Keezhadi excavations: Sangam era older than previously thought, finds study

Rajaraja Chola

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Carbon dating suggests that the cultural deposits may be 300 years older than believed

In a major turning point in the cultural historiography of the ancient Sangam Age, the Tamil Nadu Archaeology Department (TNAD) has stated that the cultural deposits unearthed during excavations at Keeladi in Sivaganga district could be safely dated to a period between 6th century BCE and 1st century CE.

This is the first time the date has been officially announced by the TNAD.

The new findings in the report, released on Thursday by Minister for Tamil Culture and Archaeology K. Pandiarajan here, place Keeladi artefacts about 300 years earlier than previously believed — 3rd century BCE.

One of the six samples collected at the depth of 353 cm and sent for carbon dating test in the U.S. “goes back to 580 BCE,” Commissioner of Archaeology T. Udayachandran said.

The report titled, ‘Keeladi-An Urban Settlement of Sangam Age on the Banks of River Vaigai’, was published by the TNAD.

The results from the fourth excavations suggest that the “second urbanisation [the first being Indus] of Vaigai plains happened in Tamil Nadu around 6th century BCE as it happened in Gangetic plains.”

The report also spells the site as Keeladi as against the erstwhile widely used Keezhadi.

‘Tamil-Brahmi older’
The recent scientific dates obtained for Keeladi findings push back the date of Tamil-Brahmi script to another century, i.e., 6th century BCE.

“These results clearly ascertained that they attained literacy or learned the art of writing as early as 6th century BCE,” the 61-page report stated.

Six carbon samples collected from the fourth season (2018) of excavations at Keeladi were sent to Beta Analytic Lab, Miami, Florida, U.S., for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) dating.

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Keezhadi excavation leads to ancient civilisation on the banks of Vaigai


After analysing the AMS dates, archaeologist Professor K. Rajan felt that Keeladi presented strong evidence for some of the hypotheses. Skeletal fragments were sent to Deccan College Post Graduate and Research Institute in Pune, and it identified them of species such as cow/ox (Bos indicus), buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), sheep (Ovis aries), goat (Capra hircus), nilgai (Boselaphus tragocamelus), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), wild boar (Sus scrofa) and peacock (Pavo cristatus).

“This finding suggests that the society in Keeladi had used animals predominantly for agricultural purposes,” Mr. Udhayachandran said.

Tamil-Brahmi potsherds
Fifty-six Tamil-Brahmi inscribed potsherds were recovered from the site of excavation conducted by the TNAD alone, the report stated.

Pottery specimens from Keeladi sent to the Earth Science Department of Pisa University, Italy, through Vellore Institute of Technology for mineral analysis, confirmed that water containers and cooking vessels were shaped out of locally available raw materials.

“Recovery of 10 spindle whorls, 20 sharply pinpointed bone tip tools used for design creations, hanging stones of the yarn, terracotta spheres, copper needle and earthen vessels to hold liquid clearly attest to the various stages of weaving industry from spinning, yarning, looming and weaving and later for dyeing,” the report added.

While three excavations were undertaken by the Archaeological Survey of India, the fourth excavation was undertaken by the TNAD. The fifth excavation by the latter is under way.

https://www.thehindu.com/news/natio...to-6th-century-bce-report/article29461583.ece
 

Rajaraja Chola

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Centre hands over reports on first three phases of excavation to TN

CHENNAI: The Centre has handed over the much-awaited reports on the first three phases of excavations conducted by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) at Keezhadi to Tamil Nadu on Monday. ASI Director-General Usha Sharma handed over copies of reports to Minister for Tamil Official Language and Tamil Culture K Pandiarajan in Delhi. Speaking to TNIE, the Minister said that the reports would be released soon. These reports are expected to reveal more interesting aspects of the past of Tamils.

The first two phases of excavations were headed by K Amarnath Ramakrishnan as Superintending Archaeologist. The third phase was headed by Superintending Archaeologist PS Sriraman. However, the reports had not been released while the fourth phase of excavation conducted by Tamil Nadu Archaeological Department was released last week.

Report on 4th excavation

Meanwhile, Pandiarajan called on Union Minister of State for Culture and Tourism, Prahlad Singh Patel and handed over the report on the fourth excavation and submitted a memorandum seeking Central assistance for setting up a world-class museum in Keezhadi. He also sought Rs 52 crore assistance for improving the government museum in Chennai and Rs 19.2 crore aid to strengthen existing excavation sites at various places. The minister sought approval for conducting the next phase of excavations at Keezhadi, Adichanallur, Kodumanal, Sivakalai, Thamirabarani riverbed and Eastern Ghats.

Pandiarajan also met Union Minister for HRD, Ramesh Pokhriyal and held discussions regarding setting up of 1,000 Tamil Development Centres across the globe, besides appointing a full-time director for Central Classical Tamil Institute.

Later, the minister held discussions with Union Official Languages Secretary Anuradha Mitra on creating a translation software for Indian languages. The minister also addressed an international Thirukkural Conference.


http://www.newindianexpress.com/sta...three-phases-of-excavation-to-tn-2038660.html
 

captscooby81

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I see a strong pattern to show these excavations as something non related to hindu and try to portray a separate tamil identity which is non hindu . Lets see how far the dravidian separatist succeed in this .

There are excavations happen in others places also in TN right now . But so much emphasis is being given on this one location only shows there is narrative getting cooked in the background
 

Cheran

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I see a strong pattern to show these excavations as something non related to hindu and try to portray a separate tamil identity which is non hindu . Lets see how far the dravidian separatist succeed in this .

There are excavations happen in others places also in TN right now . But so much emphasis is being given on this one location only shows there is narrative getting cooked in the background
Well certain xtians fanatics had claimed that a 3000 year old statue of cheeses was found (Yes, 3000 year old cheeses statue!!)
 

Rajaraja Chola

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I see a strong pattern to show these excavations as something non related to hindu and try to portray a separate tamil identity which is non hindu . Lets see how far the dravidian separatist succeed in this .

There are excavations happen in others places also in TN right now . But so much emphasis is being given on this one location only shows there is narrative getting cooked in the background
The propagandists are telling about how no temples have been found meaning its a dravidian civilisaition where people were "secular". Isnt a little stupid. Ancient mens might had/had not anything but not without God.

Another interpretation is IVC never founded a temple. So non hindu and hence it came from outside.

But if its Sangam civilisation, the lord of the First, Second and Third Tamizh Sangam is well known. Its Lord Shiva.
 

Rajaraja Chola

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ADMK guys we need you to keep this country united! Jai Shri Ram!
It would be interesting to see when Sasikala gets released from Jail anytime now. Its a well known secret ADMK will get defeated in 2021. The question is however will it bounce back in 2026?
 

captscooby81

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The biggest joke which was ever done on this land is a word called Secular . i feel it better to call it sickular than secular .

How did people lived in secular society 3000 years ago in TN when Abrahamic religions not at all invaded this part .

I am fine as long as they say we are the oldest civilisation , But i am not at all comfortable in portraying a identity of abrahamic based civilisation . As the word SECULAR itself was introduced to stop the interference of church in the govt administration in europe .

ADMK is wiped for sure in 2021 elections . What needs to be seen is will there be a reunite of the split factions the sasikala faction and the EPS-OPS Faction if these can there is chance of putting even a fight . TTV is smart politician compared to OPS and EPS gang .


The propagandists are telling about how no temples have been found meaning its a dravidian civilisaition where people were "secular". Isnt a little stupid. Ancient mens might had/had not anything but not without God.

Another interpretation is IVC never founded a temple. So non hindu and hence it came from outside.

But if its Sangam civilisation, the lord of the First, Second and Third Tamizh Sangam is well known. Its Lord Shiva.
 

Rajaraja Chola

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The biggest joke which was ever done on this land is a word called Secular . i feel it better to call it sickular than secular .

How did people lived in secular society 3000 years ago in TN when Abrahamic religions not at all invaded this part .

I am fine as long as they say we are the oldest civilisation , But i am not at all comfortable in portraying a identity of abrahamic based civilisation . As the word SECULAR itself was introduced to stop the interference of church in the govt administration in europe .

ADMK is wiped for sure in 2021 elections . What needs to be seen is will there be a reunite of the split factions the sasikala faction and the EPS-OPS Faction if these can there is chance of putting even a fight . TTV is smart politician compared to OPS and EPS gang .
And give back TN another family? One isnt enough? ADMK must be given time to sort out its issues. I have been surprised by EPS than OPS. EPS was a grassroot politician while OPS was thrusted into big league so no one can challenge Jaya in 2001, the drawback being he never developed some mass background or root support other than Theni.

EPS surprisingly has thrown leadership potential. Whether he will manage to create a name for his own will be known by 2023.
 

RPK

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And give back TN another family? One isnt enough? ADMK must be given time to sort out its issues. I have been surprised by EPS than OPS. EPS was a grassroot politician while OPS was thrusted into big league so no one can challenge Jaya in 2001, the drawback being he never developed some mass background or root support other than Theni.

EPS surprisingly has thrown leadership potential. Whether he will manage to create a name for his own will be known by 2023.
I use to believe in OPS after JJ. But he proved me wrong he is projecting his son then the party. EPS is doing great but he need improve in law and order. It is getting out of hand with lot of target killing crimes. otherwise he is Ok.
 

Rajaraja Chola

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I use to believe in OPS after JJ. But he proved me wrong he is projecting his son then the party. EPS is doing great but he need improve in law and order. It is getting out of hand with lot of target killing crimes. otherwise he is Ok.
With EPS finding some leadership I believe they might throw off BJP in 2021 elections. OPS is a disappointment though he was a good administrator. He never got anything for his supporters who stood during the worst of times with him.

Target killings happen in any regime. This regime however is only interested in making money cos they know they will lose in 2021 and they dont have scientific corruption frauds as they have in DMK cos Jaya never had anyone with brains in the party as she believed in bureaucrats. The height of killings happened during 2008-11. They tried to destroy Aanai or Yaanai malai near Melur in Madurai. That is some symbol for people entering Madurai, katta panchayatu, anything over 20 lakh transaction and DMK got commission, cine industry etc.

But tbh Stalin is a better option for now. TN must get back its place as a investment destination back again and he can provide that stability.
 

vampyrbladez

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With EPS finding some leadership I believe they might throw off BJP in 2021 elections. OPS is a disappointment though he was a good administrator. He never got anything for his supporters who stood during the worst of times with him.

Target killings happen in any regime. This regime however is only interested in making money cos they know they will lose in 2021 and they dont have scientific corruption frauds as they have in DMK cos Jaya never had anyone with brains in the party as she believed in bureaucrats. The height of killings happened during 2008-11. They tried to destroy Aanai or Yaanai malai near Melur in Madurai. That is some symbol for people entering Madurai, katta panchayatu, anything over 20 lakh transaction and DMK got commission, cine industry etc.

But tbh Stalin is a better option for now. TN must get back its place as a investment destination back again and he can provide that stability.
Stalin will destroy Hindu heritage to appease his growing muslim vote bank. He is also fanning Dravidian separatism. That guy is a cancer.

EPS/OPS have been making good time on regaining Jaya's vote bank. The DMK IT cell failing to trend everytime Modi visits TN is noticeable. By 2021, anti-incumbency will also die down to some extent.
 

republic_roi97

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Stalin will destroy Hindu heritage to appease his growing muslim vote bank. He is also fanning Dravidian separatism. That guy is a cancer.

EPS/OPS have been making good time on regaining Jaya's vote bank. The DMK IT cell failing to trend everytime Modi visits TN is noticeable. By 2021, anti-incumbency will also die down to some extent.
If there's something like that happening, IB will take care of him before anything else.
 

Rajaraja Chola

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Stalin will destroy Hindu heritage to appease his growing muslim vote bank. He is also fanning Dravidian separatism. That guy is a cancer.

EPS/OPS have been making good time on regaining Jaya's vote bank. The DMK IT cell failing to trend everytime Modi visits TN is noticeable. By 2021, anti-incumbency will also die down to some extent.
Well. They have directly and indirectly ruled for 50 years now. 5 more years doesnt make much difference. Just like how INC and now BJP had spread its ecosystem in various orgs in India, DMK too have done the same. Every media, social media has direct & indirect Dravidian ideologues speaking. ADMK is now looking like B team of BJP.

Right now corruption is all time high. FDI is decreasing. No jobs. Chennai has lost its status as top 4 metro in country etc etc. Stalin can provide that stability in attracting investments and making TN cities better again. The party to watch is Seeman's NTK which is openly debating separatism. Good thing is he is one guy fighting DMK like never before on the streets.

Top BJP leaderships are mostly high caste members who prefer meetings in AC hall than do protest on the streets. That approach will never work in TN.
 

vampyrbladez

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Well. They have directly and indirectly ruled for 50 years now. 5 more years doesnt make much difference. Just like how INC and now BJP had spread its ecosystem in various orgs in India, DMK too have done the same. Every media, social media has direct & indirect Dravidian ideologues speaking. ADMK is now looking like B team of BJP.

Right now corruption is all time high. FDI is decreasing. No jobs. Chennai has lost its status as top 4 metro in country etc etc. Stalin can provide that stability in attracting investments and making TN cities better again. The party to watch is Seeman's NTK which is openly debating separatism. Good thing is he is one guy fighting DMK like never before on the streets.

Top BJP leaderships are mostly high caste members who prefer meetings in AC hall than do protest on the streets. That approach will never work in TN.
1. True. BJP knows this and is creating distance between ADMK and BJP at the ground level. Original plan to cannibalize ADMK post Jayalalitha has been trashed. Now ADMK has 2 years to regroup, focus and seize the initiative ; cash is no issue if the central government is friendly.

2. Stalin is a dynastic Pappu. If you want jobs in TN, simply allow the defence corridor in the south to proceed via Karnataka. Stop scaring away Sterlite Plant via Church NGOs!

3. True, hence the party chief there has been made a governor for her ineptitude.
 

Rajaraja Chola

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1. True. BJP knows this and is creating distance between ADMK and BJP at the ground level. Original plan to cannibalize ADMK post Jayalalitha has been trashed. Now ADMK has 2 years to regroup, focus and seize the initiative ; cash is no issue if the central government is friendly.

2. Stalin is a dynastic Pappu. If you want jobs in TN, simply allow the defence corridor in the south to proceed via Karnataka. Stop scaring away Sterlite Plant via Church NGOs!

3. True, hence the party chief there has been made a governor for her ineptitude.
1. ADMK will lose 2021. No doubts there. The question is by what margin. BJP cannibalising ADMK which again has 2-3 strong grassroot organisation is tough luck. Even DMK is unable to do so.

2. He might be. But he has been in politics for 50 years before aiming for CM chair. Not someone like Rahul or Tejaswi who just came in right away for CM chair. That includes Aditya Thackray now who wants to be CM face. Its not as if ADMK govt is blocking defence corridor. The problem is 8 lane road between Chennai-Salem which has nothing to do with defence corridor. When DMK comes to power just see how these projects become "Haram". :p

3. Tamilisai Sundararajan was perhaps the only BJP president who worked on the streets. The team surrounding her was arrogant, elite and ineptitude. Infact before 2014 noone even know who was BJP state president, but she has brought recognition to her party at grassroot levels. She was awarded for her role as BJP president. She couldnt hold some meeting in Kanyakumari Lok Sabha Constituency which had voted BJP in 2014 due to internal rivalry tells the state of affairs.
 

vampyrbladez

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1. ADMK will lose 2021. No doubts there. The question is by what margin. BJP cannibalising ADMK which again has 2-3 strong grassroot organisation is tough luck. Even DMK is unable to do so.

2. He might be. But he has been in politics for 50 years before aiming for CM chair. Not someone like Rahul or Tejaswi who just came in right away for CM chair. That includes Aditya Thackray now who wants to be CM face. Its not as if ADMK govt is blocking defence corridor. The problem is 8 lane road between Chennai-Salem which has nothing to do with defence corridor. When DMK comes to power just see how these projects become "Haram". :p

3. Tamilisai Sundararajan was perhaps the only BJP president who worked on the streets. The team surrounding her was arrogant, elite and ineptitude. Infact before 2014 noone even know who was BJP state president, but she has brought recognition to her party at grassroot levels. She was awarded for her role as BJP president. She couldnt hold some meeting in Kanyakumari Lok Sabha Constituency which had voted BJP in 2014 due to internal rivalry tells the state of affairs.
1. BJP - ADMK separation is necessary to allow regional roots to remain strong there.

Senior BJP leader in Tamil Nadu, Pon Radhakrishnan, said on Sunday that the party is yet to decide on alliances for the upcoming bye-polls in the state. Speaking to the press on Sunday Ponnar, as Pon Radhakrishnan is called, said, “BJP has not decided on anything yet. In time, we will be able to make that decision with guidance from our national leaders.”

However, Tamil Nadu Chief Minister Edappadi K Palaniswami seems to be under the impression that the AIADMK-BJP relationship will continue.
https://www.thenewsminute.com/artic...-pages-regarding-alliance-tn-bye-polls-109700

However till 2021,things may change at the ground level. That's why I have some expectations of the regime there.

2. This is a big reason alone to oppose him. If you have sabotage there then it becomes a national security threat like in Kerala recently.

Another officer said that rather than the data on the hard drive what’s even more disconcerting was the fact that there was a security breach on the high security premises of the yard with a functional material movement monitoring procedure.

While the shipyard, a listed company, remained tight-lipped on the theft, which came to its notice on Monday, Central agencies like the Intelligence Bureau and the NIA have also begun to check if there’s more to it than meets the eye. “Prima facie, it looks like a simple theft. After all, it is a vessel that has not been commissioned,” said an official.
https://www.thehindu.com/news/citie...r-an-insider-job-says-igp/article29475031.ece

3. Who do you think is acceptable amongst the list of candidates for TN BJP Chief.

upload_2019-10-2_3-12-29.png


https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com...mil-nadu-chiefs-post/articleshow/70946432.cms
 

RPK

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With EPS finding some leadership I believe they might throw off BJP in 2021 elections. OPS is a disappointment though he was a good administrator. He never got anything for his supporters who stood during the worst of times with him.

Target killings happen in any regime. This regime however is only interested in making money cos they know they will lose in 2021 and they dont have scientific corruption frauds as they have in DMK cos Jaya never had anyone with brains in the party as she believed in bureaucrats. The height of killings happened during 2008-11. They tried to destroy Aanai or Yaanai malai near Melur in Madurai. That is some symbol for people entering Madurai, katta panchayatu, anything over 20 lakh transaction and DMK got commission, cine industry etc.

But tbh Stalin is a better option for now. TN must get back its place as a investment destination back again and he can provide that stability.
Corruption is not major problem in TN right now. Stalin has better prospect then ADMK. If ADMK wants to win coming election they need to distance them self from BJP now on otherwise they get some seats only in strong holds. Also Stalin is good negotiator to bring investment to TN. People excepting jobs and investment right now.
 

RPK

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3. Who do you think is acceptable amongst the list of candidates for TN BJP Chief.
BJP or Cong never be a party in TN which can go alone, They need support either one of them. BJP made lot of blender respective to tamilnadu example is NEET.
 
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