Indian Lunar Space Probes and Exploration

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Chandrayaan 2 rover test
images






Chandrayaan 2 images

Rover coming out from lander


All three

 
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Mikesingh

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The Rover of Team Indus looks much slicker than Chandrayaan 2, It is unfortunate that ISRO could not send it to the Moon last year due to unforeseen circumstances losing out on the $20 million prize.

 

Bhumihar

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The Rover of Team Indus looks much slicker than Chandrayaan 2, It is unfortunate that ISRO could not send it to the Moon last year due to unforeseen circumstances losing out on the $20 million prize.

Good to see our own private enterprises taking part in our space ambition.
Cant wait for the day when have several of our own space x like comapnies.
 
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Chandrayaan-2 nearly ready for July launch
NEW DELHI: Isro has entered the last leg of testing of Chandrayaan-2 with integration nearly complete. Final tests are happening at Mahendragiri in Tamil Nadu and Byalalu in Bengaluru. The agency is looking at a July 9 launch.
As part of Isro’s present schedule, spacecraft will leave Bengaluru on June 19, and reach the launchpad in Sriharikota on June 20 or 21. From 3D mapping to finding water molecules, and from checking out minerals to landing where nobody has landed, scientists say Isro has prepared to land a “dream on the Moon”.
 
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Good to see our own private enterprises taking part in our space ambition.
Cant wait for the day when have several of our own space x like comapnies.
There are a couple of such companies already emerging. Bellatrix Aerospace, Agnikul etc. for launch vehicle technology.

A number of companies are already into satellite manufacturing. A very strong ecosystem for space economy will be there in one or two decades. We will have a ULA like launch company soon.

Team Indus is however is just a for profit organization playing with relatively primitive tech to somehow earn revenue (in form of prize), something not to be taken seriously.
 
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ISRO releases first pictures of Chandrayaan-2 at Bengaluru Satellite Integration and Testing facility

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is gearing up to launch India's second lunar mission Chandrayaan-2 as per schedule in July. The ISRO on Wednesday shared the first pictures of Chandrayaan-2 the lander and orbiter at its Satellite Integration and Testing establishment in Bengaluru.
The lunar mission is scheduled to launch during the window of 9 July to 16 July 16 with an expected Moon landing on 6 September 2019. Chandrayaan 2 has three modules namely Orbiter, Lander (Vikram) and Rover (Pragyan). The Orbiter and Lander modules will be interfaced mechanically and stacked together as an integrated module and accommodated inside the GSLV MK-III launch vehicle while the Rover is housed inside the Lander.
After launching into earth-bound orbit by GSLV MK-III, the integrated module will reach Moon orbit using Orbiter propulsion module. Subsequently, Lander will separate from the Orbiter and soft land at the predetermined site close to lunar South Pole.
Further, the Rover will roll out for carrying out scientific experiments on the lunar surface. Instruments are also mounted on Lander and Orbiter for carrying out scientific experiments.
The scientific experiments include finding water and special minerals on the lunar surface. The spacecraft will carry 11 payloads – six from India, three from Europe, two from USA. GSLV MKIII, which will be carrying house the moon lander, weighs 3.8 tonnes.
Chandrayaan-2 comes 10 years after ISRO launched its first lunar mission, Chandrayaan-1, in 2009. The mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor but didn`t include a rover like Chandrayaan-2.
Speaking to news agency ANI, former ISRO chairman G Madhavan Nair had said, "Chandrayaan-2 is going to be an exciting mission as far as the Indian space programme is concerned. In 2008, we had sent our first satellite to the moon successfully. It has collected a lot of information about the surface of the moon, its mineral contents and so on. Also, we had the opportunity to place the Indian national flag on the surface of the moon."
Elaborating on Chandrayaan-2, he had said, "There were a lot of complexities associated with this mission. Since the development of the system is complete, we are ready for the mission. More importantly, it is important to carry a rover and make it land on the surface of the moon and then move around for about 300-500 meters and collect samples from the surface of the moon."
 

IndianHawk

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The Rover of Team Indus looks much slicker than Chandrayaan 2, It is unfortunate that ISRO could not send it to the Moon last year due to unforeseen circumstances losing out on the $20 million prize.

Don't fall for looks. I'm pretty sure ISRO rover will be more advanced , more useful and more practical after all ISRO knows much more about loonar surface than any private entity.

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Jun 18, 2019
Second Lunar Science Meet at ISRO HQ
Chandrayaan-2 is the forthcoming science mission to continue our study on the origin and evolution of the Moon. It carries 8 Orbiter payloads, 3 Lander payloads, 2 Rover payloads and a passive experiment contributed by NASA. To maximise the science outcome from this mission and to increase the user base, a series of science meetings were planned. The first one in the series was conducted on September 27th, 2018.
In this context, the second Lunar Science Meet was organised at ISRO HQ during June 13 – 14, 2019 and brought together 60 scientists and researchers from various research institutions, universities, colleges, ISRO centres and laboratories. Data analysis methodology of four Orbiter payloads, such as Infrared Spectrometer, Synthetic Aperture Radar, X-ray Spectrometer and Mass Spectrometer covering the steps involved in converting the payload data to science products was discussed in detail, by payload teams. The seven thematic science working groups, presented their plan to utilise data from multiple Chandrayaan-2 payloads. Working group members discussed within their groups and cross-group interactions were also enabled on both the days.
During the science meet, the Indian lunar science community was also briefed about the future lunar program which is envisaged as a joint ISRO – JAXA lunar polar exploration mission.
 
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During the science meet, the Indian lunar science community was also briefed about the future lunar program which is envisaged as a joint ISRO – JAXA lunar polar exploration mission.
So, as Selene-2 cancelled, Chandrayaan-2 departing next month and Chandrayaan-3 officially announced, I guess Chandrayaan-3 would be a joint Indo Japanese robotic mission to moon. However, whether Japan will go ahead with India or not will depend upon success of Chandrayaan-2.

Just my theory.
 
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Inching towards the edge of discovery
Are you ready for the unknown?
Chandrayaan 2 is an Indian lunar mission that will boldly go where no country has ever gone before — the Moon's south polar region. Through this effort, the aim is to improve our understanding of the Moon — discoveries that will benefit India and humanity as a whole. These insights and experiences aim at a paradigm shift in how lunar expeditions are approached for years to come — propelling further voyages into the farthest frontiers.


Why are we going to the Moon?
The Moon is the closest cosmic body at which space discovery can be attempted and documented. It is also a promising test bed to demonstrate technologies required for deep-space missions. Chandrayaan 2 attempts to foster a new age of discovery, increase our understanding of space, stimulate the advancement of technology, promote global alliances, and inspire a future generation of explorers and scientists.

What are the scientific objectives of Chandrayaan 2? Why explore the lunar South Pole?
The Moon provides us the best linkage to Earth's early history and an undisturbed record of the nascent Solar System environment. While a few mature models do exist, the Moon's origin still needs further explanations. Extensive mapping of the lunar surface will aid us in studying variations in its composition — an essential piece of information in tracing the Moon's origin and evolution. Evidence of water molecules — discovered by Chandrayaan 1 — and the extent of its distribution on the lunar surface and sub-surface also require further studies.

The lunar South Pole is especially interesting because a larger section of its surface stays in the shadow than the North Pole. There is a possibility of the presence of water in permanently shadowed areas around it. In addition, the south polar region has craters that are cold traps, containing a fossilised record of the early Solar System.

Chandrayaan 2 will use the Vikram lander and Pragyan rover to attempt a soft landing in a high plain between two craters — Manzinus C and Simpelius N — at a latitude of about 70° south.
 
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1st space mission to conduct a soft landing on the Moon's south polar region


1st Indian expedition to attempt a soft landing on the lunar surface with home-grown technology


1st Indian mission to explore the lunar terrain with home-grown technology


4th country ever to soft land on the lunar surface
 
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Launcher and the Spacecraft

Launcher
The GSLV Mk-III is India's most powerful launcher to date, and has been completely designed and fabricated from within the country.
Click here >


Orbiter
The Orbiter will observe the lunar surface and relay communication between Earth and Chandrayaan 2's Lander — Vikram.
Click here >


Vikram Lander
The lander is designed to execute India's first soft landing on the lunar surface.
Click here >



Pragyan Rover
The rover is a 6-wheeled, AI-powered vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to 'wisdom' in Sanskrit.
Click here >
 
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Spacecraft
Chandrayaan 2 will be aided in achieving its mission by some of India's most advanced engineering marvels. Its integrated module, which comprises technology and software developed across the country, includes ISRO's most powerful launch vehicle to date and a wholly indigenous rover. Some of the advancements on the spacecraft include:

Lander capable of 'Soft Landing' on the lunar surface

Algorithm wholly developed by India's scientific community

Rover capable of conducting in-situ payload experiments

Orbiter
Weight

2,379 kg

Electric Generation Capability

1,000 W

At the time of launch, the Chandrayaan 2 Orbiter will be capable of communicating with Indian Deep Space Network (IDSN) at Byalalu as well as the VikramLander. The mission life of the Orbiter is one year and it will be placed in a 100X100 km lunar polar orbit.



Lander — Vikram
Weight

1,471 kg

Electric Generation Capability

650 W

The Lander of Chandrayaan 2 is named Vikram after Dr Vikram A Sarabhai, the Father of the Indian Space Programme. It is designed to function for one lunar day, which is equivalent to about 14 Earth days. Vikram has the capability to communicate with IDSN at Byalalu near Bangalore, as well as with the Orbiter and Rover. The Lander is designed to execute a soft landing on the lunar surface.

Rover — Pragyan
Weight

27 kg

Electric Generation Capability

50 W

Chandrayaan 2's Rover is a 6-wheeled robotic vehicle named Pragyan, which translates to 'wisdom' in Sanskrit. It can travel up to 500 m (½-a-km) and leverages solar energy for its functioning. It can only communicate with the Lander.

 
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Key payloads
  • Chandrayaan 2 Large Area Soft X-ray Spectrometer
  • Elemental composition of the Moon
  • Imaging IR Spectrometer
  • Mineralogy mapping and water-ice confirmation
  • Synthetic Aperture Radar L & S Band
  • Polar-region mapping and sub-surface water-ice confirmation
  • Orbiter High Resolution Camera
  • High-res topography mapping
  • Chandra's Surface Thermo-physical Experiment
  • Thermal conductivity and temperature gradient
  • Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer and Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscope
  • In-situ elemental analysis and abundance in the vicinity of landing site
 

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