Oppression of Uyghurs in Xinjiang/China

johnq

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Chinese authorities force contraception on Uyghurs in 'slow genocide'
An Associated Press investigation based on government statistics indicates birth rates have plunged more than 60% in three years in regions of China primarily made up of Uyghur Muslims. Reports say the Chinese government is forcing birth control on the minority population, and some experts say this practice is leading to a form of “demographic genocide.” US Commission on International Religious Freedom Commissioner Nury Turkel gives us a sense of the situation.
 

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China's secret 'brainwashing' camps - BBC News
Leaked documents detail for the first time China's systematic brainwashing of hundreds of thousands of Muslims in a network of high-security prison camps. The Chinese government has consistently claimed the camps in the far western Xinjiang region offer voluntary education and training. But official documents, seen by BBC Panorama, show how inmates are locked up, indoctrinated and punished. China's UK ambassador Liu Xiaoming dismissed the documents as fake news. He said the measures had safeguarded local people and there had not been a single terrorist attack in Xinjiang in the past three years. "In total disregard of the facts, some people in the West have been fiercely slandering and smearing China over Xinjiang in an attempt to create an excuse to interfere in China's internal affairs, disrupt China's counter-terrorism efforts in Xinjiang and thwart China's steady development," he said. The leak was made to the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists (ICIJ), which has worked with 17 media partners, including BBC Panorama and The Guardian newspaper in the UK.

Uyghurs were being forced to work during Covid-19 lockdown.
The only way to stop China from enslaving and torturing these people in concentration camps and making them do forced labor in Chinese factories is to move all manufacturing out of China. Just banning products made in Xinjiang is not enough. The Chinese will simply move the Uyghurs and other minorities to factories in other regions to continue forcing them to work as slaves.
Until international corporations move all manufacturing out of China, the atrocities in such concentration camps will continue. International corporations are complicit in all of this because they look the other way for cheap labor even as the Uyghurs, Tibetans and other minorities are forced to work as slaves.
 

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Gravitas: Medical experiments, torture & rapes: How China treats Uighurs
Understanding China's Institutionalised Abuse Of Uighurs.
 

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A Uighur Survivor Story: Mihrigul Tursun
Mihrigul Tursun, a Uighur mother, describes the trauma she endured during multiple detentions at the hands of Chinese authorities in China’s Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region.
 

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Social Media Videos Show Han Chinese Settling in Uyghur Regions
RFA Uyghur Service director Alim Seytoff says China’s government entices the settlers with free housing, free health care and free schooling for their children.
 

johnq

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How China persecutes Uighurs and jails, tortures, rapes, kills Uighurs women and young girls.
There is no limit to the horror of China's illegal occupation of East Turkestan (also known as Xinjiang). The Islamic Republic of East Turkestan was invaded and stolen by China in 1949/1950. Since then its native inhabitants, mostly ethnic Uighurs and overwhelmingly Muslims, have been subjected to extremely vicious oppression and relentless persecution, both because of their ethnicity and on account of their religion. In fact, in atheist China, nowadays practicing religions like Islam and Roman Catholicism is strictly forbidden. The woman in the video gives a shocking account of the vicious tortures suffered by Uighurs, whether young or oel, men or women, inside Chinese jails, for the only crime of being practising Muslims. You do not need to be Muslim, Christian, or a member of any other religion to be HORRIFIED; you only need to be a decent human being.
 

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Muslim Women Forced to Sleep in Bed with Han Men
Muslim Uighur women who's husbands are in prison are forced to share their beds with Chinese government appointed "relatives" (whom they are not related to) and are obliged to make sure that they are shown a good time so as to avoid being sent to a concentration camp. Rukiye Turdush, writer/activist, describes how vulnerable these women are as the world watches.
 

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A Uyghur woman's life inside China's secret digital gulags
Uyghur businesswoman Gulbahar Jalilova, a citizen of Kazakhstan, spent fifteen months in one of China's detention centers for ethnic Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities. She tells the story of life in Chinese camps and the women she met there.
 

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Surviving China’s Uighur camps
In China’s northwestern Xinjiang region, more than one million ethnic Uighurs are believed to be held in internment camps. The authorities call them "re-education through labour camps", but victims say the reality is forced indoctrination for Uighurs held in alarming conditions. From China to Canada, via Turkey and France, our reporters Angélique Forget and Antoine Védeilhé investigated the plight of the Uighurs and gathered rare testimony. This is their exclusive report.
 

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China's Brutal Treatment of Uighur Muslims Could Be Getting Worse
This would hardly be the first time that the Chinese government has conducted re-education through labor. The regime’s target for such cruelty? A religious minority who’ve already been reportedly subjected to indoctrination, forced sterilization, and torture. And that’s not all. At least 80,000 Uighur Muslims in China were transferred out of Xinjiang to work in factories in other places in China where they may be subjected to forced labor or forced labor-like conditions, according to a new report by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute (ASPI). Some of them are believed to be from China’s political re-education camps, which currently hold between 1 and 3 million Uighurs in extrajudicial detention.

The only way to stop China from enslaving and torturing these people in concentration camps and making them do forced labor in Chinese factories is to move all manufacturing out of China. Just banning products made in Xinjiang is not enough. The Chinese will simply move the Uyghurs and other minorities to factories in other regions to continue forcing them to work as slaves.
Until international corporations move all manufacturing out of China, the atrocities in such concentration camps will continue. International corporations are complicit in all of this because they look the other way for cheap labor even as the Uyghurs, Tibetans and other minorities are forced to work as slaves.
 

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Uzbek Brides Plead For Help To Escape From China
Uzbek women have said they have suffered domestic abuse after marriage agencies found them husbands in China.
 

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China constructs toilet after demolishing Uyghur mosque in Xinjiang

A public toilet has been erected on the site of a demolished mosque in Atush (in Chinese, Atushi) city, in northwest China’s Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR).

Some observers believe it is a mission of the Chinese Communist Party aimed at breaking the spirit of Uyghur Muslims.

Pakistan pretends it doesn't even know what's going on in Xinjiang.

"Pakistan foreign-policy agenda carries a contradiction at its heart. Pakistan seeks to project themselves as a global defender of Islam, but he won’t utter a peep about the most egregious persecutions of Muslims in China." said an officer working with the security establishment.

China has waged a war on its Muslims targeting their culture, history, and religion. Those in Xinjiang cannot do much about it.

Directive to destroy Muslim places of worship en masse is part of the Mosque Rectification campaign which commenced in 2016. This is part of a series of hard-line policies under Xi Jinping, predates the mass incarceration of as many as 1.8 million Uyghurs and other Muslim minorities in a vast network of internment camps in the XUAR.

A report from Radio Free Asia which recently conducted a telephonic interview with Uyghur reported that

Local people say, there was no need for the public toilet in the community since most people have restrooms at their residence and hardly any tourists visit this place. Toilet was likely built to cover up the ruins of the destroyed Tokul mosque, as well as for the needs of inspecting groups or cadres visiting the area. As per the community chief, the restroom construction is complete but not open for use yet.

In Hotan (Hetian) prefecture’s Lop (Luopu) county reported that authorities were planning to use a site of a former mosque to open an “activities center” that would serve as a spot for entertainment.

In Hotan city’s Ilchi township a former mosque site there was slated for conversion into a factory to produce underwear for a Sichuan-based company.

This is not the only mosque demolished, earlier Azna mosque and Bastaggam mosque had been destroyed and replaced with “a convenience store” that sells alcohol and cigarettes, the use of which is frowned upon in Islam.

As per reports, as per Mosque Rectification campaign, CCP authorities have destroyed some 70 percent of the mosques across the XUAR.

In addition to mosques, the Chinese authorities have been systematically destroying Muslim cemeteries and other religious structures. An investigation carried out by Agency France-Presse (AFP) revealed that at least 45 cemeteries in the XUAR had been destroyed from 2014 to date. The sites were turned into parks or parking lots or remained empty lots.

The reason quoted by the authorities behind this campaign is “social safety”.

Washington-based Uyghur Human Rights Project (UHRP) published a report titled “Demolishing Faith: The Destruction and Desecration of Uyghurs Mosques and Shrines,” which uses geolocation and other techniques to show that anywhere between 10,000 and 15,000 mosques, shrines, and other religious sites in the region were destroyed between 2016 and 2019.

People are approaching the government and other Muslim organisations to take action against China for this 'desecration'.

This is not the only incident explaining the atrocities this minority face. They are forced to live in deplorable conditions and made to work in factories. Sometimes forced to eat pork and drink alcohol. All this is a part of the big picture wherein, China wants to abolish this minority race completely from their country.


Chinese doing it just for fun now.
 

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China asks mosques to raise national flag so muslims who refuse to bow to anything except Allah may learn to bow to nation


This is to promote a spirit of patriotism’ - CCP


Can we do this in India?
 

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Uyghur Muslims Forced To Attend Alcohol Drinking Centres
Mandatory Alcohol Drinking Training For #Uyghur Muslims Uyghur Muslims are forced to attend alcohol drinking centres and contests organised by the Chinese authorities. In these centres, they learn how to 'drink' alcohol. Refusing to drink alcohol is a sign of "extremism" according to the Chinese authorities and you could be sent to a concentration camp for "deradicalisation"! It's a campaign to humiliate and force Uyghurs to turn away from #Islam.
 

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The US State Department announced new sanctions today on some employees of Chinese tech companies, including Huawei, for their involvement in human rights abuses in the Xinjiang region; home to the country's persecuted Uyghur community.(Subscribe: https://bit.ly/C4_News_Subscribe) This comes as new footage has emerged showing Uyghur people being bussed out of their region to work as forced labour in factories across the country, a new phase in China's campaign to forcibly assimilate its Muslim minority.
The only way to stop China from enslaving and torturing these people in concentration camps and making them do forced labor in Chinese factories is to move all manufacturing out of China. Just banning products made in Xinjiang is not enough. The Chinese will simply move the Uyghurs and other minorities to factories in other regions to continue forcing them to work as slaves.
Until international corporations move all manufacturing out of China, the atrocities in such concentration camps will continue. International corporations are complicit in all of this because they look the other way for cheap labor even as the Uyghurs, Tibetans and other minorities are forced to work as slaves.
 

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China's 'vocational training centers': Eyewitness reports torture and rape in Xinjiang’s camps
In an eye-witness account of the horrors of China's re-education camps, Sayragul Sauytbay, an ethnic Kazakh woman, shares her story how she was imprisoned like other Muslim minorities in camps, China calls "vocational training centers". Her crime - being a Muslim minority in China's north-west. The story of these camps in China's Xinjiang province has become clearer over the course of the last years. Set-up ostensibly, according to the Chinese government, to offer voluntary education and training, they house at least a million Uighur, Kazakh and other ethnic Muslim minorities. All, being 'de-radicalised' as part of China's measures to counter terrorism.
The only way to stop China from enslaving and torturing these people in concentration camps and making them do forced labor in Chinese factories is to move all manufacturing out of China. Just banning products made in Xinjiang is not enough. The Chinese will simply move the Uyghurs and other minorities to factories in other regions to continue forcing them to work as slaves.
Until international corporations move all manufacturing out of China, the atrocities in such concentration camps will continue. International corporations are complicit in all of this because they look the other way for cheap labor even as the Uyghurs, Tibetans and other minorities are forced to work as slaves.
 

johnq

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Apple is lobbying against a bill aimed at stopping forced labor in China
Apple wants to water down key provisions of the bill, which would hold U.S. companies accountable for using Uighur forced labor, according to two congressional staffers

Apple lobbyists are trying to weaken a bill aimed at preventing forced labor in China, according to two congressional staffers familiar with the matter, highlighting the clash between its business imperatives and its official stance on human rights.

The Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act would require U.S. companies to guarantee they do not use imprisoned or coerced workers from the predominantly Muslim region of Xinjiang, where academic researchers estimate the Chinese government has placed more than 1 million people into internment camps. Apple is heavily dependent on Chinese manufacturing, and human rights reports have identified instances in which alleged forced Uighur labor has been used in Apple’s supply chain.
The staffers, who spoke on the condition of anonymity because the talks with the company took place in private meetings, said Apple was one of many U.S. companies that oppose the bill as it’s written. They declined to disclose details on the specific provisions Apple was trying to knock down or change because they feared providing that knowledge would identify them to Apple. But they both characterized Apple’s effort as an attempt to water down the bill.


“What Apple would like is we all just sit and talk and not have any real consequences,” said Cathy Feingold, director of the international department for the AFL-CIO, which has supported the bill. “They’re shocked because it’s the first time where there could be some actual effective enforceability.”
China is building vast new detention centers for Muslims in Xinjiang
Apple spokesperson Josh Rosenstock said the company “is dedicated to ensuring that everyone in our supply chain is treated with dignity and respect. We abhor forced labor and support the goals of the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act. We share the committee’s goal of eradicating forced labor and strengthening U.S. law, and we will continue working with them to achieve that.” He said the company earlier this year “conducted a detailed investigation with our suppliers in China and found no evidence of forced labor on Apple production lines, and we are continuing to monitor this closely.”
Apple’s lobbying firm, Fierce Government Relations, disclosed that it was lobbying on the bill on behalf of Apple in a disclosure form that was first reported by the Information. However, the form did not say whether Apple was for or against the bill or whether it wanted to modify it in any way. Lobbying disclosure forms do not require that information. Fierce referred The Washington Post to Apple’s public relations team.


Apple CEO Tim Cook has said publicly that Apple does not tolerate forced labor in its supply chain. “Forced labor is abhorrent,” Cook said in a congressional hearing in July. “We would not tolerate it in Apple,” he said, adding that Apple would “terminate a supplier relationship if it were found.”
The new bill would make it more difficult for U.S. companies to ignore abuses taking place in China and give U.S. authorities more power to enforce the law. One provision in the bill requires public companies to certify to the Securities and Exchange Commission that their products are not made using forced labor from Xinjiang. If companies are found to have used forced labor from the region, they could be prosecuted for securities violations.








While U.S. law already prevents companies from importing goods that were made using forced labor, the law is seldom enforced, and it’s difficult to prove U.S. companies know about the use of forced labor.



The Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act passed 406 to 3 in the House in September. People involved in the legislation said the apparel industry was caught off guard by how quickly it passed without much lobbying.
Now that the bill, sponsored by Rep. Jim McGovern (D-Mass.) and Sen. Marco Rubio (R-Fla.), is in front of the U.S. Senate, corporations have made more of a concerted effort to shape it, in part to blunt some of its sharper provisions, according to the two congressional staffers. Some companies have lobbied to have their names removed from the bill, these people say, because it calls out specific brands like Patagonia, Coca-Cola and Costco, for allegedly using forced labor from the region. It does not name Apple.
Patagonia, Coca-Cola and Costco didn’t respond to requests for comment.

The bill is primarily focused on textiles and other low-tech industries. For instance, Xinjiang’s sugar has made its way into Coca-Cola and the tomatoes have been used in Heinz ketchup, according to human rights reports.


Michael Mullen, senior vice president for Kraft Heinz, said in a written statement that the company’s suppliers are audited by a third party and that the audits have not identified “any issues.” He said if “issues related to inappropriate labor practices are discovered, we will take immediate action.” Mullen declined to name the auditing firm. Most firms have stopped auditing in Xinjiang because of limitations placed by the Chinese government.
Complying with the new bill could be costly to companies, especially in the textile industry, where cotton gets woven into garments around the world, making it difficult and expensive to trace. The Xinjiang region is known as a center for cotton production, and the apparel industry has earned most of the scrutiny for using textiles produced by allegedly forced labor in the region.

The SEC portion of the bill echoes a provision in the Dodd-Frank Act that requires companies to notify the government if their products contain conflict minerals from Congo. That provision of the Dodd-Frank Act has created headaches for companies that import gold. Companies are concerned that the Uyghur Forced Labor Prevention Act could create similar problems, according to the lawmakers.


Because China has transferred Uighur Muslims out of Xinjiang to work in other parts of the country, human rights advocates say it may be difficult for any U.S. company operating in China to ensure it isn’t benefiting, even indirectly, from forced labor.
Xinjiang, which borders Pakistan and Afghanistan, was conquered by China in the 1700s, and the Turkic Muslims who live there have long fought against Chinese rule. But in recent years, the Chinese government has been cracking down on Muslims, aided by advanced surveillance technology, such as artificial intelligence and facial recognition, a digital iron grip that has overwhelmed the population.




With an estimated 1 million to 2 million people placed in camps, human rights groups have called the situation in Xinjiang a cultural genocide. Some of those who “graduate” from the camps by renouncing Islam and learning to speak fluent Mandarin have been moved to factories in Xinjiang and surrounding regions.


China’s government has disputed the characterization of the program as “camps,” saying they were vocational training centers to reform minor criminals. Under heavy international pressure, officials declared the end of the program in December 2019, saying all students had successfully graduated. Some of the centers have been confirmed to be vacated, though some overseas Uighurs have said relatives remain detained or missing.
But China has thwarted efforts to observe human rights conditions in Xinjiang. Diplomats and foreign journalists who have visited the region almost universally report being repeatedly detained by authorities and blocked from approaching areas where camps are located. Recent satellite photos show the camps growing, not shrinking.

While it’s unknown how much electronics manufacturing occurs in the region, some human rights groups believe there are plants that make electronics components in Xinjiang. And private companies, which act as brokers for Xinjiang laborers, have arranged for workers to be transferred from concentration camps to electronics factories outside of Xinjiang, according to human rights reports.



A March report from the Australian Strategic Policy Institute identified four alleged instances in which labor from the Xinjiang region has been connected to Apple’s supply chain. The report alleges that the workers were likely to have been forced or coerced, but it did not offer proof confirming the work terms and conditions.
Apple products include thousands of components that are made by suppliers all around the world. The company has a supplier code of conduct and says it assessed 1,142 suppliers in 49 countries in 2019, ensuring that good labor conditions are upheld. Apple publishes an annual progress report documenting the results. “Workplace rights are human rights. We require suppliers to provide fair working hours, a safe work site, and an environment free from discrimination,” the company says on its website.
The Australian report alleges that in 2017, the Chinese government transferred between 1,000 and 2,000 Uighurs to work at a factory owned by O-Film, which helps make selfie cameras for Apple’s iPhone. Apple’s Cook publicized his visit to an O-Film factory in December 2017, posing in a photo in front of a microscope on the factory floor, wearing a blue clean room jumpsuit. “Getting a closer look at the remarkable, precision work that goes into manufacturing the selfie cameras for iPhone 8 and iPhone X at O-Film,” Cook wrote on the Chinese social networking site Weibo.



O-Film also supplies other American companies like Dell, HP, Amazon and General Motors, according to the report. (Amazon chief executive and founder Jeff Bezos owns The Washington Post.) Dell spokesperson Lauren Lee said an O-Film subsidiary is a supplier for the company but that Dell does not do business with the O-Film factory named in the report. Amazon acknowledged the report and denounced forced labor in a statement on its website. General Motors, in its most recent sustainability report, said it investigated the allegations and ended its relationship with the supplier.
A Chinese newspaper article from May 2017 covered the transfer of Uighur labor to the O-Film factory. The article put a positive spin on the story, referring to the alleged forced laborers as “urban and rural surplus laborers” who had “gone out of their homes to work in the mainland to make money, and create a happy life with their hard-working hands.”
How China corralled 1 million people into concentration camps
The Australian report, citing a local government document from September 2019, alleges that 560 Xinjiang laborers were transferred to the Henan province and that some of those workers ended up in Foxconn’s Zhengzhou factory, otherwise known as “iPhone City,” where half of Apple’s flagship products are assembled.
The report also cites a 2018 speech by a Chinese government official announcing the transfer of workers from Xinjiang to the Hubei Yihong factory, which the report alleges is the parent company of an Apple supplier. According to the report, the factory’s website said it supplied GoerTek, which makes Apple’s AirPods. In the speech, the official referred to the labor transfers as a “green channel” and ordered workers to be “grateful” to the Chinese Communist Party.
“Xinjiang migrant workers must regard the factory as their home and strive to be outstanding employees,” the official said. The factory also allegedly supplies other American electronics makers like Facebook’s Oculus, Microsoft and Google, according to the report. GoerTek didn’t respond to a request for comment. Frank Shaw, Microsoft’s vice president of corporate communications, said the company “determined that O-Film and Hubei Yihong are not suppliers for our devices nor for our cloud hardware businesses.” He added that Microsoft investigated alleged labor violations at Foxconn but found no wrongdoing. “We do not tolerate forced labor in our supply chain,” he said.
The Australian report also cites a 2018 article from Xinjiang Economic News, which reported that 544 Uighur students were transferred to a subsidiary of Highbroad Advanced Material, a maker of LCD and OLED components. The report alleges that Highbroad is a supplier of BOE Technology Group, a maker of OLED screens for Apple, according to Apple’s supplier list. BOE didn’t respond to a request for comment.
In August, the Tech Transparency Project uncovered shipping records showing Apple was importing cotton T-shirts from a company in Xinjiang that Congress imposed sanctions on for its alleged use of forced labor. Apple, at the time, said it does not currently import shirts from the region.
Apple has been implicated in several alleged labor abuses over the years.
“I’m not entirely surprised that Apple would be involved in trying to water down legislation that concerns protection of human rights in China,” said Maya Wang, a China researcher at Human Rights Watch. Nevertheless, she called Apple’s lobbying effort “unconscionable.”

The only way to stop China from enslaving and torturing these people in concentration camps and making them do forced labor in Chinese factories is to move all manufacturing out of China. Just banning products made in Xinjiang is not enough. The Chinese will simply move the Uyghurs and other minorities to factories in other regions to continue forcing them to work as slaves.
Until international corporations move all manufacturing out of China, the atrocities in such concentration camps will continue. International corporations are complicit in all of this because they look the other way for cheap labor even as the Uyghurs, Tibetans and other minorities are forced to work as slaves.
 
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johnq

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Uyghurs in ‘re-education camps’ forced to eat pork on Fridays as China pushes to expand pig farms in Xinjiang
Sayragul Sautbay, a victim said that on every friday muslims were forced to eat pork at the camps, this is a part of the Chinese policy of ‘secularization’ in the Xinjiang region, which also includes plans to promote and expand pig farming.


The Uyghur Muslims in Chinese “re-education” camps are forced to eat pork every Friday, confirmed Sayragul Sautbay, who was one of the victims of the atrocities being committed by the Chinese government
The Uyghur Muslims in Chinese “re-education” camps are forced to eat pork every Friday, confirmed Sayragul Sautbay, who was one of the victims of the atrocities being committed by the Chinese government(AP)


The Uyghur Muslims in Chinese “re-education” camps are forced to eat pork every Friday, confirmed Sayragul Sautbay, who was one of the victims of the atrocities being committed by the Chinese government.
Speaking in an interview with Al Jazeera, Sayragul said, “Every Friday, we were forced to eat pork meat...They have intentionally chosen a day that is holy for the Muslims. And if you reject it, you would get a harsh punishment.”
She is a medical physician and an educator living in Sweden. Recently, she published a book giving insight into her ordeal, including witnessing beatings.
“I was feeling like I was a different person. All around me got dark. It was really difficult to accept,” Sautbay said.
Another such victim is Uyghur businesswoman Zumret Dawut, who was picked up in March 2018 in Urumqi.
For two months, Dawut said authorities questioned her links to Pakistan, her husband’s homeland. They questioned her as well about how many children she had, and whether or not they had studied religion and read the Quran, said Al Jazeera.
She further said that once she had to beg the camp’s male officers to allow her to go to the washroom. She was allowed to go while being handcuffed and the male officers followed her into the washroom.
Speaking on pork being served to the Uyghur Muslims in the camps, she said, “When you sit in a concentration camp, you do not decide whether to eat, or not to eat. To be alive, we had to eat the meat served to us.”
As per the documents available to Al Jazeera, agricultural development has also become a part of what German anthropologist and Uyghur scholar, Adrian Zenz, says is a policy of “secularisation”.
Citing documents and state-approved news articles, Zenz has reported that there is an “active” effort in the region to promote and expand pig farming.
In 2019, Xinjiang’s top administrator, Shohrat Zakir, had said that the Xinjiang region will be turned into a “pig-raising hub”.
The project is expected to occupy a 25,000-square-metre (82-square-foot) area in an industrial park in Kashgar’s Konaxahar county, renamed Shufu, according to the Chinese-language website, Sina, Al Jazeera reported.
It further reported that the deal was formally signed on April 23 this year.
“This is part of the attempt to completely eradicate the culture and religion of the people in Xinjiang,” Zenz told Al Jazeera.
“It is part of the strategy of secularisation, of turning the Uighurs secular and indoctrinating them to follow the communist party and become agnostic or atheist,” he added.
As the atrocities on the Uyghur Muslims in the Xinjiang region gain international attention, China has continued to defend its policies, claiming that the objective is to combat the “three evils of extremism, separatism and terrorism”.
 

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