Main Battle Tanks and Armour Technology

If Tanks have to evolve, which path they should follow?

  • Light Vehicles-Best for mobility

    Votes: 14 5.6%
  • Heavy Armour-Can take heavy punishment.

    Votes: 41 16.5%
  • Modular Design-Allowing dynamic adaptions.

    Votes: 144 58.1%
  • Universal Platform-Best for logistics.

    Votes: 49 19.8%

  • Total voters
    248

asianobserve

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Chinese made a similar light tank Type 15 or VT-5 armed with a 105 mm gun. Weight is around 33-36 tons. This is designed as a tank from the begining rather than an ICV hull mated with a modified tank turret like the GDLS MPF. Hence, it is more compact with likely better frontal protection, but cannot carry troops.



Years ago DRDO also did a similar light tank experiment. They combined a BMP-1 chassis and mated it with a modified GIAT turret, featuring a 105 mm gun. But the army rejected it.

View attachment 46336


DRDO also experimented with BMP chassis mated to modified Vijyanta turret.

View attachment 46337

Needless to say, these projects can be easily revived and fitted with modern electronics and modular armor packages developed for the Arjun MBT programme, if a requirement arise, especially for deployement along LAC, opposite to Type-15 of PLA. But army has decided to go for deployment of heavier T-72 and T-90S, equipped with heavy ERA, considering the presence of ATGM among Chinese troops.
The GLDS design is no longer an ICV but a light tank. The green tank appeared to be an old demonstrator while the final design is the one with desert camo. Note that the newer design has no rear door or ramp.
 

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The GLDS design is no longer an ICV but a light tank. The green tank appeared to be an old demonstrator while the final design is the one with desert camo. Note that the newer design has no rear door or ramp.
It seems from the image of the desert camo tank, that the chassis is modified from a ICV. They have removed the passenger compartment altogether, placed the engine in the rear. The overall chassis length reduced as a process and it resembles a tank. But it is definitely a modified ICV chassis, which can be deduced by the frontal profile and the height of the vehicle. This type of modification can be done on any available ICV chassis.
 

asianobserve

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It seems from the image of the desert camo tank, that the chassis is modified from a ICV. They have removed the passenger compartment altogether, placed the engine in the rear. The overall chassis length reduced as a process and it resembles a tank. But it is definitely a modified ICV chassis, which can be deduced by the frontal profile and the height of the vehicle. This type of modification can be done on any available ICV chassis.
The engine is retained in front as shown by the front drive sprocket of the production variant. But it's not clear if the hull height is retained or reduced.
 

Defence Turk

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Infantry Fighting Vehicle and ATGMs

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An Infantry Fighting Vehicle (IFV) is a vehicle providing armoured personnel carriers and infantry with fire support. IFVs can be wheeled or tracked and armies can take both wheeled and tracked IFVs into inventory. In armoured fighting vehicles, cannons have more varieties of caliber, compared to tanks and these calibers also differ by the doctrines of countries. Cannons are not the only solution to eliminate menaces, with antitank guided missile (ATGM) disturbing the equation.

First Examples

Entering service in 1966, BMP-1 IFV is one of the first ones in this regard. In earlier versions, there are 73mm semiautomatic cannon and coaxical 9314 Malyutka (AT-3 Sagger). This ATGM, which is wire guided (MCLOS), must be guided to hostile armour by a sniper till the moment it reaches the target. First generation wire guided ATGM with a maximum range of 3 km, 9M14 Malyutkas were not preferred later in BMP-1s, due to poor performance.

BMP-1 and Malyutka ATGM

BMP-1 and Malyutka ATGM
Drawing great attention during the Six Days War, the Vietnam War and the Yom Kippur War, ATGMs proved advantegous over infantry and tanks. It turns out that when this remarkable ‘advantage’ gain mobility, it became far more effective and IFVs’ support to infantry was to a great extent bolstered. Later, the integration process of ATGMs into IFVs was accelerated, resulting in the advent of “tank destroyers” carrying only ATGM, namely antitanks or tank hunters.

BMP-1P

BMP-1P
In the BMP-1P produced by USSR in 1979-1983, SACLOS Konkurs and Fagot ATGMs, which were relatively more accurate and successful than Malyutka ATGMs acting on first generation MCLOS guidance principle, were used. In SACLOS ATGMs, the gunner does not have to guide the missile. Yet, the operator must light the missile through positioning the sight above the target.

In BMP-1P, ATGM is not coaxially mounted to cannon, it is positioned to the right of turret. In BMP-1 and BMP-19, contrary to modern IFVs, ATGMs cannot be controlled inside the vehicle. The vehicle commander must open the cover of the turret and command ATGM.

Reflections on Western Bloc

The integration of ATGM into BMP- IFV had also its reflections over Western bloc. After the first series Marder IFVs produced between 1971-1975, in the models manufactured between 1977-1979, in addition to 20mm cannons, French Milan ATGM was integrated into IFVs in a way that the IFV commander could uncover and command it. Milan ATGM operates with SACLOS guidance principle just as Konkus and Fagot systems do. Another Western vehicle produced on the basis of the same principle is British FV510 Warrior vehicle. Yet, it differs with its 30mm cannon.

Marder 1A3 and FV510 Warrior with MILAN ATGM

Marder 1A3 and FV510 Warrior with MILAN ATGM
On the Way To Modern Use

M2 Bradley IFV entered service in 1981. Having 25mm automatic cannon, the vehicle has, as ATGM, double BGM-71 TOW antitank missile launchers with a range of 3750 m. TOW missiles used by Bradley operate with SACLOS guidance. In M2 Bradley, a newer model when compared to the vehicles abovementioned, the commander does not have to leave the vehicle in order to fire ATGMs. Yet, to be able to fire, the vehicle must stop. In the models following M2A1 level, TOW II ATGM was preferred.

M2 Bradley firing TOW missile

M2 Bradley firing TOW missile
“Tank Destroyers”

These vehicles have derived from Armoured Personel Carrier (APC) and Tactical Wheeled Armoured Vehicle (TWAV). Indeed, IFVs also derive from APCs. These vehicles, which are smaller in size and produced less than tanks, have more varieties than tanks, which is an impediment to examination and analysis of IFV and APC-type vehicles.

First Examples

Manufactured by USSR, BRDM-1 TWAV first appeared in 1957. Its model integrated with 3M6 Shmel (AT-1 Snapper) ATGM came into existence in 1964. It also operates on the basis of MCLOS guidance principle, as it is in 9M14 Malyutka.

BRDM-1 TWAV 3M6 Shmel (AT-1 Snapper)

BRDM-1 TWAV 3M6 Shmel (AT-1 Snapper)
Raketenjagdpanzer, produced and developed by West Germany, entered service in 1961. It carries French SS.11 ATGM, also operating with MCLOS guidance principle.

Produced by USA, M901 ITV was developed through adding M220 TOW launcher on the chassis of M113 APC. Entering service in 1979, the vehicle has a capacity of carrying 2 TOW missiles ready to fire.


M901 ITV
Operative Example

Ratel ZT-3 is an antitank with three launchers and ZT3 Ingwe missile with a maximum range of 5 km, placed on Ratel 6×6 TWAV. Still in the pre-production phase in 1987, Ratel ZT-3 is said to, upon joining “Modular Operation”, have neutralized 3 USSR tanks in a range of 2 km, only within 10 minutes.


Ratel ZT-3
ATGM-integrated Armoured Vehicles in Turkish Armed Forces

In Land Forces Command of Turkish Armed Forces (TAF), there is no sign of having an approach towards hybrid solutions.

As a result, there are no ATGM-integrated IFVs in TAF’s inventory. Yet, there are three different tank hunter in the inventory. In near future, it will rise to 4. M113 Armored TOW Vehicle (ATV) and ACV-15 ATV TOW II have in the inventory for so many years.

M113 ATV is the version M113A2, which is the modernized version of M113, integrated with standard TOW launcher used by personnel through positioning out of the vehicle. In addition, TAF has 156 of them. M113 ATV was last seen in the Operation Euphrates Shield against the positions of YPG terrorist organization. It also appeared in the training activities conducted in Hatay, in 2019.


M113 ATV
In the inventory, TAF uses 48 ACV-15 ATV and TOW 2 turret developed by Kværner, a company headquartered in Norway. In the vehicle with two TOW 2 missiles ready to fire at the turret, 10 spare missiles are stored.


ACV-15 ATV
Within the scope of Weapons Carrier Vehicles – Silah Taşıyıcı Araçlar[TR] (WCV) Project launched to serve the purpose of meeting the need of TAF for modern tank hunters, FNSS and Presidency of Defense Industry signed a contract in 2016. In accordance with the contract, 184 Kaplan-10 and 76 Pars 4×4 WCVs will be delivered. WCVs will use Russian Kornet-E and Turkish OMTAS ATGM.

As per the contract, 10 Kaplan-10 WCVs, 2 of them still in pilot production phase and 6 in mass production were delivered to TAF.


Kaplan-10 WCV
Conclusion

Preserving their lethality since the beginning, ATGMs are attempted to be acclimatised to more power by means of more mobility. Further research for the development process within ATGMs is needed.

Considering the integration of ATGMs into IFV, APC and TWAV, it is plain as day that they have such a crucial role in the way many armies comprehend “new armament understanding”.

In TAF’s fashion, there is a leaning towards tank-infanty cooperation and antitank troops, along with antitank support ot IFVs.

Yet, under symmetric and asymmetric battlefield conditions, ATGMs multidimensionally serve with a maximum range of 5,5 km. Particulary, during the Syrian Civil War, there were abundant examples of tanks, armoured vehicles, soft-skinned pickups, bomb-laden vehicles, morever bombings of helicopters during take off or landing, or planes in the hangar. So far, a vast number of ATGMS have been delivered to various armed groups by many states. In the region, there have been some attacks conducted using ATGMs, just as there are also other mortar and RPF fires conducted against the groups of 3 or 5 people.

During the Operation Euphrates Shield, many feedback from the field uncovered the incapability of 25mm cannon of ACV-15 in terms of range and impact. There were also other informations , which have yet to be confirmed, 25mm cannon remains incompetent against fast- speed suicide vehicle-borne improvised explosives (SVBIED).

Upon noticing that ATGMS can be used against multiple various threats and along with the proliferation of fire&forget ATGMs and developments such target update and instantaneous tracking of IIR seeker, armies have commenced to adapt armoured troops accordingly.

Russia will use Bumerang-BM turret with 30mm cannon and 4 Kornet-E in T-15 tracked IFV, 8×8 Bumerang wheeled IFV, both of which will be accompanying new generation main combat tank T-14 Armata, and Kurganets-25 amphibious tracked IFV.

Bumerang-EM on the left, Nexter Systems product on the right
French defense firm Nexter System, in 8X8 VBCI 2 wheeled IFV, prefers anew generation turret with 40mm cannon and 2x(model unknown)) ATGM.

Particulary, in Europe, countries procuring new IFVs use ATGMs at the turrets of these vehicles.

In Turkey, Otokar exhibited 30mm Mızrak turret with OMTAS missiles in order to prove its capability. Besides, in test and shows for a foreing customers, 30mm Mızrak turret was imaged with L-UMTAS ATGM.


OTOKAR ARMA
The greatest reason why Turkish companies have some reservations in this issue is that TAF does not open up to hybrid use. Likewise the fact that Korhan turret, which was exhibited in IDEF’17 by ASELSAN and is highly developed, equipped with its acoustic detection system, mini UAV (drone), laser warning system, 360 degree panoramic imaging system, active protection system, 35mm programmable ammunition firing capacity and modular armour protection, does not have any ATGM launcher is mainly a consequence of TAF’s approach.

ATGMs are multipurpose, besides being “antitank”, which place them at the top of rankings. Now, it is possible to rename guided antitank missiles, which are expanding in use, as “guided infantry support missile “. Many ATGMs Already used in Syria are first- and second-generation missiles. It is also very evident that with third generation fire&forget IIR seeekers and ATGMs with target tracking and updating, the field will be more competitive. ATGMs evolution will not only encompass guidance systems. The more extensively they are used, the more various ATGMs with different seekers for different destruction types will come in sight. In fact, Russian Kornet ATGMs offer a variety of aerosol seekers.

Taking all these issues above and shifts in modern warfare into account, the development and integration of guided infantry support missiles in the form of “ATGM”, which are highly effective in close and long distances into platforms is an urgent need.

 

asianobserve

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Somebody know Israeli language? Then they can understand but anyway.
I don't believe this is going to be produced by the IA. The retracting gun and sights are too complex and 8 road wheels mean it's going to be a light tank, which is against prevailing Israeli doctrine of heavily armored tanks.
 

Bleh

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I don't believe this is going to be produced by the IA. The retracting gun and sights are too complex and 8 road wheels mean it's going to be a light tank, which is against prevailing Israeli doctrine of heavily armored tanks.
Most likely a field gun concept. Definitely not battle tank if it has to retract to zero position to reload.
 

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“The Military Industrial Courier, Corresponding Member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician of RARAN Mikhail Silnikov, told the Military-Industrial Courier about the creation and successful testing of samples of plasma-dynamic installations designed to throw projectiles in active defense systems of both stationary and moving systems. The relevance of creating such types of weapons is due to the fact that there are objects on which it is impossible to place a sufficient mass of armor, and active protection with the use of explosives for firing means is excluded for structural or technical reasons.


In the installations, a new physical principle of energy generation was applied to bring elements that hit attacking ammunition to the reciprocal path. For this, pulsed electric discharges (IER) are used in a condensed medium. Peculiarities of the throwing of damaging elements due to the ESI are a special concentration of energy (from 103 to 105 Joules per cubic centimeter), a high rate of its release in the discharge channel and a high pressure of a gas-discharge plasma (from 108 to 1010 Pascals) with a temperature of 10,000 to 30,000 degrees Kelvin scale. As a rule, either a high-voltage breakdown of the discharge gap or an initiating conductor that closes it is used to excite an ESI. In the second case, an electrical impulse can be generated at long intervals.in -&nbspThis website is for sale! -&nbspintervals Resources and Information. this case, the nonlinear directivity of the discharge channel in a condensed medium is formed at relatively low voltages.”


“Mikhail Silnikov notes the breakthrough nature of the research and the prospects for their use in the design of military-technical equipment. At present, the complex of design and experimental work is beginning to create and master small-scale production of several modifications of plasma-dynamic throwing devices for various types of protected objects. Photos of the devices were demonstrated at the All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference “Actual Issues of Protection and Security” held in St. Petersburg.”


I believe the British had something similar to this in development. Does anyone have a source to it?
 

WolfPack86

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India-China border tensions | Indian Army shopping for lightweight battle tanks: Report
Indian Army is seeking lightweight battle tanks that can be transported by air. These can be landed or airdropped directly at forward locations quickly.

The Centre has allowed the Indian Army to make an emergency procurement of lightweight tanks that can be deployed in high-altitude conditions, amid border tensions with China, The Economic Times has reported.

Reintroduction of light tanks is being seen as a boost for India’s armed forces as they are more nimble than the heavier main battle tank, the report suggests.

The decision was reportedly made after China deployed the new Type 15 light tanks along the Line of Actual Control (LAC) in eastern Ladakh.


The Indian defence forces want tanks that can be transported by air. These can be landed or airdropped directly at forward locations quickly. This is critical as unlike China, India has not been able to develop elaborate road networks along the border. Yet, airbases have come up at forward locations.

Other emergency procurements also include new loitering munitions from Israel, more Heron unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), additional Sig Sauer assault rifles, man-portable surface-to-air defence missiles and Spike anti-tank guided missiles, among others, the report adds.

Tensions along the LAC were rising since early May amid a stand-off between Indian and Chinese soldiers. However, the tensions escalated to another level after 20 Indian Army soldiers, including an officer, were killed in a violent face-off in Ladakh’s Galwan Valley on June 15-16.

There were casualties on the Chinese side too. However, that number is not clear.

Since then, the Indian Army has already sent thousands of additional troops to forward locations along the border in the last two weeks.

The Indian Air Force (IAF) has also moved a sizeable number of its frontline Sukhoi 30-MKI, Jaguar, Mirage 2000 aircraft and Apache attack helicopters to several key air bases including Leh and Srinagar following the clashes.
 

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