Indian Lunar Space Probes and Exploration

Karthi

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Lunar Seismic Activity Studying instrument

Photograph of instrument for lunar seismic activity (ILSA) package.jpg


Photograph of ILSA


Schematic representation of silicon microstructure acting as the sensing element..jpg



Schematic rep of silicon microstructure as sensing element.

Overall architecture of the ILSA.jpg


architecture of ILSA


Photograph of 1″ × 4″ hybrid micro circuit with sensors and  front end electronics for ILSA.jpg

1″ × 4″ hybrid micro circuit with sensors and front end electronics for ILSA.


Photographs of coarse and fine range MEMS sensor elements (a) with SEM image showing the elect...jpg


coarse and fine range MEMS sensor elements for ILSA
 

Karthi

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Terrain mapping camera onboard Chandrayaan 2.

TMC-2 flight model.jpg



TMC-2 logic and control electronics card..jpg


TMC-2 logic and control electronics card.


TMC-2 power supply electronics card.jpg

TMC-2 power supply electronics card.




Optical schematic of terrain mapping camera-2.jpg


Optical schematic of terrain mapping camera-2.
 

Karthi

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Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer
Schematic representation of 4 metallic calibration targets used on-board APXS.jpg

Schematic representation of 4 metallic calibration targets used on-board APXS.

Experimental setup for characterization of APXS.jpg



Experimental setup for characterization of APXS.

Encapsulated 244Cm alpha source.jpg



Encapsulated 244Cm alpha source.


Flight model package of APXS - Side view .jpg


Flight model of APXS Side view

Flight model package of APXS -front view (right).jpg



Flight model of APXS -front view

APXS mechanical model..jpg



APXS mechanical model.

APXS in stowed condition.jpg


APXS in stowed condition onboard Pragyaan.

APXS deployed condition (bottom)..jpg


APXS in deployed condition
 

Haldilal

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Ya'll Nibbiars Photographs of the lunar surface region between Manzinus C & Simpelius N taken on Mar 2. So far 22 orbit images with ~1056 sq. km area has been acquired by CY-2's OHRC. It is used to characterise landing sites for future missions & to interpret geologic features & history of a region.
EhWyI5hWAAAAZbm.jpeg
 

Haldilal

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Ya'll Nibbiars ISRO will strengthen the legs, change the software & algorithms, ensure better power & comms, add Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) & remove the central engine from the lander for the CY-3 mission. Pics from CY-2, the 4 visible engines will remain on CY-3.
 

indiatester

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Ya'll Nibbiars ISRO will strengthen the legs, change the software & algorithms, ensure better power & comms, add Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) & remove the central engine from the lander for the CY-3 mission. Pics from CY-2, the 4 visible engines will remain on CY-3.
Do they test scaled models on earth to figure out any bugs with the software?
 

indiatester

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They reduced one engine. 4 instead of 5, what caused entire imbalance last time.
The software should have balanced it with controlling the thrust between the different engines don't you think?
On ground testing, they should be able to test multiple failure and recovery scenarios. Just wondering if they do that.
 
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The software should have balanced it with controlling the thrust between the different engines don't you think?
On ground testing, they should be able to test multiple failure and recovery scenarios. Just wondering if they do that.
They should but point remains is that why put too many engines and make calibration difficult. I heard that he they didn't even do sufficient drop tests last either. Will do things cautiously this time.
 

Haldilal

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Ya'll Nibbiars ISRO did a Lunar night mission survivability test on their Li-ion batteries to establish the battery's ability to support peak power load during lunar day & survive passively at night at -160⁰C for 14 days 336 hrs.
 

indiatester

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They should but point remains is that why put too many engines and make calibration difficult. I heard that he they didn't even do sufficient drop tests last either. Will do things cautiously this time.
It's just sad if they did not test enough the last time.
Drop tests on full size machine is one thing... to iron out other stability issues, they can even use scaled models
 

Eva Braun

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Since the Internet and technology revolution, I always heard about NASA, that they achieved so much in space exploration, that they flew to space, and it is true - they made a lot, but I have never head about another company that helps in space exploration. Now there are other commercial industries that are together. For example, there is rocket XL that is intended for placing payloads into Sun-Synchronous Orbit.
 

Karthi

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IMG_20210312_113705.jpg
IMG_20210312_113711.jpg
IMG_20210312_113733.jpg


ISRO, Japanese space agency review 2024 joint lunar mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Japanese space agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), on Thursday held a virtual meeting to review projects the two are collaborating on, in particular the Lunar Polar Exploration (LUPEX) mission that is likely to be launched some time in 2024. It involves sending a lander and rover on the Moon’s south pole region, much like Chandrayaan-2 attempted.

ISRO Chairman K Sivan interacted with the Japanese delegation, led by JAXA president Hiroshi Yamakawa, wherein they reviewed their ongoing cooperation in Earth observation, lunar exploration and satellite navigation. The Lupex mission is being planned to demonstrate new surface exploration technologies related to vehicular transport and lunar night survival for sustainable lunar exploration in the polar regions — the south pole of the Moon in this case. The mission will use a lunar features-matching algorithm along with a navigational equipment from JAXA’s Smart Lander for Investigating Moon mission, and the rover will carry instruments from both the space agencies.

The lander’s payload capacity will be a minimum 350 kg, while the rover will carry multiple instruments, which include a drill to collect sub-surface samples from 1.5 mt depth. Besides this, water prospecting and analysis are also likely to be the mission’s objectives.

The mission aims at an in-situ observation of areas where water is believed to exist, and obtain ground data on the quantity of water, besides understanding the distribution, conditions, form and other parameters of lunar water resources in the polar region. The mission is also meant to obtain data on the quantity and forms of the water resources present on the Moon.


“Through this mission, we also seek to improve the technology needed to explore the surface of low-gravity celestial bodies in order to support future lunar activities. These advancements include technology for mobility, lunar night survival and mining excavation,” JAXA had earlier announced. The launcher and rover are to be developed by Japan and the lander system will be developed by India.

The two sides agreed to explore opportunities for cooperation in space situational awareness and professional exchange programme, according to an official announcement by ISRO. The two space agencies also signed an ‘Implementing Arrangement’ for collaborative activities on rice crop area and air quality monitoring using satellite data, the release added.
 

Karthi

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IMG_20210318_071846.jpg
IMG_20210318_071841.jpg



For the first time, traces of elemental Chromium have been detected on the Moon by CLASS of Chandrayaan-2 (finest X-Ray spectrometer in lunar orbit). And Sodium traces have been reconfirmed after they were first spotted by Chandrayaan-1.

IMG_20210318_072748.jpg



First ever L band radar images of Cabeus Crater, over to the South Pole of the Moon from DF-SAR on Chandrayaan-2
 
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The Isro chief also told TOI that launches of Chandrayaan-3 and Aditya L1 solar missions will happen in the first half of next year as these "missions have a limited and specific launch window within which we have to launch them".
 

Challenger007

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View attachment 81358View attachment 81359View attachment 81360

ISRO, Japanese space agency review 2024 joint lunar mission

The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and the Japanese space agency, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), on Thursday held a virtual meeting to review projects the two are collaborating on, in particular the Lunar Polar Exploration (LUPEX) mission that is likely to be launched some time in 2024. It involves sending a lander and rover on the Moon’s south pole region, much like Chandrayaan-2 attempted.

ISRO Chairman K Sivan interacted with the Japanese delegation, led by JAXA president Hiroshi Yamakawa, wherein they reviewed their ongoing cooperation in Earth observation, lunar exploration and satellite navigation. The Lupex mission is being planned to demonstrate new surface exploration technologies related to vehicular transport and lunar night survival for sustainable lunar exploration in the polar regions — the south pole of the Moon in this case. The mission will use a lunar features-matching algorithm along with a navigational equipment from JAXA’s Smart Lander for Investigating Moon mission, and the rover will carry instruments from both the space agencies.

The lander’s payload capacity will be a minimum 350 kg, while the rover will carry multiple instruments, which include a drill to collect sub-surface samples from 1.5 mt depth. Besides this, water prospecting and analysis are also likely to be the mission’s objectives.

The mission aims at an in-situ observation of areas where water is believed to exist, and obtain ground data on the quantity of water, besides understanding the distribution, conditions, form and other parameters of lunar water resources in the polar region. The mission is also meant to obtain data on the quantity and forms of the water resources present on the Moon.


“Through this mission, we also seek to improve the technology needed to explore the surface of low-gravity celestial bodies in order to support future lunar activities. These advancements include technology for mobility, lunar night survival and mining excavation,” JAXA had earlier announced. The launcher and rover are to be developed by Japan and the lander system will be developed by India.

The two sides agreed to explore opportunities for cooperation in space situational awareness and professional exchange programme, according to an official announcement by ISRO. The two space agencies also signed an ‘Implementing Arrangement’ for collaborative activities on rice crop area and air quality monitoring using satellite data, the release added.
It is wonderful. Our future is in space exploration. And it's great that only Elon Musk deals with this issue. Through the joint efforts of all mankind, we will be able to solve the problem of the planet's overpopulation in the future by creating colonies in Space. While this sounds like science fiction, technology is advancing at a tremendous pace.
 
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Chandrayaan-3 is likely to be launched during third quarter of 2022-Dr Jitendra Singh
Union Minister of State (Independent Charge) Science & Technology; Minister of State (Independent Charge) Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, Atomic Energy and Space, Dr Jitendra Singh said that Chandrayaan-3 is likely to be launched during third quarter of 2022 assuming normal work flow henceforth. In a written reply to a question in the Lok sabha today, he said, realization of Chandrayaan-3 is in progress.
The realization of Chandrayaan-3 involves various process including finalization of configuration, subsystems realization, integration, spacecraft level detailed testing and a number of special tests to evaluate the system performance on earth. The realization progress was hampered due to COVID-19 pandemic. However, all works that were possible in work from home mode were taken up even during lockdown periods. Chandrayaan-3 realization resumed after commencement of unlock period and is in matured stage of realization.
 

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