NYT: Xi Starts Third Term in China, With a Focus on Economy and U.S. Rivalry

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习近平开启第三个国家主席任期,决意与美国竞争
Xi Starts New Term in China, With a Focus on Economy and U.S. Rivalry

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KEITH BRADSHER

随着新任期的开始,作为中国国家主席和几十年来最强势领导人的习近平正在发出讯息,表明自己决心面对一个超级大国竞争的时代,尽管他仍在寻求重振遭受重创的经济。
As he enters his new term as China’s president and most powerful leader in decades, Xi Jinping is signaling that he is steeling for an era of superpower contestation, even as he seeks to revive a battered economy.

没有人质疑习近平将在最高立法机构全国人民代表大会的年度会议上获得国家主席的第三个五年任期,他的统治力不亚于毛泽东以来的任何一位中国领导人。去年10月,他已经获得了中共中央总书记的又一个五年任期,那是一个权力更大的职位。周五,2952名因忠于执政的共产党而被挑选的人大代表尽职尽责地以全票让习近平再次当选国家主席。
There was never serious doubt that Mr. Xi, as dominant as any Chinese leader since Mao Zedong, would be endorsed for a third five-year term as state president at an annual meeting of the National People’s Congress, the top legislature. He had already, in October, secured five more years in the more powerful role of Communist Party general secretary. On Friday, 2,952 congress delegates — picked for their loyalty to the ruling Communist Party — duly delivered, voting unanimously to keep Mr. Xi as president.

习近平的个人权力似乎稳固,但他仍面临着重振中国经济的紧迫挑战,三年严格的新冠防疫限制、对房地产开发商和科技巨头的打压,以及与美国及其盟友的紧张关系升级,令该国经济步履维艰。
But with his personal power seeming secure, Mr. Xi faces the urgent challenge of reviving China’s economy, which faltered under three years of stringent Covid restrictions, crackdowns on property developers and tech giants, and escalating tensions with the United States and its allies.

习近平利用过去一周在全国代表大会上表达了重振经济的决心,同时呼吁全国人民团结起来,支持他应对西方大国带来的挑战,他说西方大国正在试图遏制中国的崛起。
Mr. Xi used the past week at the congress to project determination to reinvigorate China’s economy. That message has been coupled with a rallying cry for the nation to unite behind him in confronting challenges posed by Western powers that he says are seeking to contain China’s rise.

一些国内外投资者曾预计或希望,恢复增长的迫切需要将促使习近平放松国家对经济的控制,并采取措施缓解地缘政治紧张局势。至少就目前而言,习近平已发出信号,即使寻求修复经济,他也准备反击美国对中国企业的制裁和限制,及其在亚洲不断扩大的军事部署。
Some investors in China and abroad had expected, or hoped, that the pressing need to restore growth would lead Mr. Xi to loosen the state’s grip on the economy and make moves to ease geopolitical tensions. For now at least, Mr. Xi has signaled that even as China seeks to repair its economy, he is prepared to push back against the United States over its sanctions and restrictions on Chinese firms and its expanding military deployments around Asia.

习近平和拜登总统一直在努力控制紧张局势,但中国监视气球的争议,加之拜登政府指责北京正在考虑向乌克兰战场上的俄罗斯军队提供致命武器,令这些努力收效甚微。中国外交部长秦刚本周表示,北京“没有向冲突任何一方提供武器”。
Mr. Xi and President Biden had been moving to rein in tensions, but their efforts have been overtaken by disputes over a Chinese surveillance balloon and the Biden administration’s accusation that Beijing was considering sending lethal support for Russian forces fighting in Ukraine. The Chinese foreign minister, Qin Gang, said this week that Beijing “has not provided weapons to either side of the conflict.”

“这一时期对于看出习近平到底是在悔悟还是绝不低头将会非常重要。我预计他不会改变很多基本要素,”前中央情报局分析师、亚洲协会中国分析中心高级研究员张克斯(Christopher K. Johnson)在接受采访时说。“习近平不是在进行希望纠正自己错误做法的‘魅力攻势’。”
“This period is going to be an important one for seeing whether Xi is repentant or unbowed. I wouldn’t expect him to change a lot of the essentials,” Christopher K. Johnson, a former C.I.A. analyst who is a senior fellow at the Asia Society’s Center for China Analysis, said in an interview. “Xi is not on a ‘charm offensive’ where he is looking to correct the error of his ways.”

立法机关将批准今年中国军费增加7.2%,增强人民解放军向远离中国海岸的地方投送力量的潜力。习近平还宣称,中国面临着美国及其盟友的“全方位的遏制、围堵、打压”。
The legislature is set to approve an increase of 7.2 percent to China’s military spending this year, enhancing the potential of the People’s Liberation Army to project power far from Chinese shores. Mr. Xi also declared that China faced “all-around containment, encirclement and suppression” by the United States and its allies.

“未来一个时期,我们面临的风险挑战只会越来越多、越来越严峻,”习近平说。他同时敦促官员们“沉着冷静,保持定力”,同时也要“敢于斗争”。
“In the coming period, the risks and challenges that we’re facing will only become more and more numerous and grim,” Mr. Xi said, while urging officials to remain “calm and focused” while also braced for “struggle.”

为了应对这些挑战,习近平强调,中国需要摆脱对西方技术和专业知识的依赖,并加强对粮食和能源安全风险的防范。他在政府的高层中安置了自己的忠诚者和盟友来执行他的议程。
To tackle these challenges, Mr. Xi has emphasized the need for China to wean itself off its reliance on Western-held technologies and expertise, and to fortify itself against risks to food and energy security. He has populated the government’s top ranks with his loyalists and allies to carry out his agenda.

习近平的二号人物、即将上任的中国总理李强预计将专注于增长。党在全面“清零”政策下实施的封锁和隔离导致去年的经济增长为3%,低于预期。在2022年最糟糕的几个月,城市青年的失业率上升到近20%。
Mr. Xi’s No. 2, the incoming Chinese premier, Li Qiang, is expected to focus on growth. The party’s sweeping “zero Covid” policy of lockdowns and quarantines resulted in growth of 3 percent last year, lower than expected. Unemployment among urban youth rose to nearly 20 percent in the worst months of 2022.

“我乐观地认为,一旦全国人大结束,李强全面掌权,中国就会推出提振私营部门信心的措施,”香港《南华早报》前总编辑王向伟说。
“I’m optimistic that as soon as the National People’s Congress is over, and Li Qiang has fully taken over, then China is going to roll out measures to boost the confidence of the private sector,” said Wang Xiangwei, a former chief editor of The South China Morning Post, a newspaper in Hong Kong.

“要想重振中国经济,就必须依靠私营部门,”王向伟在接受采访时说——他目前在写一个有关中国政治的通讯。“然而,私营部门受到这样严重的打击,仅仅用言语来安抚他们的担忧是不够的。”
“If you want to revive the Chinese economy, you have to rely on the private sector,” Mr. Wang, who now writes a newsletter on Chinese politics, said in an interview. “However, the private sector has been hit so hard that mere words to soothe their concerns is not enough.”

对于政府越来越多的干预作用和对私人投资的限制,中国私营企业界深感担忧,而习近平和他的高级副手们还没有作出具体回应。政府一直要求企业将一小部分股权和董事会席位转让给政府,并命令企业在其员工队伍中培养党组织,并与党密切磋商。尽管中国试图恢复投资者信心,但许多这样的政策可能会保留。
Mr. Xi and his top lieutenants have not yet offered specific responses to the deep concerns in China’s private business community about the increasingly intrusive role of the government and restrictions on private investment. The government has been requiring companies to transfer a small stake and a seat on the board to the government and ordering companies to nurture and consult closely with Communist Party cells in their work forces. Even as China tries to restore investor confidence, many of those policies may stay.

“因为他们现在面临着他们认为不安全的国内外环境,所以他们确实在采取措施集中权力,而不是放开权力,”台北国立政治大学专门研究中国政治的寇健文教授在谈到中国领导人时说。
“Because they’re now facing what they take to be an insecure environment at home and abroad, they’re really taking steps to concentrate power, not to let go of it,” Kou Chien-Wen, a professor at National Chengchi University in Taipei who specializes in Chinese politics, said of China’s leaders.


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