Nuclear Power in India

Tshering22

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India can get funds on its own LCs. The problem remains workload where we have to take our nuclear energy 5 times by 2030.

NPCIL gets the most of work done by L&T, BHEL & Godrej (who have worked on one of these reactors 🤩) for building nuclear reactors and is moving faster than ever. Yet is far behind our own targets, let alone building reactors for others.
External financing for large-scale infrastructure projects is always easier than self-financing. This gives us as manufacturers and operators to refinance in case there are delays in projects without risking a significant amount of tax money.

Given the "going concern" nature of our country, every international institution would be eager to lend us large sums of money.

I know we have a large external debt base internationally, but so do the US and more importantly, China. They are not going to pay anything back and neither are the Americans who literally control the financing currency. We should be brazen to use infrastructure where we can to create long-term self-capitalization plans.

India needs $$ and to get that, exports are the only way. The more we offset our costs with exports the more we grow faster with reduced liabilities in the long term. Small affordable nuclear reactors are in high demand due to their costs and ease of building and managing for smaller countries.

China got ahead by making literally everything under the sun. Today, if Algeria or Peru ask them to make a reactor and everything in it, they will be able to deliver these needs on a record scale. That's what we should be able to do in the next 5-10 years.

Since you said that the issue is the scale of domestic work, the problem is not unrealistic targets; it is a dangerous shortage of workforce qualified in nuclear science and engineering. This should be advertised nationwide so that educational institutes can take up courses to promote nuclear engineering as a preferred line of work.

How thick are these PSU guys to not realize that they need to start investing in more manpower?
 

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“India may employ a closed nuclear fuel cycle with large-scale thorium utilisation. This opens the opportunity for high temperature small modular reactors,” he added.
He said that R&D activities at The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre – country’s premier nuclear research facility headquartered in Trombay, Mumbai – are targeting challenging technologies for high temperature nuclear reactors using thorium-based fuel and capable of supplying process heat at 1,000 degree Celsius.
 

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NPCIL starts loading fuel in home-built 700 MW n-power plant at Kakrapar
Initial Fuel Loading is an important milestone in the setting up of a nuclear power plant, as it is the prelude to the approach to criticality which refers to the beginning of fission chain reaction and subsequent start of power generation.
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New Delhi: India's nuclear power operator NPCIL on Friday said it has started loading fuel in the second indigenously-built 700 MW atomic power station at Kakrapar in Gujarat. "Loading of nuclear fuel for the first time, termed as Initial Fuel Loading (IFL). commenced today in NPCIL's Kakrapar Atomic Power Project Unit-4 (KAPP 4-700 MWe), after receipt of permission from the regulatory authority, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB)," the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) said in a statement.
Initial Fuel Loading is an important milestone in the setting up of a nuclear power plant, as it is the prelude to the approach to criticality which refers to the beginning of fission chain reaction and subsequent start of power generation.
KAPP-4 is the second unit of the project to set up atomic power plants at Kakrapar in Gujarat.
The first 700 MWe unit, KAPP-3 had commenced full power operation on August 30.
KAPP Units 3&4 are the first two of the 16 indigenous 700 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) being set up in the country.
With the successful and stable operation of KAPP-3, the capability of NPCIL in setting up of indigenous reactors of PHWR technology of this size is validated and paves the path for early completion of the remaining 14 reactors, beginning with Units 7&8 of Rajasthan Atomic Power Project (RAPP 7&8) at Rawatbhata in Rajasthan, the statement said.
The indigenous 700 MWe PHWRs are designed, constructed, commissioned and operated by NPCIL, with the supply of equipment and execution of contracts by Indian industry.
 

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Small Modular Reactors: India’s Quandary to Liberalize the Nuclear Energy Arena
Jhajjar_Power_Plant_(7471472572)

India has been striving to contribute to the global clean energy fraternity amidst efforts to reduce its carbon footprint and achieve net-zero emissions by 2070. While India ventures to meet its growing energy requirements sustainably, nuclear energy seems to be the obvious solution for most of New Delhi’s energy dilemmas given the demanding nature of its economy and a massive population. The Indian government has been pushing for small modular reactors (SMRs) to aid industrial decarbonization and, in turn, to capitalize on the mediation of SMR supply globally. The G20 summit in September 2023 saw India and the United States collaborating on the development of SMRs among many other energy and sustainability technologies.
But along with the viability and efficacy concerns around SMRs, the involvement of the private sector remains a key debate within policy circles. India is now considering re-evaluating its sixty-year-old energy law to permit more investment from private entities. As per a report from the government think tank NITI Aayog, economic involvement from the private sector must be allowed and meticulously leveraged for efficient delivery of the SMR technology. However, despite the development of SMRs and the potential privatization of the nuclear sector, its deployment, policy framework, safety, and financing come with considerable challenges.
Small modular reactors, whose per unit power capacity is almost a third of the generating power of conventional reactors, are said to be faster to construct, more cost-effective, and smoothly adjustable to grid requirements.
Nuclear energy seems to be the obvious solution for most of New Delhi’s energy dilemmas given the demanding nature of its economy and a massive population.
These reactors are built with a reduced core damage frequency and heightened seismic isolation as compared to traditional nuclear power plants, to provide more potential for safety in case of an accident. These reactors are safe enough that they are not constrained by iron-clad zoning prerequisites and can be operated in and around remote brownfield lands that have been abandoned due to industrial pollution. Installing SMRs as a substitute for large reactors circumvents the eviction of inhabitants and curbs land procurement crises.
Privatization: A Window of Opportunity
Now, with this promising technology already at its incipient stage, India should consider commissioning private sector funding for manufacturing and deploying SMRs. To attract and acquire private investments, an elaborate technology-neutral policy outline highlighting the inclusion of green taxonomy, green bonds, and the importance of societal, governance, and ecological aspects is essential.
To fulfill India’s aim to establish economic dominance in South Asia, the Department of Atomic Energy of India, the Nuclear Power Corporation of India, and the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board should join forces to frame a licensing process for SMRs and regulation protocols for inviting private investment. The technical costs will subsequently decrease once competent private sector players and international investors are attracted to get involved in the manufacturing of SMRs. India’s effort at the G20 summit to emphasize the importance of SMRs was extremely timely, given the Russian and Chinese SMR initiatives are already in their operational stages.


Evolving Challenges and New Fears
While SMRs have been on the policy lineups for almost a decade now, they haven’t translated into a practical commercial option. To bring in foreign capital and investment for the deployment of this technology, India will need to address the financial and security apprehensions about the launch of modular reactor-like technologies using platforms like the G20. Owing to the preliminary risks of miscommunications due to offsite deployment and delayed profits in the initial stages; private financing should be further roused by cultivating political support, conducive regulatory frameworks designed by national regulators like NPCIL, confidence-building activities, sovereign guarantees, and seed funds from the government. These measures will prove to be crucial in the social and commercial acceptance of ‘hard’ clean technologies like SMRs.
India definitively holds expertise in producing and operating smaller reactors, which are a much more convenient replacement for countries with mid-sized grids for decentralized operations. While the involvement of private overseas entities will bring in foreign capital, the ensuing offsite operations raise safety and national security concerns. Bilateral or multilateral ‘tech agreements’ need to be set up to avoid such threats. It is important to develop and promote a global nuclear safety culture, especially when the design approval for reactors happens in one country, and the product manufacturing and installation is carried out in another often leading to structural oversights. Such regulation discrepancies between countries also increase licensing and liability issues in the development of any new technology, along with heightened spending, which makes the whole purpose of building SMRs redundant.
Privatization will play a significant role in shaping public perceptions and social acceptance of nuclear energy, the reputation of which has been tarnished by accidents, lack of awareness, and safety hazards. Nuclear energy can mistakenly be used interchangeably with nuclear weapons and is therefore associated with all things catastrophic. Awareness campaigns from the government, in collaboration with private companies, that have stakes in SMR deployment, could work to soften the attitudes of the public towards nuclear energy. Outreach initiatives addressing the safety concerns of the surrounding local communities will allow an agreeable transition toward the public approval of SMRs. An elaborate blueprint for local manufacturing and operation of SMRs would also be beneficial for the conception of jobs and work opportunities in the region. This will help formulate an overall receptive attitude towards SMRs.
Allowing private players will benefit the quick deployment of SMR technology and in turn help in fulfilling India’s commitment to chart its way to becoming net zero by 2070.
Apart from safety concerns, the prospect of displacement of the local population contributes to the lack of public amicability with nuclear technology. Usually, the construction of traditional nuclear power plants has led to the acquisition of large public lands and exclusion zones, restricting local movements for operations. This has historically caused land disputes and protests. Given these resentments, the locals do not support the construction of nuclear facilities in and around their vicinities. Conveying the benefits of nuclear energy to the people, by advertising public-friendly features of SMRs and by educating locals about new job opportunities that will arise with the involvement of the private sector, may warm them up to nuclear technology.
Conclusion
There remains only limited private interest and investment in the nuclear energy sector due to uncertainty in SMR costs, given the limited benefits and slower paybacks on the initial prototypes. Opening up these projects to the private sector may also cause complications in the nuclear waste management systems and proliferation hazards. Therefore, despite the eventual involvement of private entities within the nuclear realm, the safety and security around SMRs must exclusively stay with the government.
Yet despite these initial financial and safety risks, private entities would appear to be keener than the government to partake in the development of SMRs, given the opportunity. An elaborate framework must be introduced, including a developmental motive along with economic benefits, to pave a path forward. The future will solely depend on the government’s amendments to the Atomic Energy Act, 1962, with the likelihood of providing some leeway for involvement from the private sector, foreign investments, and start-ups. Allowing private players will benefit the quick deployment of SMR technology and in turn help in fulfilling India’s commitment to chart its way to becoming net zero by 2070.
 

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Any updates on never ending saga about fbr? Will it ever see light of the day?
 

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How India Is Shifting Its Nuclear Power Plans Into High Gear
The country needs to decarbonise. Its renewables face charges of intermittency. Is nuclear the answer?
The Kudankulam nuclear power plant. Photo: Reetesh Chaurasia/Wikimedia Commons.
The Kudankulam nuclear power plant. Photo: Reetesh Chaurasia/Wikimedia Commons.
On December 14 last year, Union minister of state for Atomic Energy and Space Jitendra Singh made an announcement with far-reaching consequences.
In a written reply to the Lok Sabha, Singh said the Bharatiya Janata Party-led NDA government will commission 20 new nuclear reactors by 2031. With that, he said, India’s installed nuclear capacity will treble from the current 7,480 megawatt (MW) to 22,480 MW.
Ten of these reactors – like the 500 MW Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor at Kalpakkam and the two 1,000 MW reactors at Kudankulam – are already under construction. In addition, the government has granted “administrative and financial sanctions” for building 10 more nuclear plants with 700 MW Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors at Gorakhpur (Haryana), Kaiga (Karnataka), Chutka (Madhya Pradesh) and Mahi Banswara (Rajasthan).
That is just the start. Another clutch of reactors have secured in-principle approvals. Once all these projects are up, the number of India’s nuclear reactors will rise from the current 22 to well above 50.
That is not all. The NDA government is also bullish on SMRs, typically below 300 MW in capacity, and wants to use them for both power generation and to decarbonise industry. National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) is thinking of retro-fitting small modular reactors (SMRs) into decommissioned coal plants. In August, speaking at a conclave on green hydrogen and net zero, senior NITI Aayog official V.K. Saraswat said industrial units too should use SMRs to produce hydrogen.
Some of the projected numbers are mind-boggling. The installed capacity of coal-fired plants in India stands around 220 gigawatt (GW). “[Of this 220 GW], 20 GW is already off the grid and gradually others will also be coming in the line,” A.K. Nayak, head (Nuclear Control and Program Wing) at the Department of Atomic Energy said last December at a conference organised by India Nuclear Business Platform, a nuclear power advocacy firm owned by a Singapore-based consultancy called Industry Platform.
These, he said, can be refitted with SMRs. “There is a big opportunity for SMRs in a span of 2-3 decades… For interested companies like NTPC and others it is a business opportunity of 220 GW.”
Going by such projections, SMRs might play a bigger role in India than large reactors.
The case for nuclear
A curious silence has accompanied most of these plans. Barring the odd media report outlining the government’s plans for nuclear power and op-eds in favour of SMRs, there has not been enough critical discussion around this proposed nuclear buildup.
Can nuclear energy help India step away from coal? Has the industry resolved its old problems with cost- and time-overruns? What about public safety? Given the world continues to innovate in renewables, should India go for 100% renewables or push to add nuclear capacity as well?
On the energy front, the country is stuck between a rock and a hard place. In 2022-23, its power demand stood at 1,503 billion units (BUs). This demand was met through an installed power generation capacity of 415.4 GW, with 236.68 GW coming from coal, lignite and gas. Renewables – hydel, solar, bio-energy, wind and pumped storage – accounted for 171.8 GW.
As India decarbonises, not only will most of these thermal units be wound down, the country will also see additional demand for electricity as other users of hydrocarbons – like factories and vehicles – electrify as well. By 2030, India’s Central Electricity Authority expects the country’s electricity demand to touch 2,279 BU. By 2050, says Energy Monitor, power demand might touch 5,921 BUs. At this point, the country might need as much as 4,000 GW of installed capacity – almost a 10-fold jump from today.
That is where a massive constraint asserts itself. India’s potential RE capacity – between hydel, solar and wind – is currently estimated at no more than 1,000 GW.
It gets worse. The country cannot build to full potential capacity – building 145,000 MW of dams will extract its own social and ecological costs. As will unfettered expansion of solar parks and wind farms. India can reduce total future power demand – by slashing transmission and distribution losses or by providing Indians lower per capita power than the global average by embracing greater energy efficiency – but there will still be a shortfall.
One morning in April, seeking to understand all this better, CarbonCopy met nuclear scientist Ravi Grover at his office in Mumbai’s Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. Given the size of its population, he said in that chat, India will have to use all the energy options with her.
That morning, Grover outlined another reason why India needs nuclear power. In the past, power supply was constant (thanks to thermal power plants) while demand waxed and waned. “Balance between supply and demand was usually maintained through load-shedding,” he told CarbonCopy.
That is changing now, he said. As the share of renewables in India’s energy mix rises, both supply and demand will become variable. The country’s electricity system will need additional investments – pumped storage, battery storage, electrolysers, what have you – to balance demand and supply.
Delivering what Grover describes in Current Science as “firm power”, nuclear power can also help address intermittency. “If India wants 200 GW of renewable power, then we should try to have 20-40 GW of nuclear as well,” he told CarbonCopy. “That is what the world is doing. The UK will be 25% nuclear by the middle of this century. France is adding eight to 14 new reactors. India, too, needs to add three to four times as much nuclear capacity. What we have is not enough.”
There is, however, one big problem.

Broken promises
This is not the first time India has mapped out a large buildup of nuclear capacity.
In the past, too, variably citing military security, energy security and looming energy shortages, India’s nuclear establishment has pushed for rapid expansion of the country’s nuclear power capacity.
In 1954, Homi Bhabha, the founder of India’s nuclear programme, said India would have 8,000 MW of nuclear capacity by 1980. In 1960, the country was told it would have 43,500 MW by 2000. In 1984, a decade after the 1974 nuclear test, the country was promised 10,000 MW by 2000. The actual installed capacity was about 600 MW in 1980 and 2,720 MW in 2000.
In 1999, India’s nuclear establishment said the country would have 20,000 MW by 2020. In the early 2000s, the DAE (Department of Atomic Energy) upped that target to 275 GW by 2052 – and then to 470 GW after the US-India nuclear deal. India missed those targets as well. Today, the country’s installed nuclear capacity stands at 7,480 MW.
A clutch of factors are responsible for this under-delivery. Some are global. India’s nuclear tests left the country struggling to source technology and nuclear fuels. In more recent years, the Nuclear Liability Act has dissuaded foreign nuclear suppliers from entering the market.
Others are local. As physicist M.V. Ramana wrote in The Power of Promise, his 2012 book on India’s nuclear power aspirations, lack of scale has been a problem. “The problem was not that the industry lacked the technological base needed to carry out the fabrication [of the reactors], but that the few orders that it received from the DAE did not make it economical for companies to do so.”
Land acquisition has been another bugbear. Design changes during construction are yet another. In all, as Ramana wrote, India’s nuclear plants have been plagued by cost- and time-overruns, and performed worse than envisaged.
This is where things get interesting.

Stepping around past glitches
To ensure the latest nuclear buildup doesn’t meet the fate of its predecessors, the BJP-led NDA government has made two changes.
First, Nuclear Power Corporation of India (NPCIL) has been told to jointly develop nuclear plants with firms like NTPC. The rationale? Not only can NTPC raise funds more easily than NPCIL, by pooling their strengths in project management and nuclear plant design, NPCIL and NTPC can set up nuclear plants faster. This point was made at the India Nuclear Business Platform conference last December.
“Earlier NPCIL was executing one or two projects at a time, but now with capacity getting ramped up substantially, the plan is that NPCIL along with NTPC will be running at least 10 nuclear projects at a time,” said R. Sharan, director (projects), NPCIL.
Second, seeking to obviate risks like time/cost overruns and the difficulty of land acquisition, the NDA is bullish on SMRs.
In tandem, it is also getting easier for India to source nuclear technology from outside. As nuclear energy tries to regain ground lost to renewables, a bevy of large reactor makers and SMR manufacturers are competing to crack markets like India. Anyone trying to understand the role of nuclear in India’s emerging energy mix has to engage with these shifts in policy.
Two questions, therefore, arise. Both the NPCIL-NTPC alliance and SMRs are untested experiments. Can they deliver? Further, the competitive landscape for nuclear power is changing. It no longer competes with coal and gas. Instead, billions are being spent to boost efficiency of existing renewable technologies like solar panels, wind turbines, rechargeable batteries and develop newer sources of renewable power like electrolysers. Countries are also experimenting with technologies like pumped storage and grid management to create 100% renewable grids.
So can SMRs—and NTPC—carve out a perch for nuclear power in India?
The second part of the series will look into this question.
This article was originally published on Carbon Copy.
 

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Any updates on never ending saga about fbr? Will it ever see light of the day?
ah another delay. This is one of the truly successful "tareek par tareek" project ever run.
Cost overruns and delays are more than common with projects involving all construction+manufacturing+R&D. Over it, Project managers and designers keep on leaving and coming, mistakes from execution or new constraints keep on arising every day. So until India is full on master with making nuke reactors, such delays will always happen.
 

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Cost overruns and delays are more than common with projects involving all construction+manufacturing+R&D. Over it, Project managers and designers keep on leaving and coming, mistakes from execution or new constraints keep on arising every day. So until India is full on master with making nuke reactors, such delays will always happen.
Something is wrong Indx, I mean if you go through announcements made for kalpakkam- it was something just about the corner, something that shall be delivered next quarter - that India being uniquely capable in this area in world.. this whole paints a very bleak picture of project mgmt. In meantime China already commissioned its prototype fast breeder reactor and now commissioning 600 mw CFR.
 

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Something is wrong Indx, I mean if you go through announcements made for kalpakkam- it was something just about the corner, something that shall be delivered next quarter - that India being uniquely capable in this area in world.. this whole paints a very bleak picture of project mgmt. In meantime China already commissioned its prototype fast breeder reactor and now commissioning 600 mw CFR.
ReactorType, coolantPower, MW
thermal/elec
Fuel
(future)
CountryNotes
FBTRExperimental, pool, sodium40/13carbide (metal)India1985-2030
PFBRDemonstration, pool, sodium1250/500oxide (metal)India(2022?)
FBR 1&2Commercial, sodium600 MWeoxide, metalIndia?

CEFRExperimental, pool, sodium65/20oxideChina2010-
CDFR-600Demonstration, pool, sodium600 MWeoxideChinaFrom 2023, under const.
CDFR-1000Commercial, pool, sodium1000-1200 MWemetalChinaFrom 2034
TWRPrototype, sodium600 MWemetalChina, with USAFrom 2023?
 

AnantS

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ReactorType, coolantPower, MW
thermal/elec
Fuel
(future)
CountryNotes
FBTRExperimental, pool, sodium40/13carbide (metal)India1985-2030
PFBRDemonstration, pool, sodium1250/500oxide (metal)India(2022?)
FBR 1&2Commercial, sodium600 MWeoxide, metalIndia?

CEFRExperimental, pool, sodium65/20oxideChina2010-
CDFR-600Demonstration, pool, sodium600 MWeoxideChinaFrom 2023, under const.
CDFR-1000Commercial, pool, sodium1000-1200 MWemetalChinaFrom 2034
TWRPrototype, sodium600 MWemetalChina, with USAFrom 2023?
? You are just proving my point. China is already onto building commercial FBR - on Other hand for PFBR we are getting Tareek Par Tareek

1699957666345.png
 

Chinmoy

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? You are just proving my point. China is already onto building commercial FBR - on Other hand for PFBR we are getting Tareek Par Tareek

View attachment 229156
On contrary, India and China, both have operational experimental reactor. Demo reactors are under construction in both nation.
Commercial breeder reactor are coming in next decade for both nation.
 

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Horrified to see quarters allocated to entry level researchers of BARC/IGCAR who are building next gen techs for country. Most of the people will leave these shit holes for better jobs in US's Los Alamos, Oak Ridge etc :frusty: I am 27 have a SUV and a lavish flat (paying EMI).

These guys forget scientists are real assets. They need to invest there as well.
 

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It was kinda painful to watch. The reporter needs to improve his speaking skills. And even the nuclear director needs to improve his public speaking skills. All in all, kudos to our nuclear scientists for pulling this difficult endeavor off.
 

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Something is wrong Indx, I mean if you go through announcements made for kalpakkam- it was something just about the corner, something that shall be delivered next quarter - that India being uniquely capable in this area in world.. this whole paints a very bleak picture of project mgmt. In meantime China already commissioned its prototype fast breeder reactor and now commissioning 600 mw CFR.
That simply says some unforeseen mistake or problem appeared then.
Since Indian PSUs aren't dependable and private contractors don't have their people available all the time, last moment disappointments will always appear. That is a part of learning curve for project execution in a country like India where no cushions like China are available.

I am part of something right now which will upset high hopes of government in 2024 just after election as far as I see the fate of the project even though government is bullish on it (you will see in 6 months). A 7-8 months delay is unavoidable.
 

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PM Modi to unveil two new reactors at Kakrapar NPP, Gujarat: Read how leftists have been trying to stall India’s nuclear ambitions for decades

The two new reactors, unit 3 and unit 4 at Kakrapar NPP are the initial two in a series of sixteen indigenous Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) of 700 MW each being developed in the country.


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Modi to unveil 2 new units at Kakrapar nuclear power plant on Feb 22
The two new reactors — unit 3 and unit 4 — at Kakrapar Nuclear Power Plant have a capacity of 700 Megawatts (MW) each. One of the two new plants is already operational while the other will soon be in the coming days.


1708519829892.png
 

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India to add 18 more Nuclear power reactors with total capacity of 13,800 MWe by 2032: NPCIL

BCCL
Synopsis
India aims to add 18 nuclear power reactors with a capacity of 13,800 MWe by 2031-32. Prime Minister Narendra Modi recently dedicated two 700 MW reactors at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station in Gujarat, showcasing Atmanirbhar Bharat. Additional power plants are being built at Kudankulam, Chutka, and Mahi Banswara.
New Delhi, India will add 18 more nuclear power reactors with a cumulative capacity to generate 13,800 MWe of electricity, taking the total share of atomic power in the energy mix to 22,480 MWe by 2031-32. This was announced by the Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL) after Prime Minister Narendra Modi dedicated two home-built 700 MW nuclear power reactors at Kakrapar in Gujarat last week.
Presently, the NPCIL operates 24 reactors with a total capacity of 8,180 MWe.
The prime minister dedicated units 3 & 4 of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS 3 & 4) to the nation on February 22.
KAPS-4 was connected to the western power grid on February 20, two days ahead of PM Modi's visit to Kakrapar.
KAPS 3 & 4 (2 X 700 MW) are the largest indigenous Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWR) with advanced safety features comparable to the best in the world, the NPCIL said.
"These reactors have been designed, constructed, commissioned, and operated by NPCIL, with the supply of equipment and execution of contracts by Indian industries/ companies, reflecting the true spirit of Atmanirbhar Bharat," the NPCIL said.
The prime minister said the role of nuclear power in electricity generation is going to increase in the 21st century and it was a matter of pride that India is Atmanirbhar in this advanced technology.
Modi also visited the Kakrapar Atomic Power Station and took a tour of the Control Room on the occasion.
Four nuclear power plants of 1,000 MWe each are being built at Kudankulam in Tamil Nadu with Russian assistance. Four 700 MWe home-built PHWRs are coming up at Rawatbhata (RAPS 7 & 8) in Rajasthan and Gorakhpur (GHAVP 1 & 2) in Haryana.
Ten 700 MWe PHWRs have been sanctioned to be built at GHAVP 3 & 4 at Gorakhpur in Haryana, Kaiga Generating Station 5 & 6 near Karwar in Karnataka, Chutka in Madhya Pradesh (CMPAPP 1 & 2) and four power units at Mahi Banswara in Rajasthan (MBRAPP 1, 2, 3 & 4).
 

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