India's progress in fusion energy.

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our contribution in world first fusion power plant.
Quench Cryoline installed in IPR

The first element of quench cryoline SQL (Group-Y) has been lifted and successfully positioned inside the tokamak building at B2 level supplied by M/s. INOXCVA which marks an important milestone in cryoline project. The cryoline is assembled by the contribution from skilled Indian workforce duly qualified to work in accordance with French norms and standards. The function of the cryoline is to depressurize and recover the cold helium at 4 kelvin from superconducting magnets to quench tank in case of magnet quench event. The cryoline has to satisfy the stringent criteria as a SIC-2 cryoline (Safety Important Component).
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ISRO X-ray Polarimeter Satellite (XPOSAT) MISSION

XPoSat is an Indian dedicated mission to study X-ray polarization of bright astronomical sources in medium energy band and long duration spectroscopic observation in soft energy X-ray band. The mission will help to understand the emission mechanism from a variety of X-ray sources. The spacecraft will be carrying two scientific payloads and is planned to be placed in a low inclination orbit. The mission will be launched in the year 2020.

The primary payload POLIX (Polarimeter Instrument in X-rays) will measure the polarimetry parameters (degree and angle of polarization) of astronomical sources in the medium X-ray energy of 8-30 keV photons. The XSPECT (X-ray Spectroscopy and Timing) payload will give spectroscopic information of soft X-rays in the energy range of 0.8-15 keV. The payloads and various subsystems hardware of XPoSat satellite are at different stages of development to meet the launch schedule.
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Infrared Imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) for Indian fusion reactors

Power loss from the magnetically confined plasma due to impurity radiation has been a subject of great interest as it plays a vital role in the overall power balance of the plasma discharge. High impurity radiation lowers the plasma temperature and hence leads to unstable configuration, terminating the discharge. The measurement of radiation loss from the plasma is an important parameter measured by bolometers. Recently, the Infrared imaging Video Bolometer (IRVB) has emerged as a powerful tool for imaging the plasma radiation in two dimensions.

The IRVB has a simple pin-hole geometry. An aperture in the plate collimates the radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 µm thick, graphite coated, metal foil held in a copper frame mounted inside a modular light -shielding tube made of aluminium.

The foil acts as a radiation absorber and an infrared camera monitors its temperature through an IR vacuum window. The power falling on the IRVB foil is estimated by numerically solving the 2D heat diffusion equation using the spatiotemporal variation of the foil temperature measured by the IR camera and the thermal-physical and optical properties of the foil. The foil is thoroughly calibrated to estimate its thermal and optical parameters.

It is observed that the radiated fraction ranges from 5% to 20% of the ohmic input power. This diagnostic has been successfully operated on Aditya, Aditya-U, and SST-1. Several inherent problems due to the ultra-thin metal foil in conventional IRVB are addressed by a patented (Indian Patent # 290634) diagnostic module called “DeLaS-IRIB,” which stands for Deposited Layer Substrate – Infrared (IR) Imaging Bolometer
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L&T Cryostat for ITER

L&T Heavy Engineering have been chosen by ITER-India for the manufacturing and installation of the ITER Cryostat.

What is the Cryostat?

The Cryostat, a key part of the ITER fusion reactor facility, is the World’s largest Vacuum application Stainless Steel vessel. A fully welded cylindrical vacuum/pressure chamber made of stainless steel, the Cryostat is designed with an overall dimension of 29.3-meter diameter, 29.6-meter height and a finished weight of more than 3500 metric tonnes. Thickness of the vessel ranges from 50 mm to 250 mm.

Scope of work

From design concept to detailed engineering, metallurgy, welding technology, fabrication technology, forming, machining, inspection & quality control and finally, the training of the people involved in the project, L&T has been involved in every aspect of building the Cryostat.

Manufacturing & Supply of Base Section weighing 1060 T, Lower Cylinder weighing 376 T, Upper Cylinder weighing 357 T and Top Lid weighing 606 T.

Creating a workshop at the ITER site (Cadarache) to assemble the above sections.

Manufacture and supply of Tokamak Pit Assembly Tools of ~850 T and Loose items of ~ 500 T

Final installation of Cryostat (04 sections and Loose items) in the Tokamak Pit

In addition, all forgings of the Cryostat are indigenously made by L&T Special Steel and Heavy Forgings (LTSSHF).
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Inductive Pellet injection technology demonstrated at Aditya U tokamak.

Disruption mitigation using pellet injection is an important technique being examined for ITER.

On the Aditya-U tokamak, a fully-electromagnetic IPI (Inductive Pellet Injection) system has been successfully integrated and commissioned. In the first experiments, a few hundred milligrams of powder has been injected at high velocity. The powder quenches the plasma in a few milliseconds through intense radiation.

This specialized field of research originated as a possible solution to the problem of depositing atoms of fuel deep within magnetically confined, hot plasmas for refueling of fusion power reactors. Using pellet injection systems, frozen macroscopic (millimeter‐size) pellets composed of the isotopes of hydrogen are formed, accelerated, and transported to the plasma for fueling.

The process and benefits of plasma fueling by this approach have been demonstrated conclusively on a number of toroidal magnetic confinement configurations; consequently, pellet injection is the leading technology for deep fueling of magnetically confined plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion research.

Hydrogen pellet injection devices operate at very low temperatures (≂10 K) at which solid hydrogen ice can be formed and sustained. Most injectors use conventional pneumatic (light gas gun) or centrifuge (mechanical) acceleration concepts to inject hydrogen or deuterium pellets at speeds of ≂1–2 km/s.
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Indian made Cryoplant termination cold box (CTCB) for ITER.

ITER cryodistribution system (CD) comprises of a cryoplant termination cold box (CTCB), five auxiliary cold box (ACBs) and a thermal shield cooling system (TSCS). CTCB is an interfacing cryogenic distribution box between cryogenic plant (75 kW helium refrigerator/ liquefier 1,75,000 liter liquid helium tank and 1300 kW 80 K plant) and cryogenic distribution boxes (ACBs and TSCS).

The Integrated Factory acceptance test of CTCB with electrical and instrumentation cubicles has been successfully completed. The configuration of CTCB and its components has been arranged comparable to the actual configuration as per installation at site.

CTCB has successfully delivered through Road/small channel/Road to the ITER inside B52 building at temporary position. ITER cold circulators, which are designed for circulating supercritical helium in the superconductor of magnets and panels of cryopumps of ITER at required mass flow rate (2-3 kg/s) and pressure head will be integrated in the ACBs. The factory acceptance test of Cold circulators has been successfully completed with all tests such as pressure test, helium leak test, mechanical running test etc. The cold circulator is now ready for transportation
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The first Indian tokamak, ADITYA, operated for over two decades with a circular poloidal limiter, has been upgraded to a tokamak named ADITYA Upgrade (ADITYA-U) to attain shaped-plasma operations with an open divertor in single and double-null configurations.

Experimental research using ADITYA-U has made significant progress since the last FEC in 2016. After installation of a plasma facing component and standard tokamak diagnostics in ADITYA-U, the Phase-I plasma operations were initiated in December 2016 with a graphite toroidal belt limiter. Ohmically heated circular plasmas supported by filament pre-ionization with plasma parameters I p ~ 80–95 kA, duration ~80–180 ms, with a maximum toroidal field ~1 T and chord averaged electron density ~2.5 × 1019 m−3, have been obtained.

The runaway electron (RE) generation, transport and mitigation experiments, along with magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) activities and density enhancement with H2 gas puffing experiments were carried out in Phase-I, which was completed in March 2017. Preparation for the Phase-II operation in ADITYA-U includes calibration of magnetic diagnostics followed by commissioning of major diagnostics and installation of a baking system.

After repeated cycles of baking the vacuum vessel up to ~135 °C, the Phase-II operations resumed in February 2018 and are continuing to achieve plasma parameters close to the design parameters of circular limiter plasmas, using real-time plasma position control. The plasma current has been raised to ~135 kA in Phase-II, with a maximum chord averaged electron density of ~4 × 1019 m−3. Hydrogen gas breakdown has been observed in more than 2000 discharges, including Phase-I and Phase-II operations, without a single failure.

Several experiments have been carried out, including the control of REs with the fuelling of supersonic molecular beam injection as well as sonic H2 gas puffing during current flat-top, MHD mode studies using multiple periodic gas puffs, and radiative improved modes using neon gas puffs.
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I only covered about aditya tokamak on this thread .we also have one more operational tokamak SST 1 which is more advanced and after that there will be SST 2 which will be officialy our first fusion power plant producing electricity its design is nearly ready and land acqusition has been done. it will be slighter bigger than JET.
 

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India’s “SST-2” fusion reactor project

India’s SST-2 programme envisages the construction of a facility called the Steady State Superconducting Tokamak-2 (SST-2) by 2027, and a fusion power reactor with fusion power output of 3,300 MW by 2037.

The main purpose of the SST-2 facility would be to test the equipment for the future power reactor, in particular the tritium breeding blankets.

Operation will start with a fusion power output of 100 MW, rising to 500 MW in later SST-2 facility operation. Very little has been published on this programme to date.

India operating two experimental fusion reactors now SST 1 and Adhithya.
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india is involved in high end research activities in fusion energy.

SNIP tokamak.

the saha institute of nuclear physics has India's first tokamak (device used for plasma confinement required for nuclear fusion using magnetic field) it was built by Japanese company Toshiba based on Indian design it gave us first experience on fusion energy research . it is operational since 1987.
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ADITYA:

it is the first indigenously designed and built tokamak of india . it is situated at institute of plasma research it was commissioned in 1989 and is still operational . it has gone through various upgrades and has given us experience required in fusion physics.
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SST 1 (steady state superconducting tokamak)

it is also situated at IPR ,SST project was started in 1994, the tokamak was fabricated by 2005 , fully commissioned by 2013 . SST 1 is fully designed and built indigenously it has undergone improvements and upgrade twice.

SST 1 makes use of extreme heat and magnetic field to fuse isotopes to perform thermonuclear fusion . this results in temp. 20 times the sun core magnetic field equivalent to 1000 times earth magnetic field.

INDIA IS ONLY ONE OF THE 6 COUNTRIES TO HAVE SUPERCONDUCTING TOKAMAK AND SST 1 IS THE ONLY TOKAMAK TO OPERATE THE TORODIAL MAGNETS IN A TWO PHASE FLOW OF HELIUM.


SST 1 tokamak has made india one of the most advanced countries in fusion research with a capacity of building fuctional fusion reactor.
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ITER(international thermonuclear experimental reactor)

this is a joint megaproject of EU,USA,China,India ,Russia,Japan and 35 countries to build world largest fusion reactor that can generate 500mw of electricity .
INDIA IS important member in this project with contribution of about 10% on an equal footing with US,Russia,China,Japan and South Korea . 54 segments of ITER are fabricated in india including the base of the 3850 tonne cryostat at the core of system which is biggest component of ITER and perhaps one of the biggest thermo bottle of world. we have commited about 17500 crore to the project and when it will be ready we will have 100% access to its technology.

success in SST 1 project was very important for us to join this project. a team from ITER, France visited the SST 1 control centre in 2005 to see our advancement . finally on 6 Dec 2005 we were accepted as member of ITER.
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SST 2

we are also working on our small fusion reactor capable of producing electricity. it will be next stage of SST project . SST 2 fusion reactor is planned for this.

a group of eminent scientists from IPR is working on design of it . many new features like DT plasma , test blanket module , biological shielding and an improved divertor will be developed. it's construction will start in 2027 because by that time ITER will be completed . land acquisition and other formalities have been done.

DEMO:

after SST there will be huge fusion reactor based on ITER technology to demonstrate commercial scale electricity generation from fusion energy called demonstration power station . it will be build after SST 2
 

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After six years of committed effort, India's steady state experimental superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) fusion

reactor
has made its first major breakthrough.at the Institute of Plasma Research IPR
) in Bhat a team of scientists were able to confine plasma - a source of energy - for about 500 milliseconds. India became the sixth country in the world to achieve this capability.


The feat, which is the phase 1 of the SST-1 was achieved after the dedicated team of scientists passed almost 1.17 lakh amperes of current through the plasma column: the amount of current required to confine plasma in a steady state. The temperature of the plasma, described as the fourth state of matter, was nearly 2.5 million degrees celsius. In future thermonuclear reactors, this amount of heat can be harnessed for running large turbines and generating electricity. IPR scientists say that they are not far from the next goal which will involve confining plasma for 1 to 2 seconds, equalling international standards.
This initiative, according to experts, will put Indian fusion programme on firm footing. The SST-1 project had gathered steam under the leadership of IPR director D Bora. A dedicated team of scientists have worked hard to ensure precision engineering for SST-1's complex integration, developing large-sized super-conducting magnets, kilowatt class cryogenic systems, ultra high vacuum systems, high heat flux operations and large data acquisitions.
The SST-1 has reached its design value of current for a field of 1.5 TESLA," said P K Kaw the founder and former director of IPR. "This is a significant milestone especially after the hard work put in by the IPR team. Now our efforts will be to test SST-1 at higher fields and higher currents." He went on to say: "Like China, we too should have long-standing and ITER independent superconducting Tokamak programme."


Dean of IPR, Professor Amita Das, said: "SST-1 has helped us master critical technologies. For instance, the ultrahigh vacuum technology we developed for SST-1 was responsible for bringing LIGO project to India." The SST-1 is a project in which one sees the convergence of all branches of engineering and physics, Das said
 

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After six years of committed effort, India's steady state experimental superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) fusion

reactor
has made its first major breakthrough.at the Institute of Plasma Research IPR
) in Bhat a team of scientists were able to confine plasma - a source of energy - for about 500 milliseconds. India became the sixth country in the world to achieve this capability.


The feat, which is the phase 1 of the SST-1 was achieved after the dedicated team of scientists passed almost 1.17 lakh amperes of current through the plasma column: the amount of current required to confine plasma in a steady state. The temperature of the plasma, described as the fourth state of matter, was nearly 2.5 million degrees celsius. In future thermonuclear reactors, this amount of heat can be harnessed for running large turbines and generating electricity. IPR scientists say that they are not far from the next goal which will involve confining plasma for 1 to 2 seconds, equalling international standards.
This initiative, according to experts, will put Indian fusion programme on firm footing. The SST-1 project had gathered steam under the leadership of IPR director D Bora. A dedicated team of scientists have worked hard to ensure precision engineering for SST-1's complex integration, developing large-sized super-conducting magnets, kilowatt class cryogenic systems, ultra high vacuum systems, high heat flux operations and large data acquisitions.
The SST-1 has reached its design value of current for a field of 1.5 TESLA," said P K Kaw the founder and former director of IPR. "This is a significant milestone especially after the hard work put in by the IPR team. Now our efforts will be to test SST-1 at higher fields and higher currents." He went on to say: "Like China, we too should have long-standing and ITER independent superconducting Tokamak programme."


Dean of IPR, Professor Amita Das, said: "SST-1 has helped us master critical technologies. For instance, the ultrahigh vacuum technology we developed for SST-1 was responsible for bringing LIGO project to India." The SST-1 is a project in which one sees the convergence of all branches of engineering and physics, Das said
Imagine dude, if this can be turned into a weapon or satellite weapon.
Pakistanis will shit in their pants and then will march back towards their desert brothers.
 

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Imagine dude, if this can be turned into a weapon or satellite weapon.
Pakistanis will shit in their pants and then will march back towards their desert brothers.
As good as this sounds, we should limit it for peaceful purpose. Just think how better everything would have been around us if we could have directed all those billions towards advancement in technology.
 

Bhumihar

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As good as this sounds, we should limit it for peaceful purpose. Just think how better everything would have been around us if we could have directed all those billions towards advancement in technology.
If it is feasible to make a weapon that can destroy the world then we should make it.

Keep the biggest stick walk with the largest heart.

A country like us who is surrounded by enemies from all side can't afford to live in a la la land of world peace.

Only the strong can afford peace.
 

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