Indian Historical Timeline debunked

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The chronology of Ancient BHARAT (Part 5 continued)-- Vedveer Arya
Arun Kumar Upadhyay August 15, 2015

The chronology of Ancient BHARAT

Author : VEDVEER ARYA.
Proto VEDIC period (10,000-8000 bce)

· The beginnings of ancient VEDIC civilisation may be assertively claimed to have started its journey of evolution at the start of the Holocene or the epoch of the so-called Neolithic revolution (12,000 bce); the foundations of VEDIC civilisation were laid around 10,000 bce in the region of Sapta Sindhu (Saraswati, Sindhu and the five rivers of Punjab). Some families / groups belonging to this period of VEDIC civilisation migrated to central Asia and Eastern Europe as conclusively proven by the genome studies and archaeological findings in the South-eastern Anatolian region (Turkey).
· Traditionally, VEDIC Rishis were deeply engaged in language studies and laid strong foundations for the evolution of VEDIC Sanskrit from the Proto Indo-Iranian language at an early date. They also founded the tradition of multi-generational record-keeping of astronomical observations that triggered the systematic study and development of Mathematics and Astronomy. VEDIC civilisation had also acquired the essential knowledge and experience to augur the agrarian revolution by 7500 bce, and this period also witnessed considerable internal migration.
· Early VEDIC period (8000 – 5500 bce)
· VEDIC civilisation transformed into an agrarian society around 7500-7000 bce according to the archaeological findings at Mehargarh, Lahuradeva, and Jhusi. Interestingly, VEDIC Rishis seem to have invented a primitive phonetic script that revolutionised language studies at a very early stage. Elementary VEDIC Sanskrit grammar, the rules of conjunction (sandhi), context-free grammar and the rules of Chandas (meters) started evolving by 7500 bce and quite possibly, the script used in the inscriptions found at Vikramkhol, Jharsuguda in Sambalpur district of Orissa may belong to the early and mid-VEDIC period. This script is undoubtedly anterior to the Brahmi script. Most of the hymns of the Rigveda and Yajurveda were written around 8000-7000 bce and various branches of the Vedas also evolved during the period 7000 bce to 5500 bce.
· The lunisolar calendar and the cycle of five year Yuga system were very likely Indian inventions that were in place by 7000 bce. Indian astronomy scaled new heights when Maya wrote the earliest version of Surya Siddhanta at the end of the Krita Yuga i.e. around 5600-5500 bce. The first Surya Vamsa King Iksvaku may have founded his kingdom around 6776-6700 bce.
· Some significant dates of the early VEDIC Period are:
8000-7000 bceThe hymns of Rigveda and Yajurveda were written and the earliest form of phonetic script was possibly invented.
7500-7000 bceThe beginning of the agrarian revolution.
7500-7000 bceThe use of the Lunisolar calendar and the cycle of five year Yuga system. (Interestingly, the first astronomical revolution coincided with the first agrarian revolution.)
7000-5500 bceThe evolution of the various branches of the Vedas.
6776-6700 bceKing Iksvaku founded the kingdom of Surya Vamsa.
6700-5500 bceThe duration of Krita Yuga.
6200 bceMandhata, the most illustrious King of the Krita Yuga flourished.
5600-5500 bceMaya authored the earliest version of Surya Siddhanta at the end of Krita Yuga.
Mid-VEDIC period (5500-3500 bce)
VEDIC people continued their in-depth study of language due to which classical Sanskrit started evolving. Possibly, the basics of advanced Sanskrit fully evolved and classical Sanskrit came into popular use by the end of the Krita Yuga i.e. 5500 bce. Rama, the most illustrious king of the Surya Vamsa, was born in 5114 bce and Maharshi Valmiki wrote the Ramayana, the “Adikavya” (the first poetry in classical Sanskrit) around 5050 bce. Various branches of the Vedas undertook an initiative to formally edit and compile the hymns of Rigveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda according to their traditions around 5000 bce. Most probably, the presently available texts of the Rigveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda were finally edited and compiled around 4500-3500 bce.
Some significant dates of the Mid-VEDIC Period are:
5500 bceThe evolution of classical Sanskrit and the basics of advanced Sanskrit grammar.
5500-4300 bceThe duration of Treta Yuga.
5114 bceThe birth of the greatest King Rama.
5050 bceMaharshi Valmiki authored the earliest version of Ramayana.
5000 bceThe first king of the Pandya dynasty was ruling in what is today Tamilnadu and the first Sangam was convened under the guidance of Maharshi Agastya.
4500-3500 bceThe texts of Rigveda, Yajurveda and Samaveda were finally edited and compiled.
4500-4000 bceSome old Srautasutras like Latyayana, Asvalayana, Sankhayana etc. may have been written prior to the disappearance of the Saraswati River. Interestingly, these Srautasutras refer to the Saraswati as a perennial river. Gobhila Grihyasutra was also written during this period.
4300-3100 bceThe duration of Dvapara Yuga.
4000 bceKaushitaki Brahmana was written.

Post VEDIC period (3500-1650 bce)
The Saraswati was the mightiest river of ancient India and flowed in all her splendour up to 4000 bce. Sutudri (Sutlej), Yamuna and Drishadvati rivers were the main tributaries of the Saraswati. According to geological studies, the Saraswati originated in the glaciers of western Garhwal. Due to major tectonic activities in the Siwalik Hills, the decline of the Saraswati possibly commenced around 4000 bce. The Sutlej suddenly shifted her course westwards and became a tributary of the Indus and probably at the same time, the Yamuna also started flowing eastwards to be another tributary of the Ganga by 3500 bce. Thus, the sudden diversion of the Sutlej and the Yamuna as well as the melting glaciers of Garhwal reduced the Saraswati to be dependent on the Drishadvati and seasonal streams by 3500 bce and eventually, by 3000 bce, both the Saraswati and the Drishadvati dried up completely. Politically, the great kingdom of Surya Vamsa declined by 4200-4000 bce. Kuru founded the rule of the Kaurava dynasty and shifted the capital from Prayaga to Kuruksetra around 3900 bce. Brihadratha I founded the rule of Brihadratha dynasty in Magadha and made Girivraja or Rajagriha as his capital around 3700 bce. Gopala also founded the rule of the Gopala dynasty in Nepal around 3700 bce and at the same time, Naraka and Bhagadatta established the rule of their dynasty in Kamarupa (Assam) around 3700 bce. Gonanda I reigned in Kashmir around 3147 bce and was the contemporary of the Magadha king Jarasandha. The Mahabharata war took place around 3128 bce.
Various Brahmanas, Aranyakas, Pratisakhyas, Upanishads, and Sulbasutras were written during this period.
Some important dates of the post VEDIC period are:
4000-3000 bceThe disappearance of the Saraswati River and the decline of Indus-Saraswati civilisation.
3900 bceKing Kuru founded the Kaurava dynasty in Kuruksetra.
3700 bceBrihadratha I founded his dynasty in Magadha.
3700 bceGopala I was ruling in Nepal and Naraka or Bhagadatta was ruling in Kamarupa (Assam).
3148-3147 bceGonanda I was ruling in Kashmir and Jarasandha of Brihadratha dynasty was ruling in Magadha.
3128 bceThe year of the Mahabharata war and the coronation of King Yudhishthira.
3102 bceThe epoch of the Kaliyuga era commenced in 3102 bce. Various Siddhantas of Indian astronomy started evolving around 5000-3000 bce. Surya Siddhanta was completely updated and the concept of Mahayugas and 14 Manvantaras was introduced in Astronomy. The earlier Yuga of 1200 years was multiplied by 360 to get 432000 years and introduced the differential duration of Yugas in a ratio 4:3:2:1 i.e. Krita (432000 x 4), Treta (432000 x 3), Dvapara (432000 x 2) and Kali (432000 x 1).
3500-2500 bceAtharvaveda was finally edited and compiled.
3200-3100 bceThe date of the Aitareya Brahmana.
3200-2400 bceThe date of the Taittiriya Aranyaka.
3200-2500 bcePossibly, the Brahmi script evolved from an ancient phonetic script (the script used in the Vikramkhol inscriptions) and became popular over the whole of India by the Mahabharata era and later became the root of all other Indian scripts. (It is quite likely that the script found on the seals of Indus-Saraswati civilisation was used by Bahlikas, who were ruling in the western parts of ancient India around 4000-3000 bce; gradually, the Kharoshthi script evolved and became popular in the western parts of ancient India around 3000-2500 bce. Yavanas emerged as powerful kings after 3000 bce who used Yavanani script (later adopted by ancient Greeks). The Rabatak inscription of Kanishka (1950-1910 bce) found in 1993 ce in Afghanistan is written in Yavanani or the so-called ancient Greek script that clearly tells us that Kanishka introduced the Aryan language (Sanskrit) and script by replacing the Yavana language and script. Thus, the Yavanas gradually learnt Sanskrit and became Indianised.
3000-2000 bceThe date of Various Sulbasutras (Baudhayana, Apastamba, Manava, Katyayana etc.).
2950 bceThe date of Satapatha Brahmana.
2719-2718 bceAryabhata wrote his astronomical work titled “Aryabhatiyam”. (TS Narayana Sastry claims that many old manuscripts of Aryabhatiyam mention the birth of Aryabhata in the 360th year elapsed (2742 bce) and not the 3600th year elapsed (498 ce) from the epoch of Kaliyuga. Varahamihira (156-74 bce) used the verb “Jagada” in remote past tense which unambiguously indicates that Aryabhata was not his contemporary. Interestingly, all astronomical texts written after the epoch of the Saka era (583 bce) invariably refer to the Saka era except Aryabhatiyam which indicates that Aryabhata flourished prior to the introduction of the Saka era (583 bce). Therefore, Aryabhata cannot be dated around 476 ce or 498 ce.)
2700-2600 bceLatadeva, the disciple of Aryabhata, might have authored “Surya Siddhanta”. (It seems that Latadeva tried to establish a balance between traditional approach and radical (scientific) approach of Aryabhata.)
2300 bceThe date of the Taittiriya Brahmana.
2200-2000 bceYavanesvara wrote “Yavanasiddhanta” or “Horarthasastra” in the Yavana language (Bactrian or Bahlika language). Sphujidhvaja, the later king of the Yavanas, translated it into Sanskrit around 1500-1000 bce. The same Sanskrit translation of Sphujidhvaja was re-produced as “Yavanajatakam” by an unknown author after Saka 56 (528-527 bce). This unknown author wrote the 79th chapter of Yavanajataka with the objective of presenting the Yavana siddhanta with reference to lunisolar astronomy.
3138-2132 bceThe rule of Brihadratha dynasty.
2500-2200 bceThe establishment of Taksasila University.
2214-2213 bceBuddha was born on 6th April 2214 bce. According to Tibetan Sa-skya-pa scholars, Buddha was born in Earth-Dragon year (2214-2213 bce).
2134-2133 bceBuddha attained Mahaparinirvana on 23rd Mar 2134 bce. Tibetan Sa-skya-pa tradition seems to be most authentic and Kalhana’s Rajatarangini also supports it. According to Sa- skya-pa scholars, Buddha attained nirvana in the boundary of the Fire-Pig year (2134 bce) and the Earth-Mouse year (2133 bce).
2200-2100 bceParsvanath, the 23rd Tirthankara of the Jainas was a contemporary of Buddha.
2034-1881 bceKashmir Kings Asoka (2034-2000 bce), Jaloka (2000-1990 bce), Damodara II (1990-1984 bce), Hushka (1984-1960 bce), Jushka (1960-1950 bce), Kanishka (1950-1910 bce) and Abhimanyu (1910-1881 bce) flourished. According to Kalhana, Hushka, Jushka and Kanishka flourished 150 years after the date of the nirvana of Buddha. (The Rabatak inscription of Kanishka is written in ancient Greek script. Actually, this script was used by the Yavanas of Afghanistan, Persia and central Asia [most probably, the Indian migrants of the early VEDIC era] which was referred to by Panini as “Yavanani”. The same script of the Yavanas was later adopted by ancient Greeks. Therefore, the so-called Greek script is originally the script of the Yavanas. Most probably, the astronomical school of the Yavanas [Yavana Siddhanta] influenced Babylonian and Egyptian astronomy.)
1950-1949 bceThe date of Rabatak inscription of Kanishka (1st regnal year).
1881 bceKashmir King Gonanda III ascended the throne.
2132-1994 bceThe rule of Pradyota dynasty.
1994-1616 bceThe rule of Sisunaga dynasty.
2500-2200 bceThe date of “Manusmriti”.
2500-2200 bceThe date of Panini and Pingala (Ashtadhyayi and Chandasastra).
1800-1600 bceThe date of “Charaka Samhita” and “Sushruta Samhita”.
1660 bceThe date of Maitrayaniya Aranyaka Upanishad.

Imperial era or Early Classical period (1650-200 bce)
Mahapadma Nanda founded a powerful Magadha empire around 1616 bce or roughly over 1500 years later from the date of the Mahabharata war (3128 bce). Chandragupta Maurya dethroned the Nandas and established the great Maurya dynasty around 1516 bce. Later, the Sungas, Kanvas, Satavahanas and Guptas ruled over the Magadha Empire. Mahavira, the 24th Tirthankara of Jainas, attained nirvana in 1189 bce.
Kautilya’s Arthasastra, Vedanga Jyotisha, Parasaratantra, Patanjali’s Mahabhashya, and most of the Ayurveda, Smriti, & philosophical works were written during this period. The Pali and Prakrit literature of Buddhism and Jainism also came into existence. The outlines of the chronology of Imperial or early classical period are as follows:
1634 bceAccording to “Milindapanho”, the Yavana king Milinda flourished 500 years after the date of the nirvana of Buddha.
1616-1516 bceThe rule of the Nanda dynasty.
1606 bceKing Jayavarman of Surya Vamsa was ruling in Nepal.
1516-1217 bceThe rule of the Maurya dynasty.
1300-1200 bceKharavela of Mahameghavahana dynasty was ruling in Kalinga.
1261 bceMahavira born on 28th Feb 1261 bce.
1189-88 bceMahavira attained nirvana on 22nd Oct 1189 bce.
1216-916 bceThe rule of the Sunga dynasty
1000-600 bceAmaravati and Nagarjunakonda emerged as Buddhist centres.
900-600 bceThe rule of the Iksvaku dynasty in Andhra Pradesh. (Vijayapuri [Nagarjunakonda] was their capital. Many inscriptions of this dynasty found at Amaravati, Bhattiprolu, Nagarjunakonda and Jaggayyapeta.)
966 bceThe epoch of the Lichchavi era used in the inscriptions of the Lichchavi dynasty of Nepal.
966-300 bceThe rule of the Lichchavi dynasty in Nepal
916-836 bceThe rule of the Kanva dynasty
836-338 bceThe rule of the Satavahana dynasty
800-200 bceAjanta caves were constructed.
736-723 bceKing Gardabhilla was ruling in Ujjain.
723-719 bceThe Sakas defeated Gardabhilla and ruled for 4 years in Ujjain.
719-718 bceThe epoch of the Krita era or Malava-gana era or Karttikadi Vikrama era.
719-583 bceThe reign of the greatest King Vikramaditya I and his four successors and the establishment of Malava-gana (the republic of Malava).
700-420 bceThe rule of Bhagadatta lineage in Kamarupa (Assam). Bhaskaravarman of this lineage was a contemporary of Sri Harsha.
700-400 bceThe Matharas, Vasishthas and Pitribhaktas ruled in Kalinga.
650-300 bceThe rule of the Naga dynasty in Vidisa region.
600-500 bceMeharauli iron pillar was installed by the Naga king Chandra.
657-656 bceThe epoch of the Gangeya era (used by the eastern Ganga kings).
657-107 bceThe rule of the eastern Gangas in Kalinga.
630-330 bceThe rule of the Malava Guptas (mistakenly identified as the Later Guptas).
583 bceThe epoch of the coronation of Saka king. (The Sakas defeated the fourth successor of Vikramaditya I and probably the Western Ksatrapa Chashtana became the king of Ujjain.)
583-246 bceThe rule of the Western Saka Ksatrapas.
580-539 bceThe great Licchavi king Manadeva I was ruling in Nepal.
580-420 bceThe rule of the Pushpabhuti dynasty.
475-474 bceThe Early Chalukya king Vishnuvardhana was ruling in Rajamahendravaram in the Kaliyuga era 2628 (475-474 bce).
457-456 bceThe epoch of the Sri Harsha era.
457-420 bceThe reign of the great Pushpabhuti king Sri Harsha or Harshavardhana.
450-300 bceThe rule of the Salankayanas in Andhra Pradesh.
403-402 bceThe epoch of the Kalachuri-Chedi era.
391-390 bceMalava Gupta king Adityasena was ruling.
385-150 bceThe rule of the Vakataka dynasty.
340-150 bceThe rule of the Vatsagulma branch of the Vakatakas.
374-286 bceThe rule of the Maharajas of Valkha
373-358 bceThe rule of the Katacchuri dynasty.
338-92 bceThe rule of the Gupta dynasty.
335 bceThe epoch of the Gupta era.
331-280 bceSamudragupta established the mightiest Gupta Empire in India. (He was the real contemporary of Alexander. Greek historians referred to him as “Sandrokottus”.)
300-95 bceThe rule of the Vishnukundin dynasty.
289-209 bceThe rule of the Aulikara dynasty.


The chronology of ancient BHARATIYA literature:

2000-800 bceAncient Buddhist literature was written.
1500 bceKautilya authored “Arthasastra”.
1500-1000 bceThe Yavana king Sphujidhvaja translated Yavanesvara’s Horarthasastra into Sanskrit (Yavanajatakam).
1400 bceSuchi wrote “Vedanga Jyotisha” based on the treatise of Maharshi Lagadha. The date of Lagadha can be fixed as not being later than 2000-1800 bce.
1370-1150 bceMaharshi Parasara wrote his treatise “Parasaratantra”.
1200 bcePatanjali wrote “Mahabhashya” during the reign of the Sunga king Pushyamitra.
1100-200 bceAncient Jaina Literature was written.
600-500 bceThe Jaina monk Sarvanandi authored “Lokavibhaga”.
500 bceVriddha Garga wrote “Garga Samhita”.
495-490 bceGunadhya wrote “Vaddakatha” (Brihatkatha) in Paisachi dialect and the Satavahana King Hala authored “Gathasaptasati”.
400-300 bceVatsyayana wrote “Kamasutra”.
400-250 bceSubandhu authored “Vasavadatta”.
340-305 bceThe Vatsagulma Vakataka king Sarvasena authored “Harivijaya”.
210-200 bceThe Vakataka king Pravarasena authored “Setubandha”.
204-203 bceThe Jaina scholar Simhasuri translated “Lokavibhaga” into Sanskrit.

To be continued.
 

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The chronology of Ancient BHARAT (Part 6)-- Vedveer Arya
Arun Kumar Upadhyay August 15, 2015

The chronology of Ancient BHARAT

Author : VEDVEER ARYA.


Classical period (200 bce – 650 ce)
The Gupta Empire started declining after Skandagupta (199-177 bce). The rise of the Maukharis in North India and the rise of Yasodharman in central India further weakened the Gupta Empire. The Early Chalukyas established their kingdom in northern Karnataka by defeating the early Rashtrakutas and Kadambas. King Vikramaditya II, also known as Harsha became the king of Ujjain in the 1st century bce. The Panduvamsi kings founded their kingdom in Daksina Kosala (Chattisgarh). The Pala dynasty started ruling in eastern India and the Rashtrakutas defeated the early Chalukyas in the South at the end of the 1st century ce. The Pratiharas, Chedis, Paramaras, Chaulukyas, Chahamanas, Gahadwalas, Chandellas, etc. flourished during this period.
Most of the classical Sanskrit literature came into existence in this period. The greatest Sanskrit poet Kalidasa flourished in the 1st century bce. All the Puranas were updated and recompiled. The outlines of the chronology of classical period are:
600-500 bceThe Pallavas founded their kingdom in Kanchi.
500-300 bceThe rule of the Bana Kings.
480-115 bceThe rule of the Kadamba dynasty.
472 bce -307 ceThe rule of the Ganga dynasty.
225 bce-97 ceThe rule of the early Chalukyas of Badami.
195 bce-120 ceThe rule of the Maitraka dynasty in Valabhi.
196-119 bceThe rule of the Traikutakas.
169-119 bceThe rise of Prakasadharman and Yasodharman.
130-100 bceThe rule of the Maukhari king Isanavarman.
145 bce – 19 ceThe rule of the Sendraka dynasty.
85-84 bceThe epoch of Manadeva Samvat (used in ancient Nepal).
82-20 bceThe reign of King Vikramaditya II
57 bceThe epoch of the Chaitradi Vikrama era.
52-22 bceThe reign of the early Chalukya Pulakesin II.
55 bce- 2 ceThe reign of Mahasivagupta Balarjuna.
73 bce – 83 ceThe rule of the early Gurjaras.
46 bce-473 ceThe rule of the eastern Chalukyas of Vengi.
16-249 ceThe rule of the Rashtrakutas.
30-91 ceThe reign of Yasovarman of Kanauj.
99 bce – 449 ceThe rule of the Karkota (99 bce -156 ce), Utpala (156-239 ce), Brahmana (239-249 ce), Parvagupta (249-303 ce), Udayaraja (303-401 ce) and Kantiraja (401-449 ce) dynasties in Kashmir.
0-36 ceThe rule of Lalitaditya Muktapida in Kashmir.
21-733 ceThe rule of the later Gangas in Kalinga.
75-150 ceThe construction of the temples and caves at Ellora during the reign of the Rashtrakutas.
75-381 ceThe rule of the Pratihara dynasty.
78 ceThe epoch of the Saka-kalatita or Salivahana era.
80-540 ceThe rule of the Pala dynasty in Bihar and Bengal.
80-160 ceOdantapuri, Vikramasila and Sonapura Mahaviharas established by the Pala kings Gopala and Dharmapala.
102-299 ceThe rule of the Chavada dynasty in Anhilwad.
131-556 ceThe rule of the Chahamanas.
180-580 ceThe rule of the Kalachuris or Chedis of Tripuri
231-612 ceThe rule of the Paramara dynasty.
338-394 ceThe reign of the great Paramara king Bhojaraja
270-522 ceThe rule of the Kalachuris of Kalyana.
299-641 ceThe rule of the Chaulukya dynasty in Anhilwad.
91-649 ceThe rule of the Chandratreya or Chandella dynasty.
290-405 ceThe rule of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani.
319 ceThe epoch of the Valabhi era.
322-567 ceThe rule of the Kalachuris of South Kosala.
341-426 ceThe rule of the early Kacchapaghatas.
325-545 ceThe rule of the Silaharas of Kolhapur.
300-460 ceThe rule of the Sena dynasty in Mithila and Bengal.
431-443 ceThe reign of Laksmanasena in Mithila and Bengal.
443-444 ceThe epoch of the Laksmanasena era.
427-558 ceThe rule of the Gahadwala dynasty.
417-486 ceThe reign of Anantavarman Chodaganga in Kalinga.
433-480 ceThe reign of the Chaulukya King Jayasimha Siddharaja in Gujarat.
450-451 ceThe epoch of Simha Samvat.
450-475 ceJagaddala Mahavihara was established by the Pala king Ramapala.
507-556 ceThe reign of the Chahamana King Prithviraja III.
523-650 ceThe rule of the Yadava dynasty
571-641 ceThe rule of the Yajvapala dynasty.


The chronology of ancient BHARTIYA literature:


500 bce -200 ceThe updation of the Puranas.
515-463 bceThe date of Adi Sankaracharya can be fixed based on the epoch of the Yudhishthira era (3128 bce or 3109 bce). Chitsukhacharya mentions that Adi Sankaracharya attained nirvana in the year 2646 of the Yudhishthira era.
448-416 bceThe Ganga King Madhava Varman I wrote a commentary on “Dattaka Sutra”.
220-140 bceThe lifetime of the great Sanskrit poet Bharavi.
180 bceBharavi wrote “Kiratarjuniyam”.
193-138 bceThe Ganga King Durvinita wrote “Sabdavatara” and a commentary on the 15th canto of Kiratarjuniyam. He also translated the Brihatkatha of Gunadhya into Sanskrit.
200-100 bceThe probable period of the Sanskrit Poets Harischandra and Bhasa.
156-74 bceThe lifetime of Varahamihira.
125-50 bceThe lifetime of Dandin who was the author of “Avantisundari Katha”, “Dasakumaracharitam” and “Kavyadarsa”. His great grandfather was a contemporary of Bharavi.
105-25 bceThe lifetime of the greatest poet Kalidasa
75-60 bceKalidasa wrote “Raghuvamsam”, “Meghadutam”, “Ritusamharam”, “Abhijnanasakuntalam” etc.
60-40 bceKalidasa wrote “Vikramorvasiyam”, “Malavikagnimitram” etc.
34 bceKalidasa wrote “Jyotirvidabharana”.
55 bceHariswami wrote a commentary named “Srutyarthavivriti” on Satapatha Brahmana.
63 bce – 17 ceThe lifetime of Brahmagupta.
33-32 bceBrahmagupta wrote “Brahma Sphutasiddhanta”.
3-4 ceBrahmagupta wrote “Khandakhadyaka”.
1-2 ceMunjala wrote “Laghumanasa” in Saka 584 (0-1 or 1-2 ce). (According to some other sources, he wrote in Saka 854 [271-272 ce].)
10-80 ceThe lifetime of Bhavabhuti, the author of “Uttararamacaritam”.
40-130 ceThe lifetime of Vakpatiraja, the author of “Gaudavaho”.
40-120 ceThe lifetime of Banabhatta, the famous author of “Harshacarita” and “Kadambari”.
52-83 ceFamous Kashmiri poets Damodaragupta, Udbhata Bhatta, Manoratha, Sankhadatta, Chataka and Sandhimat were in the court of Kashmir King Jayapida.
87-88 ceLalla authored “Sishyadhivriddhidatantra”.
80-175 ceThe lifetime of the Jaina scholar Bappabhatti Suri.
80-100 ceVisakhadatta wrote “Mudraraksasam” and “Devichandraguptam”.
80-150 ceAsvaghosha wrote “Buddhacaritam”.
116-117 ceUdyotana Suri wrote “Kuvalayamala”.
122-123 ceJinasena authored “Harivamsa”.
156-184 ceKashmiri poets Anandavardhana and Ratnakara were in the court of Kashmir King Avantivarma.
184-202 ceJayanta Bhatta wrote “Nyayamanjari” during the reign of Kashmir King Sankaravarma.
216 ceThe date of Sahottaratantra (Manadeva era 301).
219 ceThe date of Sumatitantra (Manadeva era 304).
237 ceGunabhadra wrote “Uttarapurana” and Lokasena authored a prasasti at the end of Uttarapurana.
238 ceVatesvara wrote “Karanasara” in Œaka 821 (238 ce).
243 ceVatesvara wrote “Vatesvarasiddhanta” when he was 24 years old. Therefore, he was born in 218-219 ce.
239-248 ceJayanta BhaÇÇa’s son Abhinanda wrote “Yogavasishtha Ramayana” during the reign of Kashmir king Yasaskara.
270-350 ceThe lifetime of the poet Rajasekhara who authored “Balaramayana”, Viddhasalabhanjika etc.
304 ceBhattotpala wrote his commentary “Vivriti” on Varahamihira’s Brihajjataka.
324-338 cePadmagupta wrote “Navasahasankacaritam” during the reign of the Paramara King Sindhuraja.
328-349 ceKashmiri poet Ksemendra wrote “Brihatkathamanjari”. He also authored “Samayamatrika” in 349 ce.
345-360 ceKashmiri poet Somadeva wrote “Kathasaritsagara” during the reign of the Kashmir King Anantadeva.
338-394 ceParamara King Bhoja wrote “Saraswatikanthabharana”, “Samaranganasutradhara” and “Rajamartanda”. He also authored a Karana treatise “Rajamriganka” in 381 ce.
378-379 ceSripati wrote “Siddhantasekhara” and “Dhikoti Karana”.
395-396 ceSripati wrote “Dhruvamanasa”.
394 ceDasabala wrote “Cintamani Saranika”.
395-405 ceBilhana authored “Vikramankadevacaritam”.
400-425 ceKrishna Misra authored “Prabodha-chandrodayam” during the reign of the Chandella king Kirtivarman.
425-500 ceThe lifetime of the great astronomer Prabhakara who was referred to by Bhaskaracharya. Interestingly, Prabhakara predicted a total lunar eclipse on 7th Nov 477 ce which was recorded in the Sarkho copper plates of the Kalachuri king Ratnadeva II (463-486 ce).
428 ceSena King Ballalasena wrote “Danasagara”.
430-443 ce“Gitagovindam” by Jayadeva, “Brahmana Sarvasva” by Halayudha, “Pavanadutam” by Dhoyi and “Raghava Pandaviyam” by Kaviraja. These poets were in the court of King Laksmanasena.
452-532 ceThe lifetime of the great astronomer Bhaskaracharya
488-489 ceBhaskaracharya wrote “Siddhanta Siromani”.
521-522 ceBhaskaracharya wrote “Karanakutuhala”.
487 ceKalhana wrote “Rajatarangini”.
480-500 ceSandhyakara Nandi wrote “Ramacaritam”.
540-556 ceJayanaka wrote “Pritviraja-Vijaya”.
628 ceBhaskara wrote a commentary on Aryabhatiyam. He also wrote “Mahabhaskariyam” and “Laghubhaskariyam”.

To be continued.
 

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The chronology of Ancient BHARAT (Part 7)-- Vedveer Arya
Arun Kumar Upadhyay August 15, 2015

The chronology of Ancient BHARAT

Author : VEDVEER ARYA.

Early Medieval Period (650 – 1200 ce)

Eminent historians assumed only one epoch, that of 78 ce for the Saka era (583 bce) & the Salivahana era (78 ce) and also one epoch, that of 57 bce for the Karttikadi Vikrama era (719-718 bce) & the Chaitradi Vikrama era (57 ce). They also wrongly calculated the epoch of the Kalachuri-Chedi era (403-402 bce) as being around 248-249 ce and the epoch of the Sri Harsha era (457-456 bce) as being around 606 ce. This fallacious approach has brought forward the history of ancient India from early classical and classical period to classical and early medieval period. There is a serious need for further research to re-write the entire history of the early medieval period. However, some outlines of the chronology of the early medieval period are:
606-650 ceSiharasa or Sri Harsha, the son of Rasal was ruling in Kanauj.
647-733 ceThe Later Ganga kings of Kalinga : Bhanudeva II to Narasimha IV
690-795 ceThe reign of Bhavasimhadeva and his descendants in Gauda.
700-725King Harachandra was ruling in Kanauj.
777-849 ceThe rule of the Gajapati dynasty in Andhra, Kalinga and Gauda.
738-1301 ceThe rule of the later Chahamanas of Sapadalaksa or Sakambhari.
729-972 ceThe rule of the later Rashtrakutas.
757-888 ceThe rule of the Gujarat branch of Later Rashtrakutas.
843-1260 ceThe rule of the Silaharas of North Konkan
903-1120 ceThe rule of the later Kacchapaghatas
988-1010 ceThe rule of the Silaharas of South Konkan
972-1150 ceThe rule of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyani.
958-1068 ceThe rule of the later Chaulukyas.
959 ceSomadevasuri authored “Yasastilakacampu”.
984 ceUdayana wrote “Laksanavati”.
1000-1317 ceThe rule of the later Yadavas of Devagiri.
1290-1311 ceThe last Yadava king Ram Dev was ruling in Devagiri as a feudatory of Alauddin Khilji.
1000-1100 ceThe rule of the later Kalachuris of Sarayupara.
1025-1129 ceThe rule of the later Paramaras.
1040-1049 ceSodhala authored “Udayasundari Katha”.
1069 ceAin-e-Akbari tells us that Jitpal Chauhan conquered North-western Malava by defeating Kamaluddin in 1069 ce.
1076 ceThe epoch of the Chalukya Vikrama era.
1076-1126 ceThe reign of the Western Chalukya King Vikramaditya.
1109 or 1113 ceThe epoch of the Siva Simha era.
1095-1200 ceThe rule of the later Sena kings of Bengal.
1200-1203King Lakhmaniya, the son of Lakhman was ruling in Bengal after the death of Raja Naujah. Lakhmaniya fled when Bakhtiar Khilji invaded Nadia. (Historians mistakenly identified Lakhmaniya to be Laksmanasena.)
1200-1263 ceThe rule of the Visvamalla family of the later Chaulukyas in Anhilwad.
1165-1203 ce1165-1203 ce
1233-1247 ceThe Baghel Kings Dalakesvar and Malakesvar were ruling in Kalinjar.

About The Saka Era
During the study of inscriptions, I have found that the chronology derived from the epigraphs is absolutely in line with the Puranic chronology. I have also found that all inscriptions are genuine if we follow the real epochs of certain eras. For instance, all historians simply assumed that the Saka era and the Salivahana era both commenced in 78 ce though the details of many inscriptions cannot be verified with reference to the epoch of 78 ce. Eminent historians rejected such inscriptions as “spurious” or “forgery”. Unfortunately, Indians also forgot the real epoch of Saka era since 10th and 11th century ce. Indian inscriptions clearly indicate two distinct epochs i.e. the coronation of Saka king and the death of Saka king. As stated by Alberuni, the epoch of the death or the end of Saka king commenced in 78 ce. The same epoch is later referred to as Salivahana era. Historians generally concluded that the epoch of 78 ce was earlier referred to as the coronation of Saka king and the same was later referred to as the death of the Saka king but it is an egregious blunder committed by the eminent historians.
The inscriptions clearly indicate two different epochs of the Saka era. Undoubtedly, the epoch of the death of Saka king commenced in 78 ce which is later referred to as the Salivahana era. Kurtaketi copper plates of early Chalukya king Vikramaditya and Hyderabad copper plates of Pulakesin II unambiguously indicate the untenability of the epoch of 78 ce. These two inscriptions provide the strongest verifiable details of solar eclipses which cannot be explained with reference to the epoch of 78 ce. Historians ridiculously concluded that Indians occasionally referred to the solar eclipses on calculation basis though they are not visible in India. It is quite absurd to conclude that Indian kings celebrated the occasion of invisible solar eclipses. Actually, the incorrect epoch considered by historians led to these absurd conclusions.
Kurtaketi and Hyderabad copper plates referred to the epoch of the coronation of Saka king and not the epoch of the death of Saka king. Kurtaketi plates are dated in the year 530 elapsed from the epoch of the coronation of Saka king. It refers to the total solar eclipse that occurred on new moon day of the Vaisakha month in Northern Karnataka which ended around noon. The following ten total solar eclipses have occurred in Northern Karnataka (considering the latitude 15:55 N and longitude 75:40 E of Badami) during the period from 1500 bce to 1500 ce.
  • 1. 13th Aug 1416 bce
  • 2. 27th Jul 1257 bce
  • 3. 4th Mar 180 bce
  • 4. 9th May 53 bce
  • 5. 27th Jan 111 ce
  • 6. 25th Jun 754 ce
  • 7. 20th Aug 993 ce
  • 8. 23rd Jul 1134 ce
  • 9. 6th Nov 1268 ce
  • 10. 9th Dec 1322 ce
It is evident from the above that there was only one total solar eclipse that occurred in Northern Karnataka on new moon day of the Vaisakha month i.e. 9th May 53 bce that started at 9:04 hrs and ended at 11:45 hrs. The day was the new moon day of Vaisakha month (between Vaisakha and Jyeshtha months) and moon was in Rohini naksatra. Sun and Moon were also in Vrishabha Rasi i.e. Taurus sign.



Hyderabad copper plates of Pulakesin II are dated in the year 534 elapsed from the epoch of the coronation of Saka king. These plates refer to the occurrence of a solar eclipse on the new moon day of Bhadrapada month i.e. 21st Aug 49 bce.


Similarly, the Talamanchi (Nellore) plates of Chalukya Vikramaditya I are dated in his 6th regnal year i.e. 1-0 bce and refer to a solar eclipse that occurred on the new moon day of the Shravana month i.e. 31st Jul 1 bce. This solar eclipse was visible at Nellore, Andhra Pradesh.


The three solar eclipses mentioned in the copper plate inscriptions of Badami Chalukyas cannot be explained with reference to the epoch of the death of Saka king i.e. 78 ce. It is evident that the epoch of the coronation of Saka king is different from the epoch of the death of Saka king. Considering the year 530 elapsed in 53 bce, it can be easily concluded that the epoch of the coronation of Saka king commenced in 583 bce. Since the calendar of Saka era was Chaitradi and amanta, the epoch of the Saka era must have commenced on 19th Feb 583 bce. Thus, it is evident that the early Chalukyas of Badami flourished around the 1st century bce and not in the 7th century as established by eminent modern historians. It is well known that the Gupta dynasty flourished before the Badami Chalukyas thus validating the correctness of the Puranic chronology. Therefore, “Sandrokottus” must be identified with Samudragupta and not Chandragupta Maurya.
An inscription found in Shimoga district of Karnataka refers to the annular solar eclipse (Valaya grahana) that occurred on Chaitra Pratipada i.e. the 1st tithi of the bright fortnight of Chaitra month in the year 861 of Saka era. Considering the epoch of the coronation of Saka king in 583 bce, 277-278 ce was the 861st year of Saka era and the annular solar eclipse occurred on 20th Feb 277 ce.

The above mentioned references to solar eclipses found in the inscriptions clearly indicate that the epoch of the coronation of Saka king and the epoch of the death of Saka king are different. Evidently, the epoch of the coronation of Saka king commenced in 583 bce whereas the epoch of the death of Saka king or the end of the Saka era commenced in 78 ce.
The Sakas
Most probably, the Saka Mahaksatrap, Chashtana was the originator of Saka era in 583 bce in commemoration of his coronation. He was the founder of the rule of Western Ksatrapas. Western Kœatrapas of Ujjain ruled for more than 337 years.

The chronology of western Ksatrapas:
Saka era (583 bce)In ce
Chashtana, the son of Yasamotika1-52583-531 bce
Jayadaman, the son of Chashtana--
Rudradaman I, the son of Jayadaman52-90531-493 bce
Damajadasri I91-97494-486 bce
Jivadaman97486 bce
Rudrasimha I97-110486-473 bce
Isvaradatta110-113473-470 bce
Rudrasimha I(restored)113-119470-464 bce
Jivadman (restored)119-121464-462 bce
Rudrasena I122-144461-439 bce
Sanghadaman144-145439-438 bce
Damasena145-154438-429 bce
Damajadasri II (ruled along with Viradaman and Yasodaman)154-161429-422 bce
Viradaman156-160427-423 bce
Yasodaman161422 bce
Vijayasena161-172422-411 bce
Damajadasri III173-177410-406 bce
Rudrasena II177-199406-384 bce
Visvasimha199-204384-379 bce
Bhartridaman204-217379-366 bce
Visvasena215-226368-357 bce
Family of Rudrasimha II
Rudrasimha II (ruled along with Yasodaman II and Rudradaman II)226-270357-313 bce
Yasodaman II239-254344-329 bce
Rudradaman II254-270329-313 bce
Rudrasena III270-302313-281 bce
Simhasena302-304281-279 bce
Rudrasena IV304-310279-273 bce
Rudrasimha III310-337273-246 bce
Family of Rudrasimha II
Rudrasimha II (ruled along with Yasodaman II and Rudradaman II)226-270357-313 bce
Yasodaman II239-254344-329 bce
Rudradaman II254-270329-313 bce
Rudrasena III270-302313-281 bce
Simhasena302-304281-279 bce
Rudrasena IV304-310279-273 bce
Rudrasimha III310-337273-246 bce

To be continued.
 

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The chronology of Ancient BHARAT (Part 8)-- Vedveer Arya
Arun Kumar Upadhyay August 15, 2015

The chronology of Ancient BHARAT

Author : VEDVEER ARYA.


Early Chalukyas of Badami

The chronology of Early Chalukyas:


Saka era (583 bce)In ce
Jayasimha--225-200 bce?
Ranaraga--200-172 bce?
Pulakesin I411-466172-117 bce
Kirtivarman I466-488117-95 bce
Mangalisvara489-50594-78 bce
Kokkulla Vikramaditya (elder son of Pulakesin II )515-53168-52 bce
Pulakesin II531-56152-22bce
Vijayabhattarika (wife of Chandraditya)562-57622-7 bce
Vikramaditya I (Younger son of Pulakesin II)577-6016 bce – 18 ce
Vinayaditya602-61819-35 ce
Vijayaditya619-65536-72 ce
Vikramaditya II655-66672-83 ce
Kirtivarman II666-68083-97 ce

Eastern Chalukyas of Vengii

The chronology of Eastern Chalukyas:


DurationSaka era(583 bce)In ceChronology given by JF Fleet59
Vishnuvardhana I(Brother of Satyasraya Pulakesin II)18 years538-55546-29 bce615-633 ce
Jayasimha(Brother of Kubja Vishnuvardhana)30 years555-58428 bce – 2 ce633-663 ce
Indraraja7 days5842 ce663 ce
Vishnuvardhana II (elder son of Indraraja brother of Jayasimha)9 years585-5933 – 11 ce663-672 ce
Maôgi Yuvaraja (son of Vishnuvardhana II)25 Years594-619511 – 36 ce672-696 ce
Jayasimha II (Son of Mangi Yuvaraja)13 Years619-63136 – 48 ce696-709 ce
Kokkili (Jayasimha’s Brother, the son of his step mother)6 Months63249 ce709 ce
Vishnuvardhana III also named as Vishnu Raja (Elder brother of Kokkili and younger Son of Indra Bhattaraka)37 Years632-66949 – 86 ce709-746 ce
Vijayaditya Bhattaraka (Son of Vishnuvardhana III)18 Years670-68787 – 104 ce746-764 ce
Vishnu Raja or Vishnuvardhana IV36 Years688-723105 – 140 ce764-799 ce
Vijayaditya Narendra Mrigaraja40 Years724-763141 – 180 ce799-843 ce
Kali Vishnuvardhana1 year & 6 months763-764180 – 181 ce843-844 ce
Gunaganka Vijayaditya44 Years765-809182 – 226 ce844-888 ce
Chalukya Bhima I (Droharjuna)30 Years810-839227 – 256 ce888-918 ce
Kollabiganda Vijayaditya6 Months839256 ce918 ce
Amma Raja I Vishnuvardhana Sarvalokasraya7 Years840-846257 – 263 ce918-925 ce
Tadapa1 Month847264 ce925 ce
Vikramaditya (Son of Chalukya Bhima I)11 Months847264 ce926-927 ce
Yuddhamalla (Son of Taçapa)7 Years848-855265 – 272 ce927-934 ce
Bhima II (Brother of Amma Raja I)12 Years855-867272 – 283 ce934-945 ce
Amma Raja II Vijayaditya (Son of Bhima II )25 Years867-892283 – 309 ce945-970 ce
Amma Raja II Vijayaditya (Son of Bhima II )25 Years867-892283 – 309 ce945-970 ce
Indraraja7 days892309 ce970 ce
Danarnava (Son of Bhima II & Ankidevi and half-brother of Amma Raja II)3 years893-896310-312 ce970-973 ce
Badapa and his brother Tala II--896312 ce--
Dark period (No King)27 years897-923313-340 ce973-1003 ce
Saktivarman or Chalukya Candra (son of Danarnava)12 years924-936341-353 ce1003-1015 ce
Vimaladitya (Brother of Saktivarman) Vimaladitya married Rajendra Choda’s sister Kundavamahadevi7 years936-944353-360 ce1015-1022 ce
Rajaraja I (son of Vimaladitya)41 years944-985360-401 ce1022-1063 ce
Kulottunga Chodadeva I (Son of Rajaraia I)49 years985-1033401-450 ce1063-1112 ce
Vira Choda (son of Kullottunga Chodadeva I)31 years1001-1033417-450 ce--
Vikrama Choda (Son of Kulottunga Chodadeva I)15 years1033-1048450-465 ce1112-1127 ce
Kulottunga Chodadeva II (Son of Vikrama Choda)1048-1056 ce465-473 ce1127 ce to ....

To be continued.
 

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The chronology of Ancient BHARAT (Part 9)-- Vedveer Arya
Arun Kumar Upadhyay August 15, 2015

The chronology of Ancient BHARAT

Author : VEDVEER ARYA.

Early Rashtrakutas

The chronology of Early Rashtrakutas:

Saka era(583 bce) In ce
Govindaraja 600-620? 16-37 ce?
Karkaraja 620-640? 37-56 ce?
Indraraja 640-661? 57-77 ce?
Dantidurga (also known as Sahasatunga, Khadgavaloka) 662-676 78-93 ce
Krishnaraja (also known as Akalavarsha, Shubhattunga) 677-692 94-109 ce
Govindaraja II (also known as Prabhutavarsha) 692-706 109-123 ce
Dhruvaraja (also known as Dharavarsha, Nirupama) 706-724 123-140 ce
Govindaraja III (also known as Prabhatavarsha, Jagattunga) 724-740 140-157 ce
Amoghavarsha I 740-796 157-213 ce
Akalavarsha Krisharaja II 797-832 213-249 ce

Later Rashtrakutas

The chronology of later Rashtrakutas:


Salivahana era (78 ce)In ce
Amoghavarsha II650-675728-753 ce
Akalavarsha III (Krishna III)675-695753-773 ce
Dhruva II – Dharavarsha Dhruvadeva695-714773-792 ce
Govinda IV – Prabhutavarsha Govindaraja714-740792-818 ce
Amoghavarsha III741-799819-877 ce
Krishna IV – Akalavarsha Kannaradeva800-835878-913 ce
Nityavarsha836-849914-927 ce
Suvarnavarsha850-856928-934 ce
Amoghavarsha IV856-860934-938 ce
Krishna V – Akalavarsha V861-891939-969 ce
Kottiga889-893967-971 ce
Karka893-894971-972 ce

To be continued.
 

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The chronology of Ancient BHARAT (Part 10 Final installment)-- Vedveer Arya
Arun Kumar Upadhyay August 15, 2015

The chronology of Ancient BHARAT

Author : VEDVEER ARYA.


The Gangas of Talakad

The chronology of the Gangas of Talakad:

Saka era (583 bce)In ce
Madivarma or Madhava Varman25?--
Kongani Varman111-134472-447 bce
Madhava I135-167448-416 bce
Harivarman168-218415-365 bce
Vishnugopa219-269364-314 bce
Unnamed elder son of Vishnugopa270-280313-304 bce
Madhava II (Younger son of Vishnugopa)280-324304-259 bce
Avinita325-389258-194 bce
Durvinita390-445193-138 bce
Mushkara446-501137-82 bce
Sripurusha501-53182-52 bce
Bhuvikrama531-60052 bce-17 ce
Sivamara I also known as Navakama, Srivallabha601-64818-65 ce
Sripurusha649-69966-116 ce
Sivamara II also known as Saygotta700-719117-136 ce
Marasimha719-733136-150 ce
Vijayaditya (Youngest Brother of Sivamaradeva)733-739150-156 ce
Rajamalla I (Satyavakya Konganivarman)739-780156-197 ce
Nitimarga I780-810197-227 ce
Rajamalla II (Satyavakya Konganivarman)810-824227-241 ce
Butuga I (Youngest Brother of Rajamalla II)824-825241-242 ce
Nitimarga II (Eragangadeva)825-826242-243 ce
Narasinghadeva (Satyavakya Konganivarman)826243 ce
Rajamalla III or Nitimarga III (son of Narasinghadeva)826-830243-247 ce
Butuga II (brother of Rajamalla III)830-863247-280 ce
Punuseya Ganga Son of Butuga II (also known as Marula)863-870280-287 ce
Marasimha-Guttiya Ganga (Younger brother of Punuseya Ganga and son of Butuga II)870-890287-307 ce
Yadava Dynasty
The chronology of Yadava dynasty:
Saka era (583 bce)In ce
Bhillama1107-1114523-530 ce
Jaitrapala I or Jaitugi1114-1124530-540 ce
Singhana1124-1169541-585 ce
Krishna1169-1182585-599 ce
Mahadeva1183-1192599-609 ce
Ammana1192-1193609-610 ce
Ramachandra1193-1233610-650 ce

King Sri Harsha’s Signature:


___________________________________________________________________________________________
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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References:

Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Chapter 3
Chapter 4
Chapter 5
__________________________________________________________
 

asaffronladoftherisingsun

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References continued : https://defenceforumindia.com/threads/indian-historical-timeline-debunked.82377/post-1981332:

Chapter 6
Chapter 7
Chapter 8
  • 1. Ancient India as described by Megasthenes and Arrian by John W. McCrindle, Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers Pvt. Ltd, New Delhi, 2008, pp. 208
  • 2. Natural History, 6.59
  • 3. Historicity of Vedic and Ramayana eras by Saroj Bala & Kulbhushan Mishra, Vision India Publications
  • 4. Chronology of Ancient Hindu History by Kota Venkatachalam, Part I, Published in 1957, pp. 12-13
  • 5. Ibid, pp. 33-34
  • 6. Ibid, pp. 37
  • 7. Ibid, pp. 42-43
  • 8. Matsya Purana, Chapter 271, Verse 38
  • 9. The plot in Indian chronology by Kota Venkatachalam, published in 1953, pp. 40
  • 10. EI, XX, pp. 71-89
  • 11. Vayu Purana, Verse 423 & Chronology of Ancient Hindu History by Kota Venkatachalam, Part I, Published in 1957, pp. 207
  • 12. History of Inscriptions of the Satavahanas, the Western Kshatrapas by VV Mirashi, Apendix 1, pp. 231-146
  • 13. Chronology of Ancient Hindu History by Kota Venkatachalam, Part I, Published in 1957, pp. 189
  • 14. Rajatarangini, 1st Taranga, Verses 49-51
  • 15. Ibid. Verse 56
  • 16. Ibid. 8th Taranga, Verse 3404
  • 17. Ibid. 1st Taranga, Verse 53
  • 18. Ibid. Verse 54
  • 19. Ibid. Verse 59
  • 20. Ibid. Verse 172
  • 21. Ibid. Verse 170
  • 22. Alberuni’s India by Dr Edward C Sachau, Rupa Publications, New Delhi, 2002, pp. 413
  • 23. Rajatarangini, 3rd Taranga, Verse 125
  • 24. Rajatarangini, 4th Taranga, Verse 703
  • 25. Rajatarangini, 6th Taranga, Verse 114
  • 26. Ibid. Verse 129 & 148
  • 27. Ibid. Verse 187
  • 28. Ibid. Verse 311-312
  • 29. Ibid. Verse 332 & 365
  • 30. Ibid. Verse 127
  • 31. Rajatarangini, 7th Taranga, Verse 1717
  • 32. Rajatarangini of Jonaraja, Verse 38
  • 33. Ibid. Verse 348
  • 34. Rajatarangini, 8th Taranga, Verse 3404
  • 35. Journal and Proceedings of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1910, pp. 195-226 & Journal and Proceedings of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1913, pp. 195-226
  • 36. A Complete History of Kashmir by Mohammad Din Fouk, translated by RK Bharti, Published by Gulshan Books, Srinagar, 2009, pp. 30-65
  • 37. Journal and Proceedings of Asiatic Society of Bengal, 1910, pp. 201-202
  • 38. Baharistan-i-Shahi, Chapter 1, http://history.world-citizenship.org/baharistan-i-shahi
  • 39. Inscriptions of Nepal by DR Regmi, Vol I, Abhinav Publications, New Delhi, 1983, pp.145
  • 40. IA, XIII, pp. 411-428
  • 41. A Kushan-Period Sculpture by Kashinath Tamot and Ian Alsop, http://www.asianart.com/ articles/jaya/index01_12.html
  • 42. IA, XIII, pp. 413
  • 43. Nanyadeva, His ancestors and Their Abhijana by Shiva Raj Shreshtha ‘Malla’, pp. 8
Chapter 9

________________________________________________________________________________
 

SavageKing456

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@asaffronladoftherisingsun
Valmiki ramayan mentions 4 tusk elephants which were extinct 1.4 million years ago
That means ramayan happened atleast 1.4 million years ago?
That means the entire yuga thing is correct and hindu aspect of time is also.
But what contradicts is the carbon dating done of ram setu it's not found to be 1.4 million years old rather 10k years at most old.
It also contradicts evolution theory isn't it?


त्रिविष्टप निभम् दिव्यम् दिव्य नाद विनादितम् |
वाजि हेषित सम्घुष्टम् नादितम् भूषणैः तथा ||
रथैः यानैः विमानैः च तथा गज हयैः शुभैः |
वारणैः च चतुः दन्तैः श्वेत अभ्र निचय उपमैः ||
भूषितम् रुचिर द्वारम् मत्तैः च मृग पक्षिभिः |
राक्षस अधिपतेः गुप्तम् आविवेश गृहम् कपिः ||

(Sundara Kanda 4th Sarga 26 - 28 Slokas)

"The great Hanuma entered secretly Ravana's inner city which was equal to paradise, rendered noisy by neighing of horses and tinkling of ornaments, by chariots, vehicles and aerial-cars and decorated by auspicious elephants and horses and great elephants with four tusks and by birds and animals in heat. It had beautiful entrances and was protected by thousands of rakshasas with great strength."

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