Russian Airforce News & Discussion


Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
SKAT is dead.
Tere is Sukhoi Okhotnik-B (Hunter-B) heavy (20 tons) UCAV program in development now.
And MiG Okhotnik-A UAV (surveyer) which is twice lighter (however, there are almost no info about Okhotnik-A program except for the rumors of different creadability).
I read Okhotnik-A UAV was Mig proposal for UCAV which Sukhoi won as lead contractor for 20 T UCAV.

There are 3 known major UAV program , 1 T Medium Altitude UAV , 5 T LR High Altitude UAV and 20 T UCAV
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Senior Member
May 25, 2009
According to MOD Russian Airforce till 2020 has total budget allocation of $140 Billion and within that CAPEX ( Aircraft and Equipment ) procurement of $ 111 Billion
$111 Billion by 2020 is way more than what we are planning. I think the last report pegged IAF to spend $40 Billion by 2017.

What the heck are they planning?


Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
Russian Armed Forced didnt go through major conventional rearmament post SU break , the last major re-armament of armed forces was in 80's ..... in the 90's and 2000's only Nuclear Forces received funding while conventional forces were neglected specially in 90's.

Post Georgia War things changed dramatically and conventional forces funding is now given attention along with Nuclear , Georgia war was Russias Kargil a wake up event .....not because they were outclassed by Georgians but US Posture during that war played a key role and wake up call for the leadership.

What the heck are they planning?
Putin Mentioned 2000 new planes and helicopters as part of Airforce Plan
Grand plans for Russian military aviation | Russia & India Report

Roughly speaking the breakup is

1200 Helicopters of all types
600 Fighter Aircraft/Bombers etc
400 Transport type of all type

Plus modernising of some existing types.

Also note that USD value is just a notional thing to give an idea of how much they plan to spend , since RuAF procures majorly from its local industry and a small percentage is imported the Rouble is what they would be spending that has its own positive effect in many ways .....much like we spending Rupee for local procurement.
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Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
ВВС РФ передадут 81 самолет и 82 вертолета до 15 ноября 2013 года | РИА Новости

Russian Air Force will transfer 81 aircraft and 82 helicopters to November 15, 2013

Russia in November of this year, will have 81 aircraft and 82 helicopters in the state defense order, said Tuesday the spokesman of "Aviaremont" performing the obligations under the three-year state contracts with the Air Force .

"Prior to 15 November 2013 in the framework of the state defense order to the customer in accordance with the plan will be given another 81 aircraft, 82 helicopters," - said the press service.

In addition, before the end of this year, the troops plan to hand over all flight support, arms and military equipment to defense, maintenance of which in 2013 provided for public contract


Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
Superalloy type 1933 will reduce the weight of aircraft and missiles in Russia up 30%
Суперсплав типа 1933 снизит массу самолетов и ракет в РФ до 30% | РИА Новости
New ultra-light alloy type 1933 will reduce the weight of aircraft and rocket technology in Russia to 30% and, consequently, fuel consumption, told reporters on Tuesday, General Director of the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials (Aviation Materials) Eugene Kablov .

Aluminum-lithium alloy 1933-type alloy replaced AK6 and is now used in the production of An-148 aircraft, SSJ-100 as well as military aircraft and missile technology.

"One of the major challenges currently facing the aviation industry is to increase the effectiveness of weight equipment, its strength and life. This can be accomplished through the development and implementation of ultra-light high-strength materials. <...> First of all we are talking about the aluminum-lithium alloys, which are <...> will reduce by 20-30% weight structures, and consequently, fuel consumption, "- said Kablov.

According to him, the Russian design and development of aluminum-lithium alloys for military aircraft and missiles engaged Kamensk-Metallurgical Plant (Sverdlovsk region).


Regular Member
Dec 13, 2012
Country flag
@p2prada, @Austin can Russia develop anti-stealth capability by equipping MALE UAV with aesa radar also we have mostly seen Uavs designed for air to ground and surveillance can a conventional MALE UAV be used for air-to-air patrolling during any incoming aerial threats ie:- Cruise missiles and to protect valuable IADS and Radar stations with SAM infested areas.......... i am saying this b'cause of Jo Asakuras post in forum key pub were he said this is possible............after all going through this Russian air force thread and seeing Vitaly Kuzmins Maks 2013 pics i believe Russian IADS are potential death traps for any western invading force.............

Basically i wanted to see a scenario of UAV vs Stealth aircraft where a stealth aircraft can be detected by Aesa equipped MALE UAV.........
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Regular Member
Dec 13, 2012
Country flag
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ Sorry for my incomplete post people

lets see some of the threats for a high value Russian IADS which needs some dedicated force mulitpliers around them......
1. Agm-158 Jassm- (Stealth Shaped)
2. Raytheon malds IADS suppression Jamming UAVs
3. AGM-129 acm- (Stealth Shaped)
4. USN UClass program (Ucav intended for first day strike missions....)

and Russians respond to them by having AESA tipped missiles-seekers (the Japanese plan them too for presumed anti stealth capability for their f-15s) and AESA ( "high-resolution [radar] imagery of up to 30-50 cm" at a range of "200km") equipped MALE UAVS
here's link of that Jo Asakura forum key pub article :- The PAK-FA News, Pics & Debate Thread XXIV - Page 15
@p2prada whats your view on this.............
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Senior Member
May 25, 2009
@p2prada, @Austin can Russia develop anti-stealth capability by equipping MALE UAV with aesa radar also we have mostly seen Uavs designed for air to ground and surveillance can a conventional MALE UAV be used for air-to-air patrolling during any incoming aerial threats ie:- Cruise missiles and to protect valuable IADS and Radar stations with SAM infested areas.......... i am saying this b'cause of Jo Asakuras post in forum key pub were he said this is possible............after all going through this Russian air force thread and seeing Vitaly Kuzmins Maks 2013 pics i believe Russian IADS are potential death traps for any western invading force.............

Basically i wanted to see a scenario of UAV vs Stealth aircraft where a stealth aircraft can be detected by Aesa equipped MALE UAV.........
It is possible. The thing is the MALE UAV should also be able to engage the stealth aircraft. Without that it will just be an unmanned limited-AEW without the full capabilities of a manned AEW&C. This MALE UAV will have to be really big with a very large radar and powerful engines. So, very expensive for just an AEW.

It is basically a balloon with a radar that moves. But it will be less expensive than a full-fledged AEW&C or a PAKFA in that same role.

Russian IADS is the best in the world, hands down.

AESA based seekers on missiles is an obvious next step as long as the costs are justified. And it is happening. We will simply have to wait a few more years.
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Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
Finally Tor-M2 got the new missile long awaited , incidently Tor-M2E is competing for SHORAD competition on TATA chassis.

Russia Unveils New High-Precision Air Defense System | Defense | RIA Novosti

MOSCOW, November 14 (RIA Novosti) – Russia's Almaz-Antey defense corporation said Thursday that it had developed an advanced version of the Tor-M2 air defense system, featuring an extended firing range, improved precision and greater ammunition-carrying capacity.

"We can say now that a unique air defense system in its class with an astounding precision and range has been created. Its performance surpasses all planned parameters," said Sergei Druzin, head of research and development at Almaz-Antey.

The Tor system is a low- to medium-altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for intercepting aircraft, cruise missiles, precision-guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and ballistic targets.

Tor-M1 and Tor-M2U variants, armed with 9M331 missiles, are currently in service with the Russian army.

The new system, equipped with new 9M338 missiles, was successfully tested at the end of October.

"We carried out five launches targeting highly maneuverable drones. Three of the targets were hit head-on, while the other two were destroyed by shrapnel from exploding warheads. It is an excellent result, astounding precision," Druzin said.

In addition, the smaller size of the 9M338 compared with its predecessor has allowed the carrying capacity of the launcher to be doubled, from eight to 16 missiles.

The official said the improved Tor-M2 systems and 9M338 missiles have been approved by a state commission for mass production.

"We can now start producing these missiles in quantities that would meet the demand of the Russian army," Druzin said.

According to Druzin, the next step in the improvement of the system would be for launching missiles at acquired targets while on the move.

"The [mobile] launcher currently stops for two or three seconds to launch a missile, but it could be done on a move, without stopping," Druzin said.


Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
Russian Air Defense Radars: Turning Slowly to Target
Aleksandr Stukalin, Kommersant Publishing House ( MDB )
Late 1990s: cuts and mergers

On July 16, 1997 Russian President Boris Yeltsin issued Decree No 725 "On urgent measures to reform the Russian Armed Forces and optimize their structure". As part of that reform, the Radar Troops (Radiotekhnicheskie Voiska) of the Air Defense Service (Voiska PVO) were incorporated into the Air Force - a process that entailed significant cuts. To comply with the new Air Force staffing schedule approved on January 27, 1997, the Radar Troops lost 12 units, including three radar brigades out of the total of 18, and nine radar regiments out of 19.1

As a result, the service lost about 30 per cent of its units (radar battalions and companies) and 60 per cent of its personnel. In fact, the cuts were even deeper if we take into account previous rounds of reform and restructuring. In 1997 alone (both before and after Decree No 725) some 20 radar units (which accounted for 33 per cent of the service's strength) were disbanded. Compared to Soviet times, the number of radar units fell by 80 per cent, and their ability to monitor Russian airspace by 50 per cent.2 (In 1989 the Soviet Union's Air Defense service had more than 60 radar brigades and regiments, consisting of over 1,000 smaller units).

The Russian MoD sacrificed even some of its radar capability in the strategically important Arctic region, including Franz Joseph Land (Graham Bell Island), the northern part of Novaya Zemlya (Cape Zhelaniya), Vize Island in the Kara Sea, as well as the islands of Severnaya Zemlya, Vaygach, Wrangel, and Dikson.3 The ministry's priority was to retain its radar capability in the central, western and northeastern parts of Russia. As of 2000, the Russian Radar Troops were capable of tracking up to 50,000 air targets every year across the country.4

As part of the reductions, the MoD decommissioned large numbers of obsolete radar models (including the P-12, P-14, P-35, and others).

Nevertheless, even after that decommissioning, there were 19 types of radars left in service with the Russian Air Defense service, including:

22Zh6M Desna-M, a high and medium altitude combat-mode radar

5N87 Kabina-66 medium and high altitude radar

57U6 Periskop-VM combat-mode radar

P-37, 1L-117, 1L-13 Nebo-SV, 59N6 Protivnik-G, 19Zh6 ST-68U, 35D6 ST-68UM, 55Zh6 Nebo, 55Zh6-U Nebo-U, 5N84A Oborona, P-18 Terek, and 64L6 Gamma-S1 radars;

39N6 Kasta-2-2 and 35N6 Kasta-2 low-altitude radars

PVR-13, PRV-16 and PRV-17 radio-altimeters.5

It must be said that having such a large number of radar models in service is a practice Russia inherited from the former Soviet Union. The Soviet defense industry had a lot of redundancy and duplication; there were often three different companies making three very similar products, and all three products would be on the Russian armed forces' procurement list. Obviously, such a system meant unnecessary complications in terms of personnel training, repair and maintenance.

In the post-Soviet period most of the radars still in service were old Soviet models. Lt. Gen Aleksandr Shramchenko, who served as the commander of the Air Force Radar Troops, once described the existing radar fleet as "yesterday's technology". He estimated the requirement for new radars (such as the Protivnik-G, Kasta-2, and Gamma-S1) at "tens of units", whereas annual deliveries were "in the single digits".6

As far as procurement is concerned, the Russian armed forces could afford only limited upgrades, service life extensions, and repairs of the existing radars at MoD and defense industry facilities. By 2000, many radar units had been given sufficient training to repair complex technology (including the 22Zh6M, 35N6, and 57U6) on site. The MoD believed it made better sense to spend only 7-12 per cent of the money required to buy new radars on repairing the existing hardware, thereby extending its service life by another four to seven years.7 In 2001, the price tag of a new radar was 90m roubles and upwards.

Few signs of turnaround in the early 2000s

By the end of the 2000s the situation remained almost unchanged. Even the radar units of the Air Defense Special Command, a new strategically important air defense formation in charge of airspace over Moscow and Central Russia, continued to operate old hardware. For example, in 2008 it reported that deliveries of "modern digital radars, including the Lira-T, Gamma-S1, and Protivnik-G, which have been improved to take into account the Strategic Command's requirements", still remained "in the single digits".

Speaking about the situation in the Radar Troops, the head of the Special Command, Col. Vladimir Filippovich, was glum: "the bulk of the radars currently in service is analogue hardware made in the late 1980s and early 1990s ... We are well aware that we will not be able to replace all of the old radars any time soon. We would need to buy hundreds of radars to do that... That is why the only realistic solution is to repair and upgrade the existing hardware".

The repair and upgrade programs, however, were also struggling, according to Col. Filippovich. "Due to the lack of funds ... the repaired standard replaceable components (the electronic core of the radar, called the 'cell'), are arriving from the repair plants well behind schedule"¦ The money allocated for the repair of these cells every year is only about 30 per cent of the requirement. As for out own requirement for repairs, only about 65 per cent of it is being met. In the Moscow air defense units alone there are currently 17 radars out of order."

Col. Filippovich said that the situation with the air defense automation sets was even more worrying. "About 80 per cent of the automation sets have been in service for 15-20 years; they are obsolete. The technical specifications to which they were built date back to the late 1970s"¦ Our command is now building an integrated automated airspace monitoring system. To that end we need, first and foremost, to rearm about 60 radar units and formations with modern regimental, battalion and company-size automation sets: the Fundament-3, Fundament-2 and Fundament-1. Apart from being easy to use (the Fundament system looks very much like an ordinary desktop PC), these systems will enable us to supply all the information about the airspace situation to missile and air force command stations in an automated mode. Unlike their predecessors, such as the Pole or Osnova (which are the size of several 15m truck trailers), the Fundament automation sets are compatible with all the new as well as old types of radars. One of the early modifications of the Pole-S, which is still in service with several radar units, is incompatible with the new Kasta digital radar. As a result the unit cannot supply data about small low-altitude targets up the chain of command in an automatic mode".

Unfortunately, the rollout of the new Fundament system soon ran up against several problems related to the manufacturing ability of the suppliers, the financial crisis of 2008, and the war with Georgia that same year.

"To begin with, it turned out that some of the defense companies simply could not handle the volume of orders the MoD wanted to place," Col. Filippovich explained. "As a result, the ministry had to make changes to the procurement plans, pushing back some of the deliveries. Still, we were hoping to replace all the obsolete Osnova and Pole battalion and company automation sets with the new Fundament systems by early 2010"¦ Over the past two years (2007-2008) we have been able to rearm about 20 per cent of our units with the new battalion and company automation sets; most of those units are on the border with Ukraine and Belarus. Unfortunately, we could not procure any more Fundament systems. Now, as we all know, the country is facing an economic crisis," Col. Filippovich said in late 2008. "We have already been notified that the existing plans for deliveries of the new automation sets will have to be scaled back." In addition, following the war with Georgia, the MoD reprioritized the deliveries of new automation sets in favor of other Air Force and Air Defense units (probably those stationed along the Russian border, especially in the North Caucasus).8

New reforms, new pace

As part of the new military reform launched in 2008 (shortly after the Five-Day War with Georgia) by then Defense Minister Anatoliy Serdyukov and then chief of General Staff Nikolay Makarov (both were sacked in November 2012 for political reasons), the Radar Troops have undergone another round of optimization. Some of the radar units which belonged to the disbanded regiments were reassigned to other commands; similarly, some of the radar companies were reassigned between battalions. That "reconfiguration", along with further cuts, enabled the MoD formally to bring the number of radars in service with the units that have survived the cuts to 100 per cent of the target, and the number of automation sets to over 70 per cent. The Radar Troops units were also reclassified to permanent combat readiness formations.

As for the level of radar technology in the armed forces, in 2010 the then commander of the Russian Air Force, Col. Gen. Aleksandr Zelin, was less than upbeat. "Most of the hardware currently in service is old and obsolete," he said. "The radio-electronic systems in service with the Radar Troops that are being decommissioned upon reaching the end of their service life are not being replaced with new ones. The situation with replacing the radars is especially dire. The number of new radars received by the troops over the past five years is only a fifth of the actual requirement." According to Zelin, in 2005-2010 the MoD bought "about 70 new and upgraded radars, and up to 80 automation sets". He said that in 2010 the MoD would buy about the same number of radars and twice as many automation sets as in the previous years.9

Some information about the specific models of hardware supplied to the troops during the period Zelin spoke about is contained in a very detailed annual report by the Nizhny Novgorod Radar Technology Research Institute (NNIIRT) – see Table 1. The report is official, and has been released into the public domain.10

Almost all of the radars listed in the table (as well as the P-18 upgrade kit) were developed by NNIIRT and entered mass production in the 1990s and 2000s.

One model that deserves a special mention is the 52E6MU, the latest distributed radar system developed in 1997-2007 under the Snaryad R&D project. It is a bistatic radar, which has a much better performance compared to ordinary monostatic radars when detecting and tracking small and low-velocity targets flying at low and very low altitudes (the effective target scattering area is improved by three or four orders of magnitude when using the bistatic method). The distributed radar complex can consist of up to 11 receiver-transmitter stations. The length of a single span in this chain can reach 40-50km, and the barrier zone altitude is 30 to 7,000 meters.11

Another large Russian maker of radars, the Nizhny Novgorod Television Plant (NITEL), is also receiving MoD orders under the State Armament Program to 2015. In 2006 NNIIRT supplied NITEL with the design and engineering documents necessary for the launch of mass production of the 55Zh6-U radar. In 2009 NITEL delivered four such radar stations to the armed forces under the defense procurement program.12 Another seven radars followed in 2011.13

Meanwhile, the MoD and the 3821st Military Hardware Repair Plant are working on a program to upgrade the old Soviet-made 55Zh6 radars simultaneously with their refurbishment. More than 40 such radars have been upgraded in 2002-2012. NITEL and the Lianozovskiy Electromechanics Plant (LEMZ, Moscow) have developed an upgrade option for the P-18 and the 5N84A radars; an upgrade program for the latter model was launched in 2008.14

The radar hardware procurement programs still remained on a relatively small scale in the second half of the 2000s and in the early 2010s – but the numbers of radars being delivered every year to the Air Defense service were no longer "in the single digits". Another thing to take into account is that the prices charged by the suppliers had grown substantially over the decade to 2010. For example, in 2009-2010 the MoD was paying 381.08m roubles for each 59N6-1 Protivnik-G-1 radar.15

Even more importantly, by 2010 the Russian defense industry had launched several new radar R&D projects in the following areas:

"future mobile radars which can detect new offensive air and space weaponry"

new dual-purpose en-route radars

future automation sets for command and control stations (part of an R&D project to develop a single integrated automated air traffic and air defense system)

upgrades of the existing radars, including the Gamma, 22Zh6M, Nebo, and Protivnik radars, low-altitude radars and radio-altimeters (to replace the old electronic components), and of the Fundament automation sets.16

Gen. Zelin's claims about new R&D are also borne out by company reports. In 2007 NNIIRT won an MoD contract to conduct the Volga R&D project (59N6-M radar) and the Niobiy project (55Zh6UM radar). In 2008-2011 a prototype of the 55Zh6-M model (Nebo-M R&D project) passed preliminary and state trials, and entered mass production. The industry is also developing Izdelie 1L126, a highly mobile 3D radar which is designed to detect combat elements of high-precision weapons in flight.

The Pravdinsk Design Bureau (PKB, Pravdinsk, Nizhny Novgorod Region) has launched production of the 59N6-M model radar; two units were made in 2011.17

Meanwhile, the Pravdinsk Radio Plant (NPO PRZ, Pravdinsk) has developed the 22Zh6MM upgraded 3D high and medium-altitude radar to replace the 22Zh6M model.

The Murom Radio Measuring Instruments Plant (MZ RIP, Vladimir Region) has begun deliveries of Izdelie 39N6 and 64L6M Gamma-S1M radars.19 The Elektroagregat plant, based in Novosibirsk, is also involved in the mass production of the Niobiy radar; in fact, the model is expected to take up the plant's entire capacity until 2020.20

More than 35 Russian companies were involved in the production of active phased array radars in 2011.21

Large deliveries, bright outlook

Following the adoption of the three-year budget for 2011-2013 and the State Armament Program for 2011-2020 (GPV-2020), the MoD has been able to ramp up the procurement of new radars. The Radar Troops themselves, however, have been subjected to another round of reform and restructuring; the air defense units and formations that protect Moscow have been reassigned from the Air Defense Special Command to the newly-created Air and Space Defense Troops (Voiska Vozdushno-Kosmicheskoi Oborony - VKO). That latest reform was ordained by President Putin back in 2006, but implemented by Serdyukov and Makarov several years later.22 Nevertheless, the procurement of new hardware for the two armed services that operate radars has been improving, slowly but steadily.

In late 2010 the head of the Air Force's Radar Troops, Maj. Gen. Viktor Gumennyy, announced that as part of the State Armament Program to 2020, the proportion of advanced new hardware in service with those troops would increase to over 30 per cent by 2016. He also said that by 2020 some 70 per cent of the Radar Troops units will have been re-equipped with radically upgraded hardware and new monitoring and combat-mode radars, including the Kasta, Gamma, Nebo and Radioluch models.23

The MoD has said that in 2011 the Radar Troops took deliveries of Nebo-M medium and high-altitude radar stations; Protivnik-G1M and Sopka-2 medium and high-altitude radars; Podlet-K1 and Podlet-M low-altitude stations; Kasta-2-2 low-altitude radars; and the new Fundament and Krym automation sets. The number of targets tracked increased to 850,000 in 2011.24

The procurement plans for 2012 included 20 Gamma-S1M, Volga, Podlet and Kasta-2-2 radars, as well as various modifications of Nebo25, including the latest Nebo-M. The number of the Nebo-M radars in service is expected to reach 100 by 2020. The Radar Troops training center in Vladimir has already begun training personnel in the operation of new hardware.26 The first Gamma-S1M radars have been put on combat duty with the Air and Space Defense units that protect Moscow and the Central Industrial District of Russia. In particular, units of the Rzhev Radiotechnical Brigade in Tver Region have received four Gamma-S radars.27

Units of the Air Force and Air Defense Command in the Central Military District also received the first two Gamma-S1 radars in 2012. The hardware was deployed in Perm Territory and the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous District. In 2012 units of the Central Military District took delivery of more than 15 new and upgraded radars and automation sets, including the Fundament-3.28 The radar regiment of the Southern Military District Command (in Novocherkassk) received several new 59N6, 39N6, and 55Zh6-U radars.29

Procurement plans for 2013 are also fairly ambitious. The Air and Space Defense troops are to receive another 20 new radars, including the Gamma-S, Nebo-U and Podlet-K models, as well as upgraded hardware (Desna, Kasta, and other models).30 Units of the Radar Troops in the Western Military District are to take delivery of 16 new radars. "Deliveries will include Kasta-2-2 radars, which detect aircraft and cruise missiles at low altitudes; Nebo-M and Nebo-U radars, which track targets at medium and high altitudes; Sopka, which tracks targets at low and extremely low altitudes; and Oborona, which detect targets at long range," the Western Military District press service has said. The MoD will also continue to upgrade the existing radars as part of the SAP-2020 program. More than 50 modern radar stations are to be delivered to units of the Western Military District by 2020.31

To summarize, deliveries of new radars to the Russian armed forces have increased by a factor of 10 or more compared to the early 2000s. If the Russian government continues to provide support to the radio-electronic industry (and barring any unexpected crises or wars, such as the 2008 war with Georgia), by 2020 the Russian Air Defense service and the Air and Space Defense Troops may well reach an entirely new level of radar technology and capability.

Radar Deliveries Total
2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
55Zh6U 1 1 4 6
59N6 2 2
59N6-1 2 2 2 3 9
1L119 2 2 2 2 2 3 13
P-18M 1 1
1L122 4 4
52E6MU 1 1 2
TOTAL 5 6 13 5 5 3 37

Source: table compiled by the author.

1. Volkov S. A merger of ice and fire // Vozdushno-Kosmicheskaya Oborona, No 3 (28), 2006 ВКО.

2. Litvinov O. Aleksandr Shramchenko: "Planning for the longer term" // Vozdushno-Kosmicheskaya Oborona, No 3 (3), 2001

3. Timofeev M. Detect, alert, track// Nezavisimoye Voennoye Obozreniye, January 19, 2011 Обнаружить, оповестить, навести / Армии / Независимая газета.

4. Litvinov O. Op. cit.

5. Miruk K.V.

6. Litvinov O. Op. cit.

7. Industry begins repairs of radars on site // Agentstvo Voennykh Novostey, February 20, 2000.

8. Lunev A. A Trap for the new Rusts // Krasnaya Zvezda, December 29, 2008 ЛОВУШКА ДЛЯ «НОВЫХ РУСТОВ».

9. Pinchuk A. Guardians of the sky // Krasnaya Zvezda, April 10, 2010 ХРАНИТЕЛИ НЕБА.

10. NNIIRT 2011 Annual Report.

11. Radio-electronic dynamics - 2 / Edited by Y.I. Borisov. Moscow: Tekhnosfera, 2009.

12. NITEL output, including under the defense procurement program, reaches 1.721bn roubles in 2009 // NIA Nizhny Novgorod, December 29, 2009
ОАО "НИТЕЛ" в 2009 году выпустило продукцию на сумму 1,721 млрд. рублей, включая государственный оборонный заказ | НИА "Нижний Новгород".

13. NNIIRT 2011 Annual Report.

14. NITEL plant marks 95th anniversary / Brochure - Nizhny Novgorod: Kuryer-Media, 2012

15. The Ninth Court of Appeal and Arbitration. Ruling No N09AP-13135/2012-AK of June 20, 2012 // Case N A40-7944/12-22-76;base=MARB;n=375003.

16. Pinchuk A. Op. cit.

17. NNIIRT 2011 Annual Report.

18. 22Zh6MM radar // Pravdinskiy Radio Plant website РЛС 22Ж6ММ.

19. MZ RIP 2011 Annual Report

20. Manenkov V. Novosibirsk plant secures large defense contract for components used in the Niobiy air defense complex"¦ //ITAR-TASS (TASS-Sibir), August 15, 2013 ТАСС-Сибирь — Крупный госзаказ на компоненты для комплекса ПВО "Ниобий" получил новосибирский завод, 3 года за свой счет разрабатывавший.

21. NNIIRT 2011 Annual Report.

22. Stukalin A. Russian Air and Space Defense Troops: Gaping Holes // Moscow Defense Brief, ? 2 (28), 2012.

23. Russian industry developing radars for air and space defense // Interfax-AVN, December 14, 2010.

24. Russian Air Force Radar Troops take delivery of the latest hardware // RIA Novosti, December 15, 2011
Радиотехнические войска ВВС РФ начали оснащаться новейшими комплексами | РИА Новости.

25. Air and Space Defense Troops to receive advanced new radars // Russian MoD website, May 2, 2012 Войска ВКО получат новейшие радиолокационные комплексы : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации.

26. Air Force to receive about 100 advanced new radars // Rossiyskaya Gazeta, January 22, 2012.

27. New radars demonstrated in action in Tver Region // News report on the Zvezda TV channel, January 30, 2013 В Тверской области показали боевые возможности новых РЛС - Телеканал «Звезда».

28. Radar troops in the Central Military District entering the latest Gamma-S1 radars into service // MoD website, December 13, 2012 Радиотехнические войска ЦВО осваивают новейшие радиолокационные станции «Гамма-С1» : Министерство обороны Российской Федерации.

29. Zhuravlev P. Sky monitored from underground // Voyennyy Vestnik Yuga Rossii, No 48, December 15, 2012

30. Air and Space Troops radar units to receive about 20 new radars of various modifications // Russian MoD website, January 8, 2013.

31. Radar Troops being equipped with new radars // Oruzhiye Rossii news agency, January 26, 2013 Радиотехнические войска оснащают новыми РЛС-—-ОРУЖИЕ РОССИИ, Информационное агентство.


Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
Russian Imports of Israeli UAVs

Mikhail Barabanov
Israeli-made unmanned aerial vehicles were the first major weapons system Russia began to import from the West in the late-2000s after a long pause that had lasted since 1945. Before Russia signed a contract for two Mistral-class amphibious assault ships with France in 2011, imports of Israeli UAVs were the main symbol of the Russian MoD's new readiness to source its weapons from foreign suppliers.

The first contracts for Israeli drones attracted a lot of attention from the media and the expert community. But, unlike the MoD's subsequent decisions to buy ships from France or Iveco LMV armored vehicles from Italy, they did not cause much controversy. Russia's own defense industry is obviously lagging behind Western competitors in the UAV segment. That is why very few people questioned the rationale for importing such systems in order to gain access to the latest technologies and to start building up Russian expertise in operating this new weapons type.

The Russian armed forces already have some solid experience with large jet-engine UAVs; that experience dates back to Soviet times, when such systems were designed by the Tupolev Bureau. In the 1980s the Soviet armed forces also began to roll out light tactical drones (such as the Pchela UAV, a Yakovlev bureau design). But by the time the Soviet Union began to break up, its defense industry was already lagging well behind in the new miniaturized UAV segment. In the subsequent years Russia was in the throes of a deep economic crisis, and all defense procurement programs were put on hold for a decade and a half. During those years the Russian armed forces simply could not afford any new weapons, let alone radically new systems requiring expensive R&D. That period coincided with rapid progress in Western UAV technologies, which have made a veritable breakthrough over the past two decades.

As a result, by the time Russia had emerged from the economic crisis in the mid-2000s, a large gap separated it from the world leaders in building and operating UAVs. After 2000 the Russian defense industry made attempts to close that gap, but to no great avail. That industry itself was in decline; to make matters worse, several strategic errors were made in the planning of UAV programs. In particular, for a long time the government was trying to get the necessary results in the UAV segment from the existing design bureaus which specialized in large aircraft (Tupolev, Sukhoi, and Yakovlev), or from the old Soviet makers of electronics, which had no experience at all with such products. For example, at one point the government designated the Vega electronics concern as the lead Russian designer of UAVs. Also, there was no clear understanding that the success of any UAV design depends primarily on the control and payload systems, not on the airframe. The Russian MoD was initially wary of using commercially available or imported payload solutions, and tried to use indigenously made electronics, which were manifestly obsolete.

Meanwhile, one of the main difficulties faced by the military was a total lack of experience in operating modern drones; neither was there a clear understanding of what that technology is actually capable of. As a result the MoD was finding it difficult even to formulate its own requirements to UAVs. It did not really know how that technology can be used, what role it can be assigned in the armed forces, what to do with the UAV-generated reconnaissance data, etc. In other words, the military did not understand what drones are for, and what to do with them.

In such a situation, buying modern commercially available UAVs seemed like the quickest and the most obvious solution to the problem. After all, that is exactly what many other countries are doing. By receiving small batches of modern foreign-made drones, the armed forces can assess their capability and gain some initial experience in their use, determine the role they can play in the military strategies, assess the various available technologies, train personnel, and lay the ground for future training programs.

When Russia was choosing the supplier of UAV technology, there were two clear world leaders in that segment, the United States and Israel. Approaching the United States was unthinkable for political reasons, so Israel was the natural choice. The decision was made easier by a significant improvement in Russian-Israeli relations saw in almost every area throughout the 2000s.

First experience with Aeronautics Defense Systems

Some individual Russian companies attempted to take the initiative and establish cooperation in UAV technology with Israeli suppliers as far back as the early 2000s. In 2002 the Irkut corporation signed a cooperation agreement with Aeronautics Defense Systems, a small Israeli defense company. Under the terms of the deal, ADS-designed Aerostar tactical drones (which have a range of up to 250km) were to be used in conjunction with the Be-200ChS aircraft by the Russian Emergencies Ministry. Irkut wanted to buy them as part of a ministry-commissioned project called "Aerial robotic monitoring and liquidation of emergency situations", and use them to detect forest fires. The project was advertized by Irkut at the MAKS-2003 air show.

The Russian company viewed cooperation with ADS as a way of entering the UAV market before launching independent R&D projects in this segment, including the development of drones for military applications. In October 2003 Irkut president A. Fedorov had this to say: «The new project of Irkut corporation, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, is a very promising segment of military and civilian aerospace technology. Our first experience here is a small drone which we are working on for the Emergencies Ministry. We expect that this drone will work in tandem with the Be-200 amphibious aircraft to deal with fires and other emergencies. This is a very competitive market, and Russia is lagging well behind the world leaders such as Israel, the United States and EADS. That is why Ikrut has taken an unusual step: rather than trying to develop out first UAV independently, we are doing it in cooperation with foreign partners. We have chosen a foreign company which has a lot of experience in this area, a small privately-owned Israeli company which is making a lot of progress and strengthening its positions in this market segment. We will work together to develop this drone and win a share of the market for small UAVs.»1

The actual contract for a batch of Aerostar UAVs, worth «several million dollars», was signed by Irkut and ADS in September 2004.2 But the Israeli company then walked out of the deal, saying that it could not obtain the necessary permissions from the Israeli defense ministry. Relations between Irkut and ADS were broken off.3

It is known, however, that at about the same time the Russian Federal Security Service, the FSB, bought from ADS several Skystar aerostat observation systems. They were used to provide security during the G8 summit in St Petersburg in 2006.4

In early 2010 the Kommersant newspaper reported that the FSB was in talks with ADS to buy at least five Orbiter-series mini-UAVs, which have a range of 15 to 100 km. The report was denied by the FSB press service,5 but unofficial sources insist that the deal has in fact been signed.

Contracts with Israel Aerospace Industries

Contacts between the Russian MoD and Israel to discuss the purchase of military UAVs are thought to have begun soon after the appointment of Anatoliy Serdyukov as defense minister in early 2007. Russian interest in Israeli-made drones was spurred by the fact that Georgia used such drones (primarily the Hermes 450 UAVs bought from Elbit Systems) during a confrontation with Russian forces in Abkhazia in the spring of 2008 and during the conflict over South Ossetia in August 2008. According to official reports, five Georgian Hermes 450 drones were shot down by Russian and Abkhaz air defenses during the stand-off in Abkhazia. The fact that Elbit Systems had sold its UAVs to Georgia made it politically impossible for Moscow to approach the company. That is why Russia chose another leading Israeli drone maker, the state-owned Israel Aerospace Industries (IAI).

Lengthy talks with the Israelis initially ran into opposition by the United States, which did not want advanced Israeli technology to fall into the hands of the Russians. But American objections to the proposed deal were lifted following the arrival of the Obama administration, which announced its Reset policy on Russia. Nevertheless, for reasons which probably included American pressure, Israel refused to sell its MALE-class, long-range IAI Heron UAVs. But it did approve the sale of shorter-range drones, including the IAI Bird-Eye mini-UAV (up to 10km range), and two tactical drones, the IAI I-View Mk 150 (up to 100km range) and the Searcher Mk II (up to 250km range). At a later point Russia decided against buying the I-View Mk 150, in an apparent belief that the drone had already become obsolete.

In April 2009 Rosoboronexport and IAI signed an historic contract for a batch of various reconnaissance drones worth 53m dollars, to be delivered to the Russian MoD. Under the terms of the deal, IAI supplied an undisclosed number of Bird-Eye 400 and Searcher Mk II UAV sets, with three drones in each set. Final deliveries under the contract were made in late 2010.

That same year Russia placed an order for an additional batch of the IAI Bird-Eye 400 and IAI Searcher Mk II UAVs worth about 50m dollars, bringing the overall value of the contracts with IAI to an estimated 100m dollars.6

The drones were delivered to the Russian Defense Ministry's R&D centers and the 1327th UAV Combat Training Center in Kolomna, Moscow Region (created in 2009 from the former 924th center in Yegoryevsk). Later in 2011 the Bird-Eye 400 mini-UAVs were transferred from the Kolomna center to Army reconnaissance units.7 Several Searcher Mr II drones were assigned to two special reconnaissance brigades which were formed in the North Caucasus in the past few years (there are plans for a total of 10 such Army brigades). The Russian operators of the IAI drones were trained by Israeli instructors at the Kubinka testing range near Moscow.8

In addition to extensive testing, the Israeli drones were used in a number of large Army maneuvers in 2010-2012.

In October 2010 the OPK Oboronprom corporation (a sister company of Rosoboronexport and part of the Rostekhnologii group) signed a 400m-dollar contract with IAI to assemble the Searcher Mk II and the Bird-Eye 400 tactical UAVs in Russia for the Ministry of Defense. The two drone models were given the local designations Forpost and Zastava, respectively. Russia initially chose the Kazan Helicopter Plant to host the new venture, but in 2011 that choice was changed in favor of the Urals Civil Aviation Plant (UZGA), an Oboronprom affiliate in Yekaterinburg.9 Some 10m dollars has been invested in the venture at UZGA. Tests of the first Forpost and Zastava drones assembled from Israeli components in Yekaterinburg were scheduled to begin in October-November 2012.10

In 2011 the MoD placed an order with UZGA for a total of 27 Zastava sets (worth 1.329bn roubles) and 10 Forpost sets (worth 9.006bn roubles), for delivery in 2012-2014.11

The size of the contract indicates that the Searcher Mk II and the Bird-Eye 400 will form the core of the Russian armed forces' UAV fleet in their respective segments (tactical and mini-UAVs) for the coming decade. The Israeli technology will be dominant over that period, even though the MoD has also signed several contracts to develop indigenous Russian UAVs.

Throughout the talks with the Israelis Russia continued to seek the permission to buy the MALE-class long-range IAI Heron drones, which have a range of 1,000-1,500 km and can stay aloft for 40-50 hours. To the best of our knowledge, however, Israel is refusing to budge - owing perhaps to pressure from the United States. The largest drone the Israeli government has approved for sale to Russia so far is the Searcher Mk II.

Other possible options

The large contracts signed by the Russian MoD with IAI have been a positive signal for other Israeli companies, who are also trying to win a share of the Russian UAV market. Two small Israeli drone makers, BlueBird Aero Systems ?? Innocon, opened their offices in Russia in 2011, although no actual deals have been signed with them, as far as we are aware.12

The Russian military are said to have been slightly underwhelmed by their first experience with the IAI drones, both in terms of the UAVs' operational capabilities and their ability to withstand the Russian climate.13 In 2012 the MoD was reportedly showing interest in the UAVs made by the already mentioned ADS. In December 2011 the Israeli company hosted a senior delegation from the ministry. The two sides were said to be negotiating a possible contract for Orbiter and Aerostar-series UAVs. In May 2012 these talks were continued on behalf of the MoD by OAO Oboronservis, a company consisting of former military repair plants and still subordinated to the ministry.14 The MoD was reportedly interested in three UAV types: the Orbiter 2 mini-drones, the Aerostar tactical UAVs, and the Skystar light unmanned observation aerostats. It wanted to buy eight drone sets of each type, 24 sets in total, to test them in action; each set includes two or three drones. The proposed contract is estimated at 53m dollars.15

Development of indigenous Russian UAVs is currently one of the MoD's top R&D spending priorities. Nevertheless, for the next several years the ministry will rely on importing mini-UAVs and tactical drones from Israel. It appears that foreign suppliers won't sell Russia their large, long-endurance MALE and HALE-class drones for political reasons. In this particular segment the MoD will have to wait for indigenous R&D projects to deliver. Until then the Russian military will have no experience in operating such systems.

It remains unclear whether and to what extent the MoD is satisfied with its relationship with IAI. One likely area of concern is access to advanced UAV technologies. For now, the UZGA plant merely assembles Israeli-designed drones from large components supplied from Israel itself. Some Israeli and Western commentators have expressed concerns that Russia will try to copy or reverse-engineer the drones it buys from Israel. That seems unlikely. Copying foreign technology would run counter to the long-established practices of Russian defense R&D. All the Russian defense technology developers seek to promote their own designs for reasons of prestige and access to financing, even where other approaches would be more effective. In the long run, therefore, Israeli UAVs will be gradually replaced by indigenous Russian technology. The drones currently being imported are meant primarily as demonstration units for Russian UAV developers and for the Russian military.

1. INTERFAX-AVN, October 22, 2003.

2. Yediot Ahronot, 19.09.2004.

3. Haaretz, 12.08.2004.

4. The news story you where looking for is currently unavailable - PR Leap.


6. In Strategic flight // Elspert-Ural, August 27, 2012.


8. Fedutinov D. UAVs: results and trends of 2011 // Natsionalnaya Oborona. No 12, 2011.

9. In September 2012 control of UZGA was transferred from Oboronprom to United Engine Corporation (ODK).

10. Production of UAVs begins in Sverdlovsk Region // Oblastnaya Gazeta (Yekaterinburg), September 6, 2012.

11. 2011 Annual Report of OAO Urals Civil Aviation Plant // Раскрытие информации — УЗГА.

12. Fedutinov D. UAVs: results and trends of 2011 // Natsionalnaya Oborona. No 12, 2011.


14. Ibid.

15. Russia considers buying 50m dollars worth of Israeli UAVs // RIA Novosti, May 15, 2012.


Regular Member
Sep 19, 2011
The Commander in Chief of the Air Forces of Russia, Major-General Viktor Bondar

The development of military aviation - a priority in the development of the Armed Forces of the Russian
What changes are waiting for our Air Force in the near future? Will there be corrected distortions and excesses in their reforms made by the former leadership of the Ministry of Defence? What is expected in the near future when new military equipment? These and other questions specifically for the "Military-Industrial Courier," said Chief of the Air Force, Lieutenant-General Viktor Bondar.

"MIC": Viktor, it was reported that the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation is preparing a partial change in the structure of the Air Force. Is this related to the solution with the results of unannounced inspections of troops and forces of the Eastern Military District?

- Changes in the structure of the Air Force will be expressed in a return to the organizational structure of the "division - regiment" in the aviation of the Air Force. And also in the taking of air crew and air-space defense defense division. Proposals for a return to the divisional structure of the Air Force, the regiment were developed based on the results of the analysis of the functioning of the Air Force under the current organizational structure. Identified a number of problematic issues related to the organization of management, problem solving flight training. As a result, the decision to return to the previous structure, "Air Division - Aviation Regiment."

Prospective basing generally do not undergo changes. The main criterion in determining it would be basing on the same airfield one regiment. Conducted unannounced inspections of the Southern, Eastern, Western military districts, as well as the Air Force and the army aerospace defense only confirmed the correctness of the decision.

In addition, work on rebuilding educational and scientific complex of the Armed Forces. In the Air Force returned to military training and research center of the Air Force, "Air Force Academy named after Professor NE Zhukovsky and Gagarin", as well as a number of research centers, which are formed on the basis of the Central Research Institute of the Air forces.

"MIC": The sides touched upon whether proposed changes to a scheme of the military airfields, especially in remote areas of Russia (in particular in the Arctic), where there are no civilian airports, and many airstrips belonging to the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation, are in poor condition?

- Diagram of the operation of military airfields virtually unchanged, while significantly increase the intensity of their use, including those that are in remote areas of Russia, including the Far North. The Air Force is now to maintain the operational life of these airfields, the desired amount of financial and material resources. At the same time to repair the runways we organize execution of works on modernization of airfield infrastructure, and residential townships.

"MIC": When it can be signed a contract to supply refueling aircraft IL-78 for the Air Force?

- Promising tanker is created within development work, which is a customer of the Russian Defense Ministry. Completion date - 2015. After creating the design documentation and carry out tests in perspective tanker aircraft will be adopted, and it will be purchased in the amounts provided by the state program of armaments 2020.

As for the existing fleet of refueling aircraft like IL-78, it will be upgraded. The operation of these aircraft is provided to 2030 inclusive.

"MIC": There is any clarity in the signing of the contract between the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation and the Russian Aircraft Corporation "MiG" for the supply of MiG-35s?

- MiG-35s created JSC "RAC" MiG "in the action development work on the tactical and technical requirements issued by the Russian Ministry of Defense. But, as you know, before the end of the development and testing of the plane, its purchase is not possible. I can only say that approximately purchases will be possible from 2016.

"MIC": When it comes to the testing of aircraft of the fifth generation in the State Flight Test Center Chkalov (city Axhtubinsk Astrakhan region), what are the preliminary results?

- At present, the multi-role fighter of the fifth generation PAK FA is factory test phase. Everything is going according to plan until the end of 2013 it will be passed on state tests in the 929 th GLITs the Ministry of Defense.

"MIC": And yet when we can expect roughly it enters into production?

- Remember that promising aviation complex tactical aviation is created within the framework of development work under GPV-2020. Before we go into the series, prototypes of the aircraft must pass state tests, which will last at least three years. After checking the aircraft to meet the requirements of tactical and technical specifications it goes into service.

"MIC": Little is known about the promising aviation complex long-range aircraft (PAK DA). How will it differ from the Tu-160 and Tu-95MS?

- Considered the Russian Defense Ministry as a promising aviation complex long-range aircraft, that aircraft will include all the best features of modern long-range aircraft (Tu-160, Tu-95MS and Tu-22M3). PAK DA will equip all promising types of precision weapons.

"MIC": When can we expect it to mass production?

- I think in the beginning of the next decade.

"MIC": You said that you replace the MiG-31 will come a new interceptor aircraft that the Air Force expect to receive in 2020. It will be created on the basis of prospective aviation complex tactical aircraft (PAK FA) or is it a fundamentally different project? What scientific organizations are developing it?

- With the 2013th in aircraft parts will be supplied multi-purpose fighter Su-35s. The complex aircraft weapons and tactical and technical information about aircraft allow it to meet the challenges of intercepting long-range air targets. Modern long-range missiles "air-air" Su-35s will be equipped by 2015.

Subject to the removal from service aircraft such as the MiG-31 in the next decade due to the expiration of the service life of a promising new aviation systems of Su-35S and PAK FA in the required amount will be purchased and will provide the solution of problems of the Air Force air defense.

Along with the enterprises of JSC "United Aircraft Corporation" in the creation of new aviation systems of air interception include enterprises of JSC "Corporation" Tactical Missiles ".

"MIC": What other modern aircraft systems already in service with the Air Force, today we can say that?

- This is a combat aircraft Su-30cm, Su-35s and Ka-52, Mi-28N. Upgradeable to present strategic Tu-160, Tu-95MS, AEW A-50U, modern transport and assault helicopters of all types, including training helicopter "ANSAT-U" combat training aircraft Yak-130.

By the way, presented at the MAKS-2013 exhibition of military aviation and defense complexes characterized the scientific and industrial strength of the Russian defense industry, showed the world the main directions of its development, attracting foreign orders for samples of domestic military aircraft and air defense systems.

"MIC": What are the armaments and military equipment designed for air defense?

- To solve the problems of air defense in the Air Force has already received the latest anti-aircraft missile system S-400, "Armour-S", and radar systems, "Heaven-M". Currently in Phase I trials are SAM "Knight-defense" and the-horizon radar "Container".

"MIC": When our armed forces will receive the first set of the latest generation of air defense missile systems S-500? How many army divisions of these systems can get to 2020?

- The long-term anti-aircraft missile system S-500 is under development, its adoption into service is planned until 2020.

The timing and amount of deliveries of S-500 to the troops planned in accordance with the decision of the President of the Russian Federation to ensure the completeness of species and genera of the Armed Forces with modern weapons, military and special equipment. They will maintain the necessary level of combat effectiveness and objectives for air defense, concentrating its efforts on critical strategic sites.

"MIC": About this system is known not so much. What are the performance characteristics it will have?

- Anti-aircraft missile system S-500 will be able to solve the problem of the destruction of short-range missiles, medium-range missiles, as well as targets in near space.

As a guide tell you that in the S-500 is supposed to apply the principle of separation tasks destroy ballistic and aerodynamic purposes. The main task - fighting combat equipment of medium-range ballistic missiles and, if necessary, and intercontinental ballistic missiles in the terminal phase. Anti-aircraft missile system will affect both hypersonic aircraft and cruise missiles at low altitudes.

C-500 will provide cover for some large cities, industrial facilities and priority strategic objectives. In its combat capabilities AAMS will be significantly greater standing now armed with S-400 "Triumph" and its foreign counterpart - the American THAAD.

By promising the S-500 system to meet a series of requirements. This extended range of speeds and facial features of the targeted objectives, improving immunity, expansion affected areas, unification, integration with other types of firepower and air defense missile systems. Also, it must have the maximum possible mobility, the ability to operate in all weather conditions and operate effectively in the use of funds to overcome air defense, missile defense.

"MIC": Is there a shortage of personnel in the Army Air Forces of Russia, in what areas he felt most strongly?

- Minor deficiency is present. In order to fill this gap focuses on the work of the officers. After a three year break, we resumed enrollment in institutions of higher education the Air Force. To promote the profession of aviation support the work of existing military schools, boarding schools, with initial flight training, we provide an active corporate assistance in attracting young people to universities Air Force.

At present, on behalf of the Secretary of Defense are preparing proposals to the President on the establishment of the Moscow Presidential Cadet Academy on the funds transferred to the city of Voronezh military training and research center of the Air Force, "Air Force Academy named after Professor NE Zhukovsky and Gagarin" (urban settlement Monino, Moscow region).

I believe that the measures taken by the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation and the chief command of the Air Force measures the problem in the short term will be removed.

"MIC": What are the results of the plan of flight training and units types of aircraft of the Air Force? He grew up a raid last year on a pilot?

- Qualitative training flight crews to perform combat missions as intended promotes implementation of the plan of flight training, which remains one of the main tasks in the aviation of the Air Force. Compared to last year incursion in the Air Force increased by 2,360 hours, and now stands at 99 percent of the annual plan.

One of the most important indicators of the level of flight training is the average flight time to the crew commander of the air force and units. Over the past year the average flight hours per pilot was more than one hundred hours. Particular attention is paid to the training of the young crews - recent college graduates. General Command of the Air Force is interested in the expeditious implementation of the young pilots, which generally increase the combat readiness of aircraft parts. Thus, the attack on the young pilot during the past year amounted to more than 111 hours.

"MIC": In June 2013 the first time there was a competition for the best flight crew "Aviadarts." What are the positive aspects and, in contrast, was able to identify shortcomings in the course of the competition?

- The competition was conducted in accordance with the decision by Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu. He was in the Air Force for the first time and showed a high level of training and skill of the pilots. It involved the participation of 32 of the flight crew of the Air Force attack aircraft in the Su-25, Su-25SM and army aviation helicopter Ka-52, Mi-28 and Mi-24. Crews strike aircraft and attack helicopters were competing, demonstrating their knowledge, physical fitness, as well as skills in the air. At the end of the competition the first place among the crews of attack aircraft took crews Mizhareva Major and Captain Khizhnyakova in the Su-25SM air base "Budennovsk." Among the crew of Army Aviation - the crews of Captain and Lieutenant Skidanchuka Shekhurdin on Mi-24 air base "Korenovsk." They passed all exams with dignity and sniper hit the target at the range, showed a high level of tactical and flight training, readiness to perform combat missions, have vast experience in decision-making in a complex tactical environment.

The experience gained from the organization "Aviadartsa" will allow for a similar event in 2014 at a higher level and will provide an opportunity to plan in regular crew strike aircraft of other states.

"MIC": When the Air Force will have a new aerobatic team on the Yak-130? Will it be established on the basis of one of the existing groups or formed from scratch?

- Currently, the Yak-130 is available in the Air Force and developed a training aircraft parts. Create aerobatic team on the basis of the Yak-130 is provided in the plans of the Air Force. It will be composed of the pilots of aircraft parts that operate the aircraft.

"MIC": From the budget of the Russian Federation for the re Air Force will be allocated five trillion rubles, as Russian President Vladimir Putin at a meeting on the state and prospects of development of military aviation. That's roughly 25 percent of the total funding SDO. Are you able to carry out tasks on time? How many modern aircraft and helicopters in the SDO has entered service with the Armed Forces?

- It is planned to purchase two thousand aircraft and thus by 2020 to increase the share of modern aircraft in the Army to 70 percent. At present, the Air Force delivered more than a hundred new aircraft and three hundred helicopters. In addition, the continuing modernization of MiG-31, Su-25, Tu-95MS and Tu-160 and Tu-22M3.

"MIC": In order to achieve this goal enterprises in the industry have to go through a complete re-equipment, to strengthen its operational and human resource capacity. But to increase output and simultaneously restructure production - not an easy task. In your opinion, to cope with her "‹"‹country's aviation business?

- As far as is known, is now the issue of training of production personnel is under the strict control of the President and the Government of the Russian Federation. On this task managers of industrial enterprises and holding companies accountable to the Military-Industrial Commission under the Government of the Russian Federation. State Armament Program 2020 in sync with the federal target program for the development of the defense-industrial complex, the state customer-coordinated by the Ministry of Industry Russia. As part of this federal program to re-equip production company and prepare it for the production of new models. This allows the airline industry for some nomenclatures perform government contract with the increase in the supply and repair of up to 200 percent per year.

"MIC": What companies do you think are the leaders and what outsiders in this regard? How strong backlog of some of them in the modernization and how it affects the performance of defense contracts in general? Which may affect the timing of defense contracts in the field of military aviation and air defense?

- Traditionally, the faster ramping up production and expand the range of products supplied by the firms operating after the collapse of the Soviet Union exported. These include those that supply products for operational and tactical and army aviation. At the same time taken by the leadership of the Defense Ministry of Russia for the last three years, measures for priority placement of the state defense order for enterprises with low production potential, but have a direct impact on the country's defense, ensured the stability of production, the ability to develop and produce new products.

"MIC": The most successful projects in the Russian aircraft industry exports are fighters of the Su-30 and MiG-29. Meanwhile, they are increasingly set foreign-made avionics. Could this have a negative impact on the performance of combat missions in a real fight?

- I can report that none of the foreign-made equipment is not installed on military aircraft without checks in specialized Russian laboratories. Installing the device is held by domestic foreign engineering companies to fulfill the high requirements set in the tactical and technical assignments. Knowing the results of inspections, I can say that the cause of disruption of combat missions imported Avionics and can not be. At least until now, these facts were revealed.

"MIC": If the rearmament of fleet of combat aircraft and helicopters, more or less clear, the supply situation of military transport aircraft, alas, does not inspire optimism. Tell me more about the delivery schedule of the transport aircraft An-140-100 Samara plant "Aviacor" Il-76MD-90A, An-124-100 "Ruslan".

- An-140-100 is a short-haul civilian passenger plane, purchase it is necessary to replace older aircraft An-26, up to the present time are in the ranks. An-140-100 purchased by long-term contract in 2014 as part of the Air Force will have 11 such aircraft. In this case, the Russian Defense Ministry to 2020 are planned all the necessary measures to modernize and increase the existing fleet of military transport aircraft types IL-76, AN-124, the creation and purchase of light and medium military transport aircraft. Currently, a long-term government contract to supply more than 30 Il-76MD-90A, with the rate of two aircraft per year modernized An-124 in the version of An-124-100.

"MIC": How would you rate the level of professional training of flight crews to work on a new technique? As far as he went down after a reduction of the Armed Forces in 2009-2012? What measures does the supreme command of the Air Force to improve the situation?

- Professional level of training of flight personnel of the Air Force for the development of sufficient new incoming aircraft. Conduct in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, organizational and personnel actions did not affect the quality of the training of flight personnel and the development of new aircraft. General Command of the Air Force continues to work on the planned development of new aircraft coming and based on the tasks performed certain activities. In particular, the adjusted curriculum, teaching materials, qualification requirements for aviation professionals, applies modern technical training (simulators, training and computer classes, interactive learning system for new types of aircraft and helicopters), as well as changes are made to a system of training aviation personnel, course training.

"MIC": combat potential of the Air Force is largely determined by the network of airfields. Most of them are built in the middle of the last century and in need of repair. What are the plans of the High Command of the Air Force for the construction of new and reconstruction of the old airfield?

- In 2013, the Minister of Defense of the Russian Federation approved the composition of the airfield network perspective of the Air Force. Given the deterioration airfield pavements to 2020 planned activities for repair and renovation of existing airports. At the same time work to bring them up to the standards of airworthiness actively carried out since 2010, both by specialized units of the Air Force, as well as third parties. Each year, work on restoration and coatings GDP is conducted simultaneously by more than 15 airports.

"MIC": And the last question. What are the trends in the field of military aviation as priorities, will they change to 2020?

- The development of military aviation in general is a priority in the development of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. However, the state armament program until 2020, provided nomenclatural position of aircraft and aircraft weapons that directly affect the combat effectiveness of all types of aircraft. Their supplies are controlled by the President, the Government and the Ministry of Defence.

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Victor N. Cooper. He was born on December 7, 1959 in the village of Novo-Bogoroditskoe Petropavlovsk Voronezh region. He graduated from Borisoglebskoe Higher Military Aviation School of Pilots (1981), the Air Force Academy named after Yuri Gagarin (1992), the Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces (2004).

He served as a pilot instructor, senior instructor pilot, flight commander, deputy commander and commander of the squadron training regiment Barnaul Higher Military Aviation School, a senior navigator regiment commander of the squadron instructor Attack Aviation Regiment aviation training center (training of flight crews), commander of the squadron separate Attack Aviation Regiment Air Force commander, deputy commander, commander of the Army Air Assault Regiment, deputy commander and commander of the mixed air division (Voronezh region), deputy commander and commander of the Army Air Force and Air Defense (Novosibirsk), the Deputy Chief of the Air Force Chief of Staff - First Deputy Commander the Air Force.

In 2012 he was appointed commander of the Air Force.

He was awarded the Gold Star of the Hero of Russia (2000), the Order "For Service to the Motherland in the USSR Armed Forces» III degree (1984), Courage (1995), and other state awards.

He is married. They have two sons.

Interviewed by Oleg Falichev


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Feb 21, 2012
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Russian Military Gets 67 Combat Aircraft This Year

The Russian military is getting a total of 67 new combat aircraft this year, an official from the United Aircraft Corporation said Wednesday.

"Sixty-seven new aircraft were slated to be delivered in 2013, and they will all be delivered," Vladimir Mikhailov, director of military aviation programs at the UAC, said at a roundtable conference on state defense contracts hosted by RIA Novosti.

"The remaining 16 planes will be supplied in December," Mikhailov said.

The official said the UAC had signed contracts for the purchase of more than 400 combat aircraft for the Russian armed forces under the state rearmament program until the year 2020.

"The annual deliveries will significantly increase year-on-year," he said.

Russia is currently implementing an ambitious 20 trillion ruble ($640 billion) rearmament program planned to run until 2020.

The program will see the share of modern weaponry in Russia's armed forces reach 30 percent by 2015 and 70 percent by 2020.

The UAC consolidates Russian private and state-owned aircraft-manufacturing companies engaged in the development, production and sales of military, civilian, transport aircraft.

Russian Military Gets 67 Combat Aircraft This Year | Defense | RIA Novosti

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