waste from running trains and segregation of different materials and processing into usable things.


The technology developed with support from the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies programme of the Department of Science & Technology (DST), aligned with the ‘Make in India’ initiative has been granted five National patents and is in the testing phase.


The automated system consists of three simple steps--the septic tank (which is placed under the track, i.e., train line) top cover gets opened when train approaches to the septic tank place by using Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) sensor and reader placed at Engine and septic tank position respectively, sewerage material in toilet tanks is dropped into the septic tank when they are mutually synchronized, and finally the septic tank cover gets closed when train departs away from it.


The collected sewerage material from train toilets is segregated such that human waste is stored in one tank, and other materials such as plastic materials, cloth materials, and so on are stored in another tank. The human waste is further processed separately to convert into usable material. The plastic and cloth materials are processed separately.


This technology has been developed targeting the Indian Railways specifically with the aim of cost reduction and to obviate the necessity of time-consuming anaerobic bacteria generation. In contrast with Bio toilets which cost one lakh per unit, the new technology brings down the cost to Fifteen thousand rupees only. Dr. R.V. Krishnaiah has tied up with MTE Industries for further upscale of this technology.





For more details, Dr. R.V.Krishnaiah(9951222268, [email protected]) can be contacted.











Figure: The Front View of the System


Although any development is a good development. But I don't necessarily agree to take a step back just to offset the cost.
In 2021 IR has fitted all eligible coaches with bio-toilets and newer builds should improve upon it technology wise.
 

Lonewolf

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Although any development is a good development. But I don't necessarily agree to take a step back just to offset the cost.
In 2021 IR has fitted all eligible coaches with bio-toilets and newer builds should improve upon it technology wise.
Pilot project for it won't work imo ,
 

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Indian scientists discover materials that self-repair mechanical damages


Posted On: 24 JUL 2021 5:10PM by PIB Delhi



New materials may soon make it possible for damaged electronic components, such as in space crafts, to mend themselves. The materials recently developed by scientists can repair their own mechanical damages with the electrical charges generated by the mechanical impact on them.


Devices that we use daily often break down due to mechanical damage, forcing us either to repair or replace them. This decreases the life of the equipment and increases maintenance costs. In many cases, like in space crafts, human intervention for restoration is not possible.


Keeping such necessities in mind, researchers from the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER) Kolkata, teaming up with IIT Kharagpur, have developed piezoelectric molecular crystals that repair themselves from mechanical damages without need for any external intervention. Piezoelectric crystals are a class of materials that generate electricity when it undergoes a mechanical impact.


The piezoelectric molecules developed by the scientists called bipyrazole organic crystals recombine following mechanical fracture without any external intervention, autonomously self-healing in milliseconds with crystallographic precision.


In these molecular solids, due to the unique property of generating electrical charges on mechanical impact, the broken pieces acquire electrical charges at the crack junction, leading to attraction by damaged parts and precise autonomous repair. This research supported by the Department of Science and Technology, GoI via Swarnajayanti Fellowship to CM Reddy and Science and Engineering Research Board (SERB) research grants has been published in the journal ‘Science’ recently.


This methodology was initially developed by the IISER Kolkata team led by Prof. C Malla Reddy, a recipient of Swarnajayanti fellowship (2015) given by the Department of Science & Technology, GoI. Prof. Nirmalya Ghosh of IISER Kolkata, a laureate of the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) G.G. Stokes Award in Optical polarization 2021, used a custom-designed state-of-the-art polarization microscopic system to probe and quantify the perfection of the piezoelectric organic crystals. These materials with perfect internal arrangement of molecules or ions are called ‘crystals’, which are abundant in nature.


The IIT Kharagpur’s team, Prof. Bhanu Bhusan Khatua and Dr. Sumanta Karan studied the performance of the new materials for fabricating mechanical energy harvesting devices. The material may find application in high-end micro-chips, high precision mechanical sensors, actuators, micro-robotics, and so on. Further research into such materials may eventually lead to the development of smart gadgets that self-repair cracks or scratches.





Description: C:\Users\user\Downloads\Healing cycles_media.jpg






Publication link: doi: 10.1126/science.abg3886


For more details, Prof. C Malla Reddy ([email protected]) Prof. Nirmalya Ghosh ([email protected]) can be contacted.
 

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Indian Startup Built Self-Driving Tech For Indian Roads By Nature-Inspired AI

You see, a group of engineers from MinusZero in India have developed an autonomous system that promises to work effectively even in Indian traffic conditions. We got to interact with Gagandeep Reehal, co-founder and CEO of MinusZero to better understand how they could bring the autonomous vehicle future to India.

 

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Ultra-sensitive, easy to use sensor can detect arsenic in food & water in 15 minutes


Posted On: 27 JUL 2021 5:43PM by PIB Delhi



Dr. Vanish Kumar, an Inspire Faculty Fellow, has developed an ultra-sensitive, easy-to-use sensor for detecting arsenic contamination in water and food samples in 15 minutes. The developed sensor is highly sensitive, selective, involves a single step, and is applicable for various water and food samples. The developed sensor can be easily operated by a common man by just correlating the colour change (on sensor surface) with the standard labels.


The sensor developed by Dr. Kumar recipient of INSPIRE Faculty fellowship of the Department of Science & Technology, GoI and currently positioned at the National Agri-Food Biotechnology Institute (NABI), Mohali, can be tested with three modes- spectroscopic measurements, colour intensity measurement with the help of colorimeter or mobile application, and with naked eyes.


Developed on mixed metal (cobalt/molybdenum) based metal-organic frameworks, it can detect a wide range of arsenic- from 0.05 ppb to 1000 ppm. In the case of paper and colorimetric sensors, the colour of the Metal-Organic Framework (MOF) changes from purple to blue after interaction with arsenic. The intensity of the blue colour increases with an increase in the concentration of arsenic.


It has been tested successfully for the fabrication of spectroscopic as well as paper-based tools for testing Arsenic in groundwater, rice extract, and plum juice. This research has been accepted for publication in ‘Chemical Engineering Journal’.


Identification of arsenic before consumption of water and food is imperative to protect common man from the possible health issues associated with arsenic. However, none of the existing methods of detection can be easily used by the common man.


The developed testing kit is 500 times more sensitive in comparison to the improved version of the Molybdenum-blue test, which is one of the most common (and traditional) tests used for the sensing of arsenic ions. It is also economical and simple as compared to the other commonly used analytical techniques such as Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively-coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS), which required expensive set-ups, lengthy and complicated methodologies, skilled operators, complex machinery, and difficult sample preparations. Dr. Vanish Kumar’s team is the first to explore MOF for the sensing of arsenic ions on the basis of Mo-As interaction.


“The non-availability of sensitive and selective sensing method for arsenic ions is worrisome for our society. Considering this as a challenge, we started working on the development of a rapid and sensitive detection method for arsenic. The specific interaction between molybdenum and arsenic was known. So, we made material consisting of molybdenum and a catalyst (e.g., Co), which can give signals generated from molybdenum and arsenic interaction. After several attempts, we were able to develop a mixed metal MOF for the specific, one-step, and sensitive detection of arsenic ions,” said Dr. Kumar, explaining his research.


Description: C:\Users\Vanish\Dropbox\NABI lab\Work\Mo-MOF based As sensing\Final\Final\2021-01-27_Graphical Abstract_Mo-MOF_Arsenic_KV_V1.jpg
 

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Nano-structured self-cleaning aluminium surface that reduces bacterial growth can be useful for biomedical & aerospace applications


Posted On: 28 JUL 2021 7:19PM by PIB Delhi



A group of researchers have recently developed a nano-structured self-cleaning sustainable aluminium surface by utilizing a simple and environment-friendly fabrication route. It could have multiple applications ranging from biomedical to aerospace and automobiles to household appliances, and the process is easily scalable to industrial-level production.


Aluminium is a light metal, which has many industrial applications as it can be easily cast, machined and shaped. However, atmospheric degradation due to the accumulation of contaminants and humidity significantly limits its performance and sustainability. Besides, the leaching of aluminium also causes environmental and health-related issues.


To overcome these problems, Dr Harpreet Singh Grewal, Dr Harpreet Singh Arora and Mr Gopinath Perumal, researchers from the Department of Mechanical Engineering and Dr Sajal Kumar Ghosh and Ms Priya Mandal from Department of Physics of Shiv Nadar University, Delhi-NCR have jointly developed the nano-structured aluminium surfaces that show immense mechanical, chemical, and thermal durability restricting the corrosion and leaching effects. A Raman spectrometer obtained through the ‘Fund for Improvement of Science & Technology infrastructure’ (FIST) project of the Department of Science & Technology, Government of India, has been used to carry out this work. This result is reported in the Journal of Cleaner Production.


The researchers have developed a flake-like nano-structure on aluminium surface. This is achieved by heating the aluminium sample in water with a temperature maintained at 80oC for an hour, without using any chemical reagents and toxic solvents. The surface obtained by this facile and environment-friendly approach showed a complete wetting nature (ability of a liquid to spread over a solid surface). A coating of low surface energy hydrocarbon material on it converts it into a surface where a water droplet immediately rolls off the surface. This makes it useful for self-cleaning applications.


“This self-cleaning surface is stable over a wide range of temperature, from -80 to 350oC, improving its corrosion resistance property. In fact, it shows 40 times reduction in the corrosion rate when compared to the existing surfaces developed by other processing routes,” said Dr Grewal.


Dr Ghosh explains that because of their nanostructured morphology coated with hydrocarbons, these surfaces are capable of reducing bacterial adhesion and growth to a great extent and hence can be used in healthcare and medical devices, including dental implants and heart assistive devices.











Fig: Diagrammatic representation of the mechanism of the developed surface








Fig: Raman spectrometer obtained through (FIST) project


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Molecular sensor on serotonin receptor to detect cholesterol--India Science Wire
By India Science Wire

3-4 minutes




Cells communicate with each other via receptor proteins expressed on the cell membranes. Many drugs target these receptor proteins to alter cell’s functioning and physiology. However, the latest study from Prof Amitabha Chattopadhyay’s lab at CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) makes a case for accounting for the lipid environment that surrounds the receptor proteins, while designing drugs acting on the latter.

The lab had earlier found that the serotonin receptors are sensitive to cholesterol surrounding them. In the new study published in Science Advances , they report a sensor region on human serotonin1A receptor that can detect cholesterol. They looked at specific regions called CRAC motifs in the receptor. These are believed to interact with cholesterol. The researchers carefully replaced specific amino acids in the CRAC motifs of the serotonin1A receptor and identified a particular amino acid responsible for the cholesterol-sensitive function of the receptor.

Cells communicate with each other via receptor proteins expressed on the cell membranes. Many drugs target these receptor proteins to alter cell’s functioning and physiology. However, the latest study from Prof Amitabha Chattopadhyay’s lab at CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) makes a case for accounting for the lipid environment that surrounds the receptor proteins, while designing drugs acting on the latter.
The researchers collaborated with Dr Jana Selent's group from Pompeu Fabra University Hospital del Mar Medical Research Institute in Barcelona, Spain to visualize the protein-cholesterol interaction via computer-aided molecular dynamics simulations. This helped them predict how the specific amino acid on CRAC motif enables the receptor to sense changes in cholesterol levels by controlling molecular motion in certain regions of the receptor, says CSIR-CCMB statement.

“These findings are important since cholesterol levels change in our cells with age and in many disease conditions. We believe our work will help in developing better drugs that keep in mind not just the receptor as the drug target, but also the lipid environment in which the receptor is present”, explained Prof Chattopadhyay.

“Our expertise in structural biology at CCMB is key towards a physical understanding of cells and their functions. This not only adds to the detailed view of living cells but also have immense potential in therapeutics development”, said Dr Vinay Nandicoori, Director, CCMB.
 

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New Technology can Enhance Solubility of Poorly Water-soluble Multi-herbal Extracts Using Nano-encapsulation at Room Temperature


Posted On: 02 AUG 2021 5:06PM by PIB Delhi



A temperature and flow control ultrasonic spray (tFOCUS) System for Nano-Drug Formulation could improve the efficacy of herbal medicines by enhancing the bioavailability of the herbal ingredients of the medicines. This device could improve cost-effectiveness and therapeutic efficacy of medicines involving expensive phytomolecules.


The delivery of herbal therapeutic ingredients as drugs in conventional forms shows variable and non-uniform absorption. Lower duration of residence in the stomach and varying gastric emptying time may limit the bioavailability of these drugs. They are also highly sensitive to temperature, atmospheric moisture. Their hygroscopic nature affects the particle-particle interactions, leads to poor water solubility and contributes to their poor flow in systematic body fluid circulation.


To overcome such limitations, herbal drugs can be encapsulated with suitable biopolymers as nanocarriers. The nanocarrier can significantly enhance the gastric emptying time and deliver higher amount of drug for a sustained period in the stomach. In addition, the amount of drug required to be incorporated to nanocarriers is much less than required when encapsulated in a tablet. This is very useful when using expensive phytomolecules. Optimal use of phytomolecules improves the cost-effectiveness and therapeutic efficacy of the product.


Keeping this in mind, Dr S. Prabhakaran, Sr. Scientist at CSIR-Central Scientific Instruments Organisation (CSIO) Chennai Centre, has developed a new prototype of temperature and flow control ultrasonic spray (tFOCUS) system with support from the Advanced Manufacturing Technologies programme of the Department of Science & Technology (DST), Government of India, and aligned with the ‘Make in India’ initiative to enhance colloidal stability of poorly water-soluble herbal extracts.


The prototype has been validated using commercial AYURSULIN capsule used to treat type-II diabetic as model drug. To enhance the bioavailability tFOCUS system, prepare nano-encapsulation of all five herbal extracts using polymer (ZEIN/PVA). The samples were spherical in morphology, nanoscale range and good colloidal suspension in water as compare to bare herbal extracts. A feasibility study was made to develop a colloidal stable nanocarrier system containing a mixture of herbal extract like Curcuma Longa, Andrographis, Paniculata, Tinospora, Cordifolia, AegeleMarmelos, Emblica Officinalis in equal ratios nano encapsulating using different types of wall polymers.


The prototype of tFOCUS system enhanced the solubility of poorly water-soluble multi-herbal extracts using nanoencapsulation biocompatible polymer in rapid reaction process at room temperature, which is compactable with temperature-sensitive therapeutic active ingredients.


This unique nano-drug particle synthesis system based on acoustic cavitation can provide continuous large scale compared to present microencapsulation technologies such as mechanical stirrer assisted antisolvent addition method, spray dry methods, and high-pressure homogenization method production with less power consumption, rapid reaction time leading to faster sample preparation. It enables nanosize-encapsulation of multi-herbal components at variable operating temperatures (10°C to 80 °C). With ease to control size & shape of particulate by control flow rate, temperature and ultrasonic energy, this easy to handle & portable system is in the 4th stage of Technology Readiness Level TRL-4.


“Pharmaceutical and Food industries and Scientific Instruments manufacturing industries have shown interest to take up this technology for commercialization. We will provide incubation centre from CSIO Chennai Centre and manpower training for system operation and optimization of new drug formulation,” says Dr S. Prabhakaran. He has allied with BAL Research Foundation (BRF) Bangalore for further upscale of the technology.





Working prototype of temperature and flow control ultrasonic spray (tFOCUS) system consists of (i) Ultrasonic power supply with sonohorn probe (ii) Double wall glass reactor with inlet and outlet (iii) RTD Temperature Probe (iv) Microcontroller based monitoring and control module (v) Peristaltic Pump 1 & 2 (vi) Reagent Bottle 1 (solvent) & 2 (anti-solvent) (vii) solenoid valve and (viii) mechanical assembly for support and adjust the position of reactor (ix) Circulating water bath.





TEM image shows ZEIN encapsulated herbal extracts in spherical in shape, size range of 80 to 260 nm (left) and SEM image of PVA encapsulated herbal extracts in spherical in shape, size range of 110 to 380 nm (right, Scale bar 5 µm).
 

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New device to help reduce frequent charging of wireless electronic gadgets--India Science Wire
By India Science Wire

5-6 minutes



Figure 1: Spintronics memories

As we are moving toward a data-driven age, there is a need for faster and very low power computing. Memories play a crucial role in this, as for faster processing of data; the CPU rapidly reads and writes on the memory.

A researcher at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi has designed a device for high-density magnetic memory, in collaboration with the National University of Singapore (NUS).The proposed device may help reduce frequent charging of wireless electronic devices such as mobile phones and other Internet of Thing (IoT) based devices.

The main memory, i.e., the Random-access memory (RAM) is most commonly used in modern computer architecture. These are SRAMs and DRAMs, which are based on CMOS technology. They are fast but volatile and require a constant supply of power, which consumes lots of energy. But, if these could be made non-volatile, then computing could be made more energy-efficient.


Figure 2: Shared channel scheme for increasing the area efficiency

Spintronics memories like spin-transfer torque magneto-resistive RAM (STT-MRAM) and spin-orbit torque magneto-resistive RAM (SOT-MRAM) are inherently non-volatile. They consume no power at standby. Also, their operation speeds are comparable to RAMs. Hence, these spintronics memories are the most potential candidates for replacing current electronic RAMs, says IIT Delhi statement.

SOT-MRAMs are better than STT-MRAM in terms of reliability and writing speed but lags in achieving high integration density. This is because, unlike STT-MRAM, which is a two-terminal device and needs one transistor for reading and writing operation, the SOT-MRAMs require two transistors each for reading and writing. Thus SOT-MRAM requires a larger area per bit as compared to STT-MRAM, as shown in figure-1.

Also, SOT-MRAM is less prone to breakdown due to separate read and write paths, this is absent in STT-MRAMs. Hence, SOT-MRAM is the preferred choice among the research community however significant work is required to increase their areal density.

A researcher at the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi has designed a device for high-density magnetic memory, in collaboration with the National University of Singapore (NUS).The proposed device may help reduce frequent charging of wireless electronic devices such as mobile phones and other Internet of Thing (IoT) based devices.

Figure 3: Working principle of the proposed device

In a collaborative work between Prof. Rahul Mishra from the Centre for Applied Research in Electronics (CARE), IIT Delhi, and Prof. Hyunsoo Yang from the National University of Singapore (NUS) a possible solution for achieving higher integration density in SOT-MRAMs was proposed and experimentally demonstrated.

Prof. Rahul Mishra, CARE, IIT Delhi said, “We demonstrated a shared write channel based multibit SOT cell scheme, which reduces the number of transistors required per bit. This cell design requires half the area compared to conventional SOT MRAM, thus almost doubles the area efficiency of the memory chip”.

To make the above design feasible, the team designed a magnetic memory device, which can be programmed by the application of gate voltage. The gate voltage was used to migrate oxygen ions in the device, which resulted in modulation of the spin current polarity as shown in Figure 3. Thus, cells can now be written individually, and hence they obtained a full-fledged, working area-efficient SOT memory. The work was published in Physical Review applied journal.

Prof. Mishra further said, “The results of this work could eventually help to develop low power electronic devices. The frequent charging of wireless electronic devices such as mobile phones, IoT devices, etc would be significantly reduced with the proposed device. It would be especially useful for industrial applications where sensors are put in locations, which are not easy to access. Low power and high-density memory devices would not only help reduce global energy footprint but the saved energy can also be used for extra computational tasks”.
 

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Scientists discover a new way to detect early colon cancer--India Science Wire
By India Science Wire

4-5 minutes



Colon cancer cells

Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer – both in India and worldwide. According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), it is the third most common cancer in men (6, 63,000 cases in 2014, 10.0% of all cancer cases) and the second most common in women (5, 71,000 cases in 2014, 9.4% of all cancer cases).

Presently, colon cancer gets detected at very late stages. There are two techniques to detect it; either CT colonography and colonoscopy or immunohistochemistry. While CT colonography involves low dose radiation, colonoscopy is an invasive process whereas immunohistochemistry can be subjective and sometimes not reproducible.

A new collaborative study involving four institutes in India and one in France, and led by Dr. Sagar Sengupta at the National Institute of Immunology (NII), has discovered a new way that could identify the disease even at Stage I, the earliest stage.

Dr. Sengupta’s laboratory works on micro RNAs, which are small single-stranded non-coding RNA molecules, silence the expression of many proteins. The micro RNAs are known to bind to the messenger RNA molecules that code for the proteins and thereby either inactivate or destroy them.

Colon cancer is one of the most common types of cancer – both in India and worldwide. According to the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), it is the third most common cancer in men (6, 63,000 cases in 2014, 10.0% of all cancer cases) and the second most common in women (5, 71,000 cases in 2014, 9.4% of all cancer cases).
The new study has discovered that six micro RNAs get upregulated in colon cancer cells and that the levels of these were controlled by a master regulator protein, named CDX2. Importantly, the upregulated micro RNAs, which were named `DNA damage sensitive micro RNA’s or `DDSM’s, were found to target a group of cellular proteins which are essential to maintain the pristine nature of genetic material within each cell of the body. Experiments involving laboratory mice confirmed that the cells have a greater tendency to form cancers if there is overexpression of these micro RNAs and consequent loss of these genome stabilizers.

The researchers have tested their findings on publicly available datasets in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and also in a cohort of colon cancer patients who had come to All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi for treatment. Analysis was done with the available data of over 410 patients and the biopsy materials of 54 patients from AIIMS, New Delhi.

They found that the DDSMs were upregulated even in Stage I colon cancer tissues. The upregulation persisted up to the final Stage IV colon cancer. More importantly, increased expression of the DDSMs in cancer patients decreased the probability of their survival.

Speaking to India Science Wire, Dr. Sengupta said, “We believe that the identified DDSMs can serve as an invaluable biomarker for colon cancer early detection process. We now have to determine whether the DDSMs can also be detected in patient blood samples. If that is possible, it would make colon cancer detection as simple as the detection of blood sugar in diabetic patients”.

Apart from NII and AIIMS, New Delhi, Regional Centre for Biotechnology, Faridabad, St. John’s Research Hospital, Bengaluru and University of Strasbourg, France contributed to this study. A report on the work has been published in the Journal of Cell Science.
 

Lonewolf

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@sorcerer don't you think we should have a seperate thread where we post about application cases of the research posted on this thread , to see the how much have we applied the research we have done
 

sorcerer

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@sorcerer don't you think we should have a seperate thread where we post about application cases of the research posted on this thread , to see the how much have we applied the research we have done
Yes thats is a good idea..
but later the posts will be spread in both the threads cuz new posters wont know the difference or wont care for it.
soo..its better if we stack it at one place and keep it updated..
 

Lonewolf

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Yes thats is a good idea..
but later the posts will be spread in both the threads cuz new posters wont know the difference or wont care for it.
soo..its better if we stack it at one place and keep it updated..
Yup .

Will make a replies restricted thread on it , so not everyone can reply , will need your help , if agreed will do in October
 

sorcerer

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IIT Kharagpur has set “Specialty Friction Reducers” in motion – The KGP Chronicle

Recently, IIT Kharagpur researchers have contributed towards a new domain of indigenous innovation, “Specialty Friction Reducers” for unconventional oilfields and most significantly, this technique has led to commercialization of this product by an Indian Manufacturer, for the first time, for the global oil and gas industry.


We have developed the technique for characterizing the specialty friction reducers involves a unique combination of drag reduction and viscometric measurements, specifically replicating the complex oilfield environment. The work further enabled correlation between the fundamental polymeric structures of the friction reducers and its performance in challenging unconventional oilfield environments (extremely high salinity/ hardness and high shear conditions)”, said Prof Sandeep D Kulkarni, the lead researcher and the Associate Professor of Deysarkar Centre of Excellence in Petroleum Engineering, IIT Kharagpur.


The research scholar, Navneeth Kumar Korlepara along with Prof Sandeep D Kulkarni, has worked and contributed extensively on this project as well as Prof Kiran Gore, the Assistant Professor of the Department of Chemistry and his group put invaluable inputs into this project. This research work was mainly sponsored by Dr. Asoke Deysarkar, Chairman of PfP Industries, USA who is also an eminent IIT Kharagpur alumnus. The automatic flow loop built by the team for drag reduction evaluation is first of its kind in the country and it was showcased at National Conference on Upstream Petroleum Engineering 2019 held in IIT Guwahati. Several journal publications in this domain are underway.


To ensure practical impact of the above innovation, Dr. Kulkarni had initiated synergistic product development in collaboration with the US industry professionals (sponsor) and Indian manufacturers which has led to a first container of 18 tons of the developed specialty friction reducer being readied by the Indian manufacturer, MSME, Envitech Chemical Specialties Pvt. Ltd., for shipment to the US oil and gas industry.


Congratulating the whole team, the IIT Kharagpur Director, Prof Virendra Kumar Tewari added, “Potentially, this Make-in-India exercise based on above indigenous innovation is expected to scale up, in the long run. The researchers need to work hard and make it a reality particularly for the MSME sectors to get benefited”.


Dr. Deysarkar said, “R & D efforts at IITs should ensure tangible value addition for the society and the country. Such innovations would strengthen Make-in-India and could make India Inc. part of global supply chain for a range of specialty products”.


 

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