Indian Navy - formation, history and current structure

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A BRIEF HISTORY:-

The modern Indian Navy has had several avatars, From its origins in 1612 as the East India Company's Marine, the Navy underwent various changes, including changes to its name. Over time it was named the Bombay Marine (1686), the Bombay Marine Corps (1829), the Indian Navy (1830), Her Majesty's Indian Navy (1858), the Bombay and Bengal Marine (1863), the Indian Defence Force (1871), Her Majesty's Indian Marine (1877) and the Royal Indian Marine (1892), the Royal Indian Navy (1934) and finally Indian Navy on 26 Jan 1950.

While the history of the Modern Indian navy starts from 1612 the pre-colonial India has a maritime history dating back to 5600 years.

The first tidal dock is estimated to have been built at Lothal around 2300 BC during the Indus Valley Civilisation, near the present day Mangrol harbour on the Gujarat coast.

The Rig Veda written around 1500 BC, credits Varuna with knowledge of the ocean routes and describes naval expeditions. There is reference to the side wings of a vessel called Plava, which give stability to the ship under storm conditions. A compass, the Matsya Yantra, was used for navigation in the fourth and fifth century AD.

Chola territories during Rajendra Chola I, c. 1030

The earliest known reference to an organisation devoted to ships in ancient India is to the Mauryan Empire from the fourth century BCE. Emperor Chandragupta Maurya's Prime Minister Kautilya's Arthashastra devotes a full chapter on the state department of waterways under navadhyaksha (Sanskrit for Superintendent of ships)

. The term, nava dvipantaragamanam (Sanskrit for sailing to other lands by ships, i.e. Exploration) appears in this book in addition to appearing in the Sanskrit text, Baudhayana Dharmasastra as the interpretation of the term, Samudrasamyanam.

Sea lanes between India and neighbouring lands were the usual form of trade for many centuries, and are responsible for the widespread influence of Indian Culture on other societies. Powerful navies included those of the Chola dynasty, Maurya Empire, Satavahana, Gupta Empire, Pala, Pandya, Vijayanagara Empire, Kalinga, Mughal and Maratha Empire empires.

Particularly the Chola dynasty had a powerful navy which conquered parts of Maritime Southeast Asia and Sri Lanka in the 11th century during the reign of Raja Raja Chola I, Rajendra Chola I and Kulothunga Chola I.

Global impact of the Chola dynasty.jpg


The Palas and the Cholas excelled in foreign trade and maritime activity, extending their influence overseas to China and Southeast Asia. The Maratha naval power dominated the military scene in India for three centuries.

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Maratha and Kerala fleets were expanded, and became the most powerful Naval Forces in the subcontinent, defeating European Navies at various times (See the Battle of Colachel). The 'Pal' was a three masted fighter with guns peeping on the broadsides. Kanhoji Angre and Kunjali Marakkar, the Naval chief of Saamoothiri, were two notable naval chiefs of the period.

The 17th-century Maratha emperor Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj is considered as the ‘Father of the Indian Navy’. He built a strong naval presence across the coast of Konkan and Goa to protect sea trade. The navy under Shivaji maharaj was so strong that the Marathas coule hold their against the British, Portuguese and Dutch. Shivaji maharaj realised the importance of having a secure coastline and protecting the western Konkan coastline from the attacks of Siddi’s fleet.

Life of Shivaji in 120 paintings_ Mumbai to host exhibition on Maratha king.jpg


During the colonial era in the year 1612
the English East India Company established the East India Company's Marine to protect its merchant shipping off the Gulf of Cambay and up the Narmada and Tapti rivers. Its first fighting ships in India were acquired on 5 September 1612. This force evolved into Her Majesty's Indian Navy in 1830, while most of India was under British rule. The force at this time had British officers and Indian sailors. The Navy saw action in the First Opium War of 1840 and in the Second Anglo-Burmese War in 1852. During World War I, the force then known as the Royal Indian Marine undertook mine sweeping, as well as supply and support operations for the Allies.

Sub Lieutenant D. N. Mukherji was the first Indian to be granted a commission as an engineer officer in 1928. In 1934, the navy was renamed as the Royal Indian Navy (RIN).

The onset of World War II led to an expansion in numbers of vessels and personnel. The navy was actively involved in operations during the war around the world. Its sloops HMIS Sutlej and HMIS Jumna played a key role in Operation Husky, the Allied invasion of Sicily.

It was heavily involved in operations around the Indian Ocean, including convoy escorts, mine-sweeping, supply, as well as supporting amphibious assaults. At the end of the war, the navy underwent rapid, large-scale demobilization of vessels and personnel. In 1946, Indian sailors started the Royal Indian Navy mutiny, a rebellion influenced by activities of Indian National Army and post-WWII political unrest in India on board ships and on shore establishments to protest discrimination against Indian officers and sailors by the British and the putting on trial of ex-Indian National Army soldiers and officers. A total of 78 ships, 20 shore establishments and 20,000 sailors were involved in the rebellion, which spread all over India. This rebellion failed as the rebels did not receive support from the political leaders. After the independence of India on 15 August 1947 and the ensuing partition, the RIN's depleted fleet of ships and remaining personnel were divided between the newly independent Union of India and Dominion of Pakistan.

When India became a republic on 26 January 1950, the Royal prefix was dropped and the name Indian Navy was officially adopted. The prefix on her ships was changed to Indian Naval Ship (INS).
 

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Ships of the Indian navy after Independence

Vikrant class aircaft carrier:-

INS VIKRANT_.jpg


Originally named as HMS Hercules, the vessel was built in the Vickers-Armstrong shipyard and launched as a part of Great Britain’s Majestic Class of vessels in the year 1945. However, even before she was brought into active operational duty, World War II came to an end and the ship was withdrawn from being used in active naval duty.
Subsequently, Hercules was sold to the Indian naval force in the year 1957. For four years till its formal launch as a part of the Indian naval force, the war ship was re-modified to suit the Indian requirements in the Irish Harland and Wolff shipyard.

The aircraft fleet of the INS ship consisted of three crafts – the Sea Hawk bomber jets of Great Britain and the French anti-submarine plane Alize. Because of this limited capacitance of fighter planes, the flight carrier was regarded as a light attack air fleet carrier.

War history:-

Vikrant would see action in the1971 Indo-Pak war where its main job would be to enforce a naval blockade.
Starting December 4, her Sea Hawks and Alizes flew nearly 300 sorties hammering Chittagong, Cox’s Bazar and Khulna, sinking numerous small ships and setting fuel stores on fire. One tanker in Chittagong was blasted into three segments.
it would use its three air squadrons for ground bombing electronic intelligence anti-submarine warfare and search and rescue missions.
The vikrant is credited to sinking of about 57,000 tonnes of merchant shipping during the war.

Stats:-

  • The Indian navy ship offered a speed of about 25 knots which was later on curtailed to about 12 knots due to the technical problems.
  • The ship measured 192 metres lengthwise, 24.4 metres beam wise and 7.3 metres draft wise
  • Its displacement was of 16,000 t (15,750 long tons) .
  • range:-
    • 12,000 nmi (22,000 km; 14,000 mi) at 14 knots (26 km/h; 16 mph)
    • 6,200 nmi (11,500 km; 7,100 mi) at 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph)
Air wing:-

  • INAS 300 “White Tiger” squadron, equipped with eighteen Sea Hawk fighter bombers.
  • Three-ma Alize patrol planes of INAS 310 “Cobra” Squadron
  • INAS 321 “Angels” Squadron, operated Alouette III helicopters
  • INAS 330 "Harpoons" operated westland seaking

Armament:-

Status:- the ship has been decommissioned and scrapped.
 
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Viraat class aircraft carrier:-

HMS Hermes now under Indian colours as INS Viraat_.jpg


It was a Centaur-class aircraft carrier of the Indian Navy. In 1985, the second hand, 1953 vintage, British aircraft carrier HMS HERMES, became available for acquisition. It had already been operating Sea Harriers. After Government approved its acquisition and refit, it was commissioned as INS VIRAAT on 12 May 1987.
INS Viraat was commissioned into Indian Navy on 12th May 1987 at Plymouth, United Kingdom by Dr. P. C. Alexander, High Commissioner of India to UK.

War history:-

INS Viraat was involved in her first major operation- ‘Operation Jupiter’ in July 1989 as a part of Indian Peace Keeping Operations in Sri Lanka in the wake of the breakdown of the Indo- Sri Lankan Accord of 1986. On 27th July 1989, the ship mounted 76 helo sorties off Kochi to embark over 350 army personnel and over 35 tons of stores of 7 Garhwal Rifles. Over the next few weeks, Viraat and her task group remained deployed at a measured distance from the war zone, utilizing the time to train soldiers, which adequately demonstrated the ship’s operational versatility.

The ship also played a pivotal role in Operation Parakram followed after the terrorist attack on Indian Parliament in 2013. The Ship also played a key role in Operation Vijay by creating blockade against Pakistan during Kargil War in 1999.

Stats:-

  • INS Viraat had a standard displacement of 23,900 tons and a full load displacement of 28,700 tons.
  • The total length of the warship was 226.5 meters and the breadth was 48.78 meters
  • It's speed was 28 knots (52 km/h)
  • It's range was 6,500 mi (10,500 km) at 14 knots (26 km/h)
Air wing:-

  • INAS 300 "White tigers" operated sea harriers
  • INAS 552 "The braves" operated sea harriers
  • INAS 321 "Angels" operated Alouette III HAL Chetak
  • INAS 330 "Harpoons" operated westland sea king
Armament:-


Status:- ship has been decommissioned and will be scrapped after a bid to covert it into a maritime museum had failed.
 

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INS vikramaditya aircraft carrier:-

R33 INS Vikramaditya - Indian Navy.jpg


It is a modified former Kiev class aviation cruiser. Vessel was originally known as Baku and later renamed to Admiral Gorshkov. This ship was commissioned to service with the Soviet Navy in 1987. However after collapse of the Soviet Union it was inactive since 1991 and was decommissioned in 1996. In 2004 an agreement was signed with Russia for the sale of this ship to India. Agreement included refit in Russian shipyard, purchase of aircraft and weapon systems, pilots training, delivery of simulators and spare parts. The ship was extensively refitted at Sevmash shipyard in Russia. The hull was completed and Vikramaditya was launched in 2008. It received a redesigned Kuznetsov-style flight deck, with a ski-jump, built in a newly raised bow. In 2013 sea trials of the refurbished INS Vikramaditya were completed and it left Russia for India. Since 2014 it is in active service with the Indian Navy.

War History:-

As of now this ship has not taken part in any naval conflict but takes part in various multinational exercises.

Stats:-

  • It overall length of about 284 meters (930 ft) and a maximum beam of about 60 meters (196 ft).
  • It has a displacement of 45,000 tonnes, the warship is capable of carrying over 30 aircraft and helicopters.
  • Speed of over 30 knots
  • range of 13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h)
Air Wing:-


Armament:-


Status:- currently deployed and in active service.
 

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Nuclear submarines of the Indian navy

INS Chakra:-

DN-SC-89-03179 INS Chakra submarine - Charlie-class submarine -.jpg


K-43 was a Charlie-class nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine operated by the Soviet and Indian navies. It was built between 1964 and 1967 and was commissioned into the Soviet navy on 5 November 1967.[1] It later served as INS Chakra in the Indian Navy from 1988 to 1991.
In October 1986, the Soviet Politburo declared that they intend to transfer a Charlie-class submarine to India for training purposes. It was the first time a nuclear submarine was ever transferred to any other country.[6] It was decided so as to prove Soviet Union's commitment to strengthening India. But some politicians expressed serious negative consequences due to the transfer. However, the politburo headed by Gorbachev decided that the political benefits outweighs the concerns.

The submarine was the first step in what would soon lead to the formation of the Indian nuclear triad consisting of nuclear ballistic missile submarines. Operating these and the subsequent class of soviet leased submarines would help India design and operate its nuclear submarines in the future.

War History:-

the submarine did not take part in any naval combat during its service in the Indian navy.

Stats:-

  • It had a length of 94 m (308 ft) overall, a beam of 10 m (33 ft) and a draft of 8 m (26 ft)
  • It displaced 4,000 tonnes
  • It can achieve a maximum speed of 16 knots when surfaced and 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph) when submerged
  • It's range was unlimited and it would only stop for resupply of food and change of crew
Armament:-

Status:- Returned to the soviet union after 3 years of service. this was due to the fact that the soviets did not allow Indians into the missile room and into the reactor compartment and this is believed to be a reason for the termination of the contract after 3 years.
 

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INS Chakra 2:-

Indian Navy Submarine INS Chakra.jpg


On January 23, the K-152 Nerpa nuclear submarine (Project 971U Shchuka-B class) was officially handed over to the Indian Navy under a lease agreement at the Zvezda shipyard in the town of Bolshoi Kamen. The submarine was commissioned as INS Chakra II and will be operated exclusively by the Indian crew, without participation by Russian specialists, for 10 years. The contract is worth more than $900 million. The INS chakra 2 orginally known as k-152 was conceived and planned at the Amur Shipbuilding Plant in late 1991 under serial number 518. It was originally planned to complete the construction and full testing within four or five years but construction was later suspended owing to cash crunch. The decision to complete the project at the Amur Shipbuilding Plant was made in October 1999. Standing right on the building berth of the shipyard, Vladimir Putin said: “We will finish building this boat on the site.”
In January 2004, Russian Defence Minister Sergei Ivanov visited India and signed an agreement on construction and lease of the nuclear submarine.

War History:-

While the submarine had not participated in any conflict it was ready and on standby during the doklam crises and was deployed to search the Pakistani submarine PNS saad during balakot crises.

Stats:-

  • The boat has a displacement of 8,140/12,700 tonnes
  • can reach a speed of 33 knots (62 km/h) submerged and has a maximum operating depth of 600 metres.
  • The hull was built using low magnetic steel instead of titanium.
  • it had a length of 108.0–111.7 m beam of 13.5 m draught of 9.6 m
  • its range is unlimited and only limited by crew endurance and food

Armament:-

  • It includes four 533mm and four 650mm torpedo tubes capable of launching Granat cruise missiles with an engagement range of 3,000 kilometers.
  • It also has Shkval, Vodopad and Veter underwater missiles and rocket-shot torpedoes.
  • he submarine is also able to deploy mines.
Status:- Currently in service and active duty.
 

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Arihant class submarines:-

download.jpg


Arihant class submarines originally started under the project code names ATV(Advanced technology vessel) which was a plan to construct both SSN and SSBN.
Over the time as India's premier nuclear agency BARC matured Indian policymakers would start to think and consider about achieving credible nuclear deterrence in the form of nuclear triad.

The plan for the Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) until the late 1980s, was to build an SSN - a fast-moving deep-diving nuclear-powered attack submarine, which would hunt surface ships. Around the time India leased a Charlie-I class nuclear-powered attack submarine from the Soviet Union, which happened in 1988, planning veered towards building a submarine carrying ballistic missiles. The hull design was lengthened and the SSN quietly transformed into an SSBN.

The Project code named Advanced Technology Vessel (ATV) Project took 25 years for completion. It spawned a new era in the field of cooperation between DRDO, BARC, Navy, PSUs and private industry in which these organisations synergised their efforts to achieve a significant technological and strategic milestone.

The Arihant class( nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines)- INS Arihant (S73), INS Aridhaman (S74) are built for the Indian Navy by Navy Shipbuilding Centre, Visakhapatnam. The miniaturised naval version of the reactor was designed and built by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) in Kalpakkam. Several companies supplied components of the reactor. High grade steel supplied by Heavy Engineering Corporation, Ranchi was used to build the reactor vessel. The steam generator was provided by BHEL; and Audco India, Chennai built the pressure valves. Separately, infrastructure for testing the reactor subsystems was set up at the Machinery Test Center in Visakhapatnam. Facilities for loading and replacing the fuel cores of the naval reactors in berthed submarines were also established at the Ship Building Center.

The Arihant's 83Mw pressurised water reactor (PWR) has also been built with considerable assistance from the Russians, who are said to have helped scientists at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) in miniaturising the reactor to fit into the 10m diameter hull of the nuclear submarine.

India's private sector helped out the $2.9-billion project in significant ways. The hull for the vessel was built by L&T's Hazira shipbuilding facility, Tata Power built the control systems for the submarine, while the systems for the steam turbine integrated with the reactor are supplied by Walchandnagar Industries, reported DNA newspaper in 2009.

Arihant was officially launched in 2009. The onboard reactor reached criticality in 2013, and the ship began sea trials in late 2014. It was officially commissioned into service in August 2016

The second ship in class, Aridhaman, is under construction in Visakhapatnam, and India plans to have as many as four boomers by 2020—the same number as the United Kingdom and France. With the four nuclear-armed boats completed, India may finally achieve its goal of strategic invulnerability.

For India the experience gained from Arihant would help it to plan much bigger and newer class of SSBN code named the S5 class.

MILITARY_ India’s submarine programme infographic.png


War History:-

Nuclear submarines around the globe have certain positions and routes which they tend to follow throughout their deployment. These routes and their locations are national secrets and no information is generally available in public domains.
Therefore one can conclude that these submarines will be present at their required positions when they are called to do so.

SSBN carry nuclear warheads and therefore will never operate like a conventional submarines. Even during a conflicted they are expected to remain silent and stay away from the war zone only to be used by the government when all the other options have failed.

Stats:-

  • Arihant can do twelve to fifteen knots on the surface and twenty-four knots underwater.
  • It's length is 110M beam 11M and draught 9M.
  • It's range is unlimited and only limited by crew endurance and food.
  • It weighs 6,000t.
Armament:-

  • The submarine was built with four missile tubes mounted in a hump behind the conning tower. The four can carry twelve K-15 Sagarika (“Oceanic”)short-range ballistic missiles. K-15 has a maximum range of just 434 miles, making it capable of hitting just the southern half of Pakistan. These missiles can be launched even under ice caps.
  • The sub can carry four K-4 medium-range ballistic missiles with a 2,174-mile range, capable of hitting targets as far away as Beijing. Both the K-4 and the K-15 are nuclear capable, but the warhead yield is unknown.
  • It also has 6 × 21" (533 mm) torpedo tubes – est 30 charges (torpedoes, cruise missiles or mines).

Status:- currently in service.
 

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Conventional submarines of the Indian navy

Kalvari class submarines:-


download (1).jpg


Kalvari-class submarines were the first submarines inducted into the Indian Navy. They were variants of the early Soviet Foxtrot-class submarines. Four of the class served in the Indian Navy. Four additional variants of the later Foxtrot class were inducted as the Vela class. The Foxtrot-class group of submarines became the most successful of the Soviet post-World War 2 diesel-electric attack submarine offerings. The Foxtrot design was eventually made available to several Soviet-aligned nations and the first foreign operator of the series became India. Eight new-build boats were delivered to the Indian Navy from the period spanning 1968 to 1975 and these were renamed as part of the Kalvari-class.
The first submarine, KALVARI was commissioned in the Baltic in December 1967. After the 1967 Arab Israel war, the Suez Canal had closed. The frigate TALWAR was sent to the Baltic to escort KALVARI back to India via the Cape of Good Hope. KALVARI arrived in Visakhapatnam in July 1968.

After commissioning, each submarine did a three month combat work up in the Baltic before departing for India. Since the Suez Canal was closed, the maiden voyages were around the Cape of Good Hope. The first two submarines were escorted by Indian naval ships, the latter two came on their own. The first four submarines arrived between July 1968 and May 1970 and were based in Visakhapatnam.

The Defence Minister Chavan visited Russia in the year 1965. The Defence Minister's delegation were shown a submarine, a submarine depot ship, and small craft like a missile boat, a torpedo boat and a patrol boat. The Naval Commander-in-Chief of the USSR Fleet in the Gulf of Leningrad told Chavan that it was perhaps for the first time in their naval history that foreign civilians were being invited to come aboard a Soviet submarine. The assessments of the naval members of the delegation were that the submarines were suitable for India's needs. On 01 September 65, the Delegation signed an agreement for the acquisition of four submarines.

Save for the Indian boats, all export-minded Foxtrot boats were accordingly fitted with lesser electronics and weapons - keeping the Soviet models ahead of any possible ally-turned-adversary.

War History:-

These submarines did not take part in any naval conflict being one of the first class of submarines for the Indian navy they were not used extensively and many of the subsequent models were behest with lack of spares which lead to a decrease in its operational time.

Stats:-

  • The boats displaced 2,0000 tons when surfaced and 2,515 tons when submerged.
  • Overall length was 295 feet with a beam of 24.2 feet and a draught down to 19.3 feet.
  • Performance included a maximum surfaced speed of 16 knots and a maximum submerged speed of 15 knots.
  • Range was out to 20,000 nautical miles giving the Foxtrot-class excellent reach.
Armament:-

  • It was 10 x torpedo tubes with six located at the bow and four at the stern. Twenty-two torpedo reloads were carried.
  • 44 mines in lieu of torpedoes.
Status:- Most have been scrapped with two of the submarines still having their sail fin on display. one of the submarine has been converted into a museum in the coastal city of Vishakapatnam while an other lies in Chennai to be eventually converted into a museum.

Vizag submarine museum - Foxtrot-class submarine - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.jpg
 

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Sindhughosh class submarines:-

Russia offers to help repair India’s Kilo class submarines.jpg


Sindhughosh-class submarines are Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines in active service with the Indian Navy.
The Sindhughosh submarines, designated 877EKM, were designed as part of Project 877, and built under a contract between Rosvooruzhenie and the Ministry of Defence (India). A lot of silencing went into the Kilos. The hull is described as having the approximate shape of a drop of water and greatly reducing water resistance over older, World War II–era submarine designs. The propulsion plant is isolated on a rubber base so it doesn’t touch the hull, preventing vibrations from turning into noise that can be heard outside the boat. The ship has a rubbery anechoic coating to deaden noise emanating from the submarine, which occasionally gives the submarines a blocky appearance noticeable in photographs. The air regeneration system can keep the crew supplied with oxygen for up to 260 hours, giving the ship almost two weeks’ worth of underwater endurance.
The sensor suite consists of the MGK-400 Rubikon (Shark Gill) low-frequency active and passive radar suite with a passive hull array. It also has a MG519 Mouse Roar high-frequency radar for target classification and mine avoidance. For simple surface navigation and search the Kilos are equipped with the MRK-50 Albatros radar. While both the Kilo- and Improved-Kilo-Class are quiet, the latter has reportedly been called “Black Holes” by the U.S. Navy due to their noise-reduction measures.

One of the submarine INS sindhurakshak on 14 August 2013, the Sindhurakshak sank after explosions caused by a fire on board when the submarine was berthed at Mumbai. The fire, followed by a series of ordnance blasts on the armed submarine, occurred shortly after midnight. The fire was put out within two hours though, due to damage from the explosions, the submarine sank and was partially submerged in 15 metres deep water at its berth, with only a portion of the sail visible above the water surface.

Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar has said that the massive explosion that ripped apart the submarine and shook Mumbai in August 2013 could not be blamed to any individual in particular as no one survived. “Since none of the officers and sailors present inside the submarine survived, it has not been possible to attribute any blame to any individual for failure or negligence, if any,” Parrikar has said in a written reply in the Rajya Sabha.

INS Sindhurakshak brought out of water after 10 months - The Economic Times.jpg


INS sindhurakshak being brought out of the water after the accident.

War History:-

These submarines did not take part in any naval conflict but a few incidents are worth highlighting. In March 2013, while returning from the refit, Sindhurakshak encountered severe storms in the Mediterranean Sea when it was travelling near Alexandria. This was part of the submarine's extensive three-month-long deployment, where it traveled 10,000 miles. The severity of the storms prevented the Alexandria port authorities from sending a tugboat, and the shallow waters prevented the submarine from diving. An emergency call was placed via the Indian Ministry of External Affairs to the Egyptian Navy, which sent its latest tugboats and towed the submarine to Port Said.


These submarines for now remain the tip of the spear of the underwater arm of the navy. These submarines regularly patrol areas of interest and important shipping lanes.

They were also deployed during the balakot crises along with p-8i anti submarine aircraft to hunt the the Pakistani submarine PNS saad.

Stats:-

  • The sub’s submerged displacement is around 4,000 tons.
  • The operational range is roughly 6,000 to 7,500 kilometers.
  • Speed is roughly 17 knots, or nearly twenty miles per hour.
  • The length is 72.6 m (238 ft) the beam is 9.9 m (32 ft) the draught is 6.6 m (22 ft).

Armament:-

  • 9M36 Strela-3 (SA-N-8) surface-to-air missile.
  • 3M-54 Klub-S anti-ship and land-attack missiles.
  • Type 53-65 passive wake-homing torpedo.
  • TEST 71/76 anti-submarine active-passive homing torpedo.
  • 24 × DM-1 mines in lieu of torpedo tube.
  • It has the standard 533-millimeter torpedos.
Status:- Of the ten that were constructed eight remain in service. Two of the subs have been retired.
 

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Shishumar class submarines:-

SUBMARINE ship boat military navy.jpg


The Shishumar class vessels are diesel-electric attack submarines developed by germany and in service the Indian navy. These submarines are a lengthier and heavier Indian variant of the Type 209 submarines developed by the German yard Howaldtswerke-Deutsche Werft (HDW) under the internal designation Type 1500. The first two vessels were built by HDW at Kiel, while the remainder were built at Mazagon Dock Limited (MDL), Mumbai under a technology transfer agreement.

12 countries operate the Type 209 submarine in five variants. The suffix denotes the tonnage displacement of the submarine: Type 209/1100 in service with the Hellenic Navy; Type 209/1200 (Greece, Turkey, Argentina, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela, Indonesia, South Korean Chang Bogo Class), Type 209/1300 (Ecuador), Type 209/1400 (Turkey, Chile, Brazil, Greece and South Africa) and Type 209/1500 (India).

these submarines have seen widespread adoption by various countries around the globe due to their stealthiness and low cost. Many countries have also produced their own variants through the transfer of technology.

The Shishumar class built for and by India is unique for having an IKL-designed integrated escape sphere. The sphere has accommodations for the entire crew with an eight-hour air supply.

These submarines were constructed in the late 1960's and were some of the most modern submarines at that time. While the German navy didn't operate these submarines themselves these models were widely exported and over 61 have been produced.

In Indian strategic circles this project is often considered as the prime example of the bureaucracy that generally involves such high level major military projects. Due to inefficient and slow decision making coupled with lack of long term strategic planning India ended up losing all the knowledge it gained while constructing this submarine.

This would be visible when India would start constructing the next generation of kalvari class submarines and would be forced to learn the steep curve of constructing submarines again.

War History:-

These submarines have not taken part in any major naval conflict due to the lack of any major war in the last few decades. While these submarines would have surely been deployed during the doklam and balakot crises one would never come to know about it as submarine deployments are highly classified.

while not in any major conflict these submarines regularly take part in multinational exercises and make various port calls around the globe as part of Indian military policies.

INS_Shishumar_enters_Port_of_Duqm_Oman.jpg


INS shishumar in Oman as part of India's strategic deployment to increase its global reach and influence.

Stats:-

  • These submarines have a displacement of 1660 tons when surfaced and 1,850 t when submerged.
  • A speed of 22 knots.
  • It has a length of 64.4 m a beam of 6.5 m and draught of 6 m.
  • It's range is 15,000 km at 8 kn and 24,000 km at 10 kn.

Armament:-

  • These submarines are armed with 8 bow 533 mm torpedo tubes and 14 torpedoes.
  • They can also carry 24 mines externally.
  • 2 models of this class also carry block 2 harpoon missiles.
Status:- All are in active service.
 

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Interesting historym the ship was extensively refitted at Sevmash shipyard in Russia. The hull was completed and Vikramaditya was launched in 2008
 

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