ISRO News and Updates

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ndia’s Astrosat Completes 5 Years Of Mapping Stars, Galaxies In Space

Astrosat, India’s first multi-wavelength astronomical observatory, on Monday completed five years of imaging celestial objects in space. Launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on September 28 2015, in the five years of its operation Astrosat has achieved quite a feat.

It has carried out 1,166 observations of 800 unique celestial sources proposed by scientists both from India and abroad, a statement by the Department of Science and Technology (DST) said.

Astrosat has explored stars, star clusters, mapping of large and small satellite galaxies of the Milky Way called “Magellanic Clouds”, an energetic phenomenon in the Universe such as the ultra-violet counterparts to gamma-ray bursts, supernovae, active galactic nuclei.

“Its superior spatial resolution capability has enabled astronomers to probe star formation in galaxies as well as resolve the cores of star clusters (three times better than the last NASA mission, GALEX),” the statement said.

“Observations from UVIT has recently led to the discovery of a galaxy located at a distance of about 10 billion light-years from Earth and emitting extreme ultraviolet radiation that can ionize the intergalactic medium,” it said.

Astrosat has proved to be an important satellite capable of carrying out simultaneous observations over a range of wavelengths from the far ultraviolet to the hard X-ray band.

The Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope, or the UVIT, is a remarkable 3-in-1 imaging telescope simultaneously observing the visible, the near-ultraviolet (NUV), and the far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectrum. It is one of the five payloads on board AstroSat.

Weighing a total of of 230 kilograms, the UVIT comprises two separate telescopes. One of them works in the visible (320-550 nm) and the NUV (200-300 nm). The second works only in the FUV (130-180 nm).

The UVIT project was led by the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), an institute of the DST in collaboration with the Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai, several centres of ISRO and the Canadian Space Agency.

“The Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope, which is a marvellous piece of engineering, is a testimony to the power of several scientific agencies working together in multidisciplinary mode with a shared purpose,” said Ashutosh Sharma, secre
 

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ATV D02 configuration.jpg


ATV Configuration
Flow past ATV D02 with H2-Air Combustion.jpg


air flow past ATV d02 with H2-air Combustion

Futuristic scramjet with Ascent vehicle.jpg

Scramjet Ascent Vehicle


Infrared thermography of RLV.jpg


Infrared Thermography of RLV

W-T Schiliren photo of Ascent Vehicle.jpg


W-T Schiliren photo of RLV ascent

Schiliren photography is a process to study the flow of fluids around a body
 

Karthi

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Multi Satellite Adaptor for PSLV-C20.jpg


Multi satellite Adaptor for PSLV.

V band Low Noise amplifier.jpg



V band Low Noise Amplifier

Space Applications Centre of ISRO has developed a low noise amplifier designed
at V band. It operates at 50-60 GHz and gives a gain of 7-10dB. The typical noise
figure is less than 5dB. It is also a medium power amplifier with 14dB output
power at 1dB gain compression. The amplifier has waveguide WR-15 interface at
the input and output.


Typical applications

• EW Receivers
• Weather & Military ultra wideband radar
applications
• Ultra wideband communication
networks

Salient features

• Frequency: 50-60 GHz
• Noise Figure 5dB
• Gain 8.5dB (Higher Gain option available)
• Output Power at (@P1dB) 14dBm
• DC power consumption: 80mA, 3V
• Input / Output : Waveguide WR15

C band DC BIAS I-Q Mixer.jpg



C band DC BIAS I/Q Mixer

Space Applications Centre of ISRO has developed a DC biased IQ mixer designed
to operate at C band. It is fabricated in size of 1inch x 1inch on 25 mil alumina.
Same circuit can be realized as is on TMM10i/RT6010 substrates. The novel use of
DC biasing provides reduction of local oscillator (LO) power to 4 dBm as compared
to 10 - 15 dBm of conventional I/Q Mixers. The circuit provides low conversion
loss and low amplitude and phase imbalance. It can be used as a single sideband
modulator and demodulator with very low LO power requirement.

typical applications
• EW Receiver / Transmitter
• Weather & Military Radars
• Single sideband modulator and
Image Rejection Mixers
salient features
• C Band IQ mixer with DC biasing for low power requirement
• Low conversion loss
• Good amplitude and phase balance
• Planar topography
• Realization amenable to Conventional Photo lithographic patterning on soft & hard substrates

OBC ASIC 8 bit Micro Controller.jpg



OBC ASIC 8 bit Micro Controller



SAC has developed an On Board Controller (OBC) Application Specific Integrated
Circuit (ASIC) for central and distributed controllers of various microwave remote
sensing payloads. OBC ASIC architecture is based on DW8051 microcontroller core.


It contains a rich set of serial interfaces. It also contains parallel ports with a unique feature of event programmability, which makes I/O deterministic and reduces load of software for I/O task.





salient features
• DW8051 (8 bit microcontroller) core
• 4 UARTs, 3 Timers and 5 Interrupts
• 3 synchronous serial Tx/ Rx
• 4 Ports(32 bits) for parallel I/O
• 6 Event Programmable ports (48 bits)
• 6 Programmable Timing Signals
• Auxiliary Data Interface (256 Bytes)
• Two 8 bit Delta Sigma ADCs (with external R,C & comparator)
• Watchdog Time
• Programmable Combinational Logic Module (similar to FPGA CLB)
• On chip monitor program for ICP
• JTAG boundary scan chain
• 0.6μ CMOS RadHard Digital Tech.
• Supply : 5 Volts for Core & I/O
• Package : CQFP 256 pins
• I/O : 5V CMOS compatible with 4ma/8ma drive (total 224 I/Os)
• Clock Frequency: 16 MHz (Max)
• 300K NAND2 equivalent gates
• QML-V Qualified
• ESD sensitivity: 2KV
• Radiation Performance tID ≥ 100Krad (Si) LET (no latchup) ≥ 128 MeV - m2/mg seU rate ≤ 1.6 x 10-10 errors/ bit day


SPACE QUALIFIED C-BAND MMIC’s.jpg




SPACE QUALIFIED C-BAND MMIC’s

Space Applications Centre of ISRO has developed seven types of MMICs flown in
RISAT – 1. These MMICs are used for the development of Transmit Receive modules.


ISRO offers to license this technology of these MMICs to industries with adequate
experience and facilities. Enterprises interested in obtaining knowhow may write
giving details of their present activities, infrastructure and facilities to us.

6 -Bit digital attenuator
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• 31.5dB dynamic range
• 6-bit, 0.5 dB step
• Insertion Loss: 4.5 dB

6 -Bit digital phase shifter
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• 360 deg dynamic range
• 6-bit, 5.625 deg step
• Insertion Loss: 7 dB

SPDT switch
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• Insertion Loss: 2.5 dB
• Isolation : 30 dB



MediUm power amplifier-1
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• 32 dB gain
• 15 dBm
medium power amplifier-2
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• 15 dB gain
• 25 dBm
small signal amplifier
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• 25 dB Gain
• 13 dBm
• 4 dB NF
low noise amplifier
• 5350 ± 125 MHz
• 2.6 dB NF
• 25 dB gai


Transmit Receive Module for Radar Applications.jpg




Transmit Receive Module for Radar Applications

Space Applications Centre of ISRO has developed a transmit receive (TR) module
which is very useful for radar applications. Here, both transmit and receive chains
are accommodated in a single small housing for achieving good noise figure in
receive path and power in transmit path. This MMIC based TR module is flown
in Radar Imaging Satellite (RISAT–1). It is a building block for radars and finds its
applications in weather radar, ground based radar etc. Each TR Module consists of
a low power TR switch to select either of the transmit or receive paths. It has a
weight of 420 gms.



Amplitude Tilt Active Equaliser.jpg


Amplitude Tilt Active Equalizer



Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) at its Space Applications Centre (SAC) has developed an Amplitude Tilt Active Equalizer for frequency and temperature compensation of microwave systems. The equalizer is having octave bandwidth performance and is used for the developed broadband ALC channel amplifiers and linearizers at Ku-Band frequency for GEOSAT payload projects.



Salient features
• Capable to generate positive, negative or zero slope over frequency by varying
the control voltage
• Suitable to optimize gain flatness of any microwave circuit/system over
frequency of operation
• Capable for temperature compensation of microwave circuits/systems



Applications
• electronically controlled gain slope over frequency up to ± 8 dB
• Gain control of microwave system with adjustable slope over frequency.
• Gain control of microwave system with adjustable slope over temperature
• Development of broadband microwave subsystem such as receivers, channel amplifiers, linearizers

ALC Driver Amplifier.jpg


ALC Driver Amplifier

Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) at its Space Applications Centre (SAC) has designed , developed and qualified a Automatic Level Control (ALC) Driver Amplifier. The system has been used in ISRO’s GEOSAT payload projects.



Salient features
• Frequency : 11.45 GHz to 11.7 GHz
• 3rd order IMD: <-30 dBc
• Mode of Operation: Fixed Gain or ALC
• Gain (FGM): Commandable from 24 dB to 44 dB
• Dynamic Range: 20 dB
(input from -44 to -24 dBm)
• Output Power: Commandable from 0 to -20 dBm



applications
• ALC Driver Amplifier contributes nearly 44 dB transponder linear gain and also
provides required input drive to the TWTAs. Its commandable gain setting
feature is used to control the transponder overall gain and drive level of
the TWTA.
• This driver amplifier also can be used in any system where commandable/
adjustable gain from 24 dB to 44 dB is required with the provision of
ALC system. The performances of the driver amplifier are temperature
compensated over the temperature range of -10 to +60 deg C.

Power Conditioning and Processing Unit.jpg



Power Conditioning and Processing Unit



SAC has developed a Power Conditioning and Processing Unit (PCPU) for use in
microwave remote sensing missions. PCPU is a very complex multi output dc - dc
converter that delivers around 100W of peak power and around 10W of average
power. Here, Planar magnetics is used for the first time which was realized using
18 and 16 layer PCBs.



technological features

Thick film technology
• SMT technology
• Planar Magnetics
• Magnesium alloy for weight reduction
• Hybrid Micro – Circuits


salient features of PCPU

• Powers a pair of V&H TR Modules and a TRC unit
• 10 outputs: 8 pulsed + 2 continuous
• 59W pulse output power
• 9.1W average output power
• High BW pulse modulators for fast rise & fall times on pulsed outputs
• In-built EMI filter isolates the satellite bus from the pulsed load transients.


64 Channel Analog multiplexer.jpg


64 Channel Analog multiplexer



Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) at its Space Applications Centre (SAC) has designed and developed a HAMUX-64 HMC, a 64 channel analog multiplexer using multilayer thick film hybrid technology. This 64 channel analog multiplexer will find special applications.

Salient features
• 64 channel with ESD & Over voltage protection
• Provision for Internal / External reference voltage
• Buffered (Op-amp) and Un-buffered (Mux) output
• Cascadable up to 256 channels
• Compliant as per ISRO-PAS-206
• Radiation: TID upto 100K Rads (Si)
• Inter-channel Cross talk: 35db (Max)@50KHz
 

Karthi

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Sounding rocket Rohini launched with new propellant.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), earlier this month, launched Rohini Sounding Rocket (RH200) with a new propellant formulation based on Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) at its Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). “This was 180th successive successful flight of RH200 (meteorological) sounding rocket and the first flight with HTPB based propellant. The mission achieved an altitude of 62.7km against the predicted nominal 60.6km in 123 seconds and released the chaff payload successfully. Performance of the motor was normal,” Isro said.

India started its space journey with the establishment of the TERLS on November 21, 1963 by launching the first sounding rocket from Indian soil. Subsequently on November 21, 1967 the first Indian made sounding rocket, RH75 was successfully launched. “Over the years, Isro has developed various sounding rockets for a variety of scientific experiments & meteorological studies. Currently, the RH200, RH300 MkII and RH560 Mk-III rockets are operational which were developed during the early phase of our journey in rocketry,” Isro added. The first and second stages of the RH200 rocket are powered by solid motors.

Since the inception of the RH200 rocket, both solid stages are processed using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based propellant. “As compared to PVC based propellants, HTPB based propellant is more energetic with higher mechanical and interface properties and has less defects due to lower processing temperature,” Isro said. The space agency added that considering these advantages, efforts were made to replace PVC based propellant with HTPB based propellant for RH200 rocket and series of trials were carried out to achieve desired properties. In addition, composite paper tube based insulation has been implemented to enhance interface properties and rigidity with HTPB propellant. “Prior to maiden flight, performance of the RH200 stages were validated by conducting four static tests for first stage and two static tests for second stage,” Isro said.
 

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ISRO to launch its Venus mission in 2025, France to take part: French space agency.

ISRO is scheduled to launch its Venus mission in 2025 and France will participate in it, French space agency CNES said on Wednesday. The VIRAL (Venus Infrared Atmospheric Gases Linker) instrument co-developed with the Russian federal space agency Roscosmos and the LATMOS atmospheres, environments and space observations laboratory attached to the French national scientific research centre CNRS has been selected by the ISRO after a request for proposals, it said in a statement.

ISRO chairman K Sivan and CNES president Jean-Yves Le Gall held talks and reviewed the areas driving cooperation between France and India in space.

"In the domain of space exploration, France will be taking part in ISRO's mission to Venus, scheduled to launch in 2025. CNES will coordinate and prepare the French contribution, the first time a French payload will be flown on an Indian exploration mission," CNES said in a statement.

However, there was no comment from ISRO.

After the Mars Orbiter Mission (Mangalyaan) and Moon missions Chandrayaan-1 and 2, ISRO has set its eyes on Venus for carrying out its inter-planetary mission.

France and India share a robust collaboration in arena of the space. It is one of the three nations with whom India collaborates in the strategic sectors of nuclear, space and defence -- the other two being the US and Russia.

In March 2018, the two countries also issued a 'Joint Vision for Space Cooperation'.

India and France are also working on ISRO's human space mission Gaganyaan project, which aims to send three Indians to space by 2022.

Since September 2018, CNES and ISRO have set up a working group focused on cooperation in the field of human spaceflight, the French agency said.

"The two nations are pooling their expertise, notably in the domains of space medicine, astronaut health monitoring and life support. Initial exchanges have concentrated on training for India's flight physicians and technical teams and the supply of CNES flight systems," it added.
 

tsunami

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View attachment 61060


Sounding rocket Rohini launched with new propellant.

The Indian Space Research Organisation (Isro), earlier this month, launched Rohini Sounding Rocket (RH200) with a new propellant formulation based on Hydroxyl-terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB) from the Thumba Equatorial Rocket Launching Station (TERLS) at its Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC). “This was 180th successive successful flight of RH200 (meteorological) sounding rocket and the first flight with HTPB based propellant. The mission achieved an altitude of 62.7km against the predicted nominal 60.6km in 123 seconds and released the chaff payload successfully. Performance of the motor was normal,” Isro said.

India started its space journey with the establishment of the TERLS on November 21, 1963 by launching the first sounding rocket from Indian soil. Subsequently on November 21, 1967 the first Indian made sounding rocket, RH75 was successfully launched. “Over the years, Isro has developed various sounding rockets for a variety of scientific experiments & meteorological studies. Currently, the RH200, RH300 MkII and RH560 Mk-III rockets are operational which were developed during the early phase of our journey in rocketry,” Isro added. The first and second stages of the RH200 rocket are powered by solid motors.

Since the inception of the RH200 rocket, both solid stages are processed using polyvinyl chloride (PVC) based propellant. “As compared to PVC based propellants, HTPB based propellant is more energetic with higher mechanical and interface properties and has less defects due to lower processing temperature,” Isro said. The space agency added that considering these advantages, efforts were made to replace PVC based propellant with HTPB based propellant for RH200 rocket and series of trials were carried out to achieve desired properties. In addition, composite paper tube based insulation has been implemented to enhance interface properties and rigidity with HTPB propellant. “Prior to maiden flight, performance of the RH200 stages were validated by conducting four static tests for first stage and two static tests for second stage,” Isro said.
Is it for military purposes? It looks too small for launching satellites.
 

Sanglamorre

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Is it for military purposes? It looks too small for launching satellites.
It's a sounding rocket. Basically equivalent of styrofoam models for full-sized buildings. They're just testing out tech without having to commit significant resources to it. If a new fuel can run a small rocket, chances are it can be run a scaled up version full rocket.
 

Karthi

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ISRO plans to launch new SSLV rocket before December 2020

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is working towards launching its new rocket ‘Small Satellite Launch Vehicle (SSLV)’ before December 2020, a senior official said. Necessary tests to check its biggest motor will be done in November.

According to IANS, the SSLV launch will be from the first launch pad at Sriharikota rocket port after the flight of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle C49 (PSLV C49). Post PSLV C49’s flight, the launch pad set up has to be reconfigured to suit SSLV. Sometime next month PSLV C49 will fly with about 10 satellites. The rocket will be carrying India’s RISAT-2BR2 and other commercial satellites. It will be followed by PSLV C50 with the GSAT-12R satellite in December. The rocket is being assembled at Sriharikota with various systems coming from different centres. It will fly from the second launch pad, Somanath said.

From the drawing board to launch pad the time taken is only about two-and-half years. The SSLV is a three stage/engine rocket all powered by solid fuel. The 34-metre rocket will have a liftoff mass of 120 tons. The rocket has the capability for multiple satellite launches at different orbits. The SSLV can carry a 500 kg payload for low earth orbit (LEO) and 300 kg for sun-synchronous orbit (SSO). The development cost of the rocket is about Rs 120 crore. The new miniaturised telemetry system developed for SSLV has achieved 70 per cent mass reduction in the telemetry package.

The developmental cost of SSLV is low and only the third stage of the PSLV rocket has been adopted for the new rocket. The per kg cost of launching a satellite will be similar to that of ISRO’s other rocket PSLV. The first payload for SSLV has already been booked and some more payloads are being looked at as the rocket has a capacity to carry up to 500 kg. According to ISRO, the first satellite to be carried by SSLV will be 142 kg Mircrosat-2A to demonstrate launch on demand capability. The satellite is expected to meet the ever-increasing user demands for cartographic applications at cadastral level, urban and rural management, coastal land use and regulation, utilities mapping, development and various other geographic information system (GIS) applications.
 

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